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HomeBare ActTHE CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, 1908

THE CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, 1908

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS


PRELIMINARY
SECTIONS

  1. Short title, commencement and extent.
  2. Definitions.
  3. Subordination of Courts.
  4. Savings.
  5. Application of the Code to Revenue Courts.
  6. Pecuniary jurisdiction.
  7. Provincial Small Cause Courts.
  8. Presidency Small Cause Courts.
    PART I
    SUITS IN GENERAL
    JURISDICTION OF THE COURTS AND Res judicata
  9. Courts to try all civil suits unless barred.
  10. Stay of suit.
  11. Res judicata.
  12. Bar to further suit.
  13. When foreign judgment not conclusive.
  14. Presumption as to foreign judgments.
    PLACE OF SUING
  15. Court in which suits to be instituted.
  16. Suits to be instituted where subject-matter situate.
  17. Suits for immovable property situate within jurisdiction of different Courts.
  18. Place of Institution of suit where local limits of jurisdiction of Courts are uncertain.
  19. Suits for compensation for wrongs to person or movables.
  20. Other suits to be instituted where defendants reside or cause of action arises.
  21. Objections to jurisdiction.
    21A. Bar on suit to set aside decree on objection as to place of suing.
  22. Power to transfer suits which may be instituted in more than one Court.
  23. To what Court application lies.
  24. General power of transfer and withdrawal.
  25. Power of Supreme Court to transfer suits, etc.
    INSTITUTION OF SUITS
  26. Institution of suits.
    2
    SUMMONS AND DISCOVERY
    SECTIONS
  27. Summons to defendants.
  28. Service of summons where defendant resides in another State.
  29. Service of foreign summonses.
  30. Power to order discovery and the like.
  31. Summons to witness.
  32. Penalty for default.
    JUDGMENT AND DECREE
  33. Judgment and decree.
    INTEREST
  34. Interest.
    COSTS
  35. Costs.
    35A. Compensatory costs in respect of false or vexatious claims or defences.
    35B. Costs for causing delay.
    PART II
    EXECUTION
    GENERAL
  36. Application to orders.
  37. Definition of Court which passed a decree.
    COURTS BY WHICH DECREES MAY BE EXECUTED
  38. Court by which decree may be executed.
  39. Transfer of decree.
  40. Transfer of decree to Court in another State.
  41. Result of execution proceedings to be certified.
  42. Powers of Court in executing transferred decree.
  43. Execution of decrees passed by Civil Courts in places to which this Code does not extend.
  44. Execution of decrees passed by Revenue Courts in places to which this Code does not extend.
    44A. Execution of decrees passed by Courts in reciprocating territory.
  45. Execution of decrees outside India.
  46. Precepts.
    QUESTIONS TO BE DETERMINED BY COURT EXECUTING DECREE
  47. Questions to be determined by the Court executing decree.
    LIMIT OF TIME FOR EXECUTION
  48. [Repealed.].
    TRANSFEREES AND LEGAL REPRESENTATIVES
  49. Transferee.
    3
    SECTIONS
  50. Legal representative.
    PROCEDURE IN EXECUTION
  51. Powers of Court to enforce execution.
  52. Enforcement of decree against legal representative.
  53. Liability of ancestral property.
  54. Partition of estate or separation of share.
    ARREST AND DETENTION
  55. Arrest and detention.
  56. Prohibition of arrest or detention of women in execution of decree for money.
  57. Subsistence-allowance.
  58. Detention and release.
  59. Release on ground of illness.
    ATTACHMENT
  60. Property liable to attachment and sale in execution of decree.
  61. Partial exemption of agricultural produce.
  62. Seizure of property in dwelling house.
  63. Property attached in execution of decrees of several Courts.
  64. Private alienation of property after attachment to be void.
    SALE
  65. Purchaser’s title.
  66. [Repealed.].
  67. Power for State Government to make rules as to sales of land in execution of decrees for payment
    of money.
    DELEGATION TO COLLECTOR OF POWER TO EXECUTE DECREES
    AGAINST IMMOVABLE PROPERTY
  68. [Repealed.].
  69. [Repealed.].
  70. [Repealed.].
  71. [Repealed.].
  72. [Repealed.].
    DISTRIBUTION OF ASSETS
  73. Proceeds of execution-sale to be rateably distributed among decree-holders.
    RESISTANCE TO EXECUTION
  74. Resistance to execution.
    4
    PART III
    INCIDENTAL PROCEEDINGS
    COMMISSIONS
    SECTIONS
  75. Power of Court to issue commissions.
  76. Commission to another Court.
  77. Letter of request.
  78. Commissions issued by foreign Courts.
    PART IV
    SUITS IN PARTICULAR CASES
    SUITS BY OR AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT OR PUBLIC OFFICERS IN
    THEIR OFFICIAL CAPACITY
  79. Suits by or against Government.
  80. Notice.
  81. Exemption from arrest and personal appearance.
  82. Execution of decree.
    SUITS BY ALIENS AND BY OR AGAINST FOREIGN RULERS,
    AMBASSADORS AND ENVOYS
  83. When aliens may sue.
  84. When foreign States may sue.
  85. Persons specially appointed by Government to prosecute or defend on behalf of foreign Rulers.
  86. Suits against foreign Rulers, Ambassadors and Envoys.
  87. Style of foreign Rulers as parties to suits.
    87A. Definitions of “foreign State” and “Ruler”
    SUITS AGAINST RULERS OF FORMER INDIAN STATES
    87B. Application of sections 85 and 86 to Rulers of former Indian States.
    INTERPLEADER
  88. Where interpleader-suit may be instituted.
    PART V
    SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS
    ARBITRATION
  89. Settlement of disputes outside the Court.
    SPECIAL CASE
  90. Power to state case for opinion of Court.
    PUBLIC NUISANCES AND OTHER WRONGFUL ACTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC
  91. Public nuisances and other wrongful acts affecting the public.
  92. Public charities.
  93. Exercise of powers of Advocate-General outside presidency-towns.
    5
    PART VI
    SUPPLEMENTAL PROCEEDINGS
    SECTIONS
  94. Supplemental proceedings.
  95. Compensation for obtaining arrest, attachment or injunction on insufficient ground.
    PART VII
    APPEALS
    APPEALS FROM ORIGINAL DECREES
  96. Appeal from original decree.
  97. Appeal from final decree where no appeal from preliminary decree.
  98. Decision where appeal heard by two or more Judges.
  99. No decree to be reversed or modified for error or irregularity not affecting merits or jurisdiction.
    99A. No order under section 47 to be reversed or modified unless decision of the case is prejudicially
    affected.
    APPEALS FROM APPELLATE DECREES
  100. Second appeal.
    100A. No further appeal in certain cases.
  101. Second appeal on no other grounds.
  102. No second appeal in certain cases.
  103. Power of High Court to determine issues of fact.
    APPEALS FROM ORDERS
  104. Orders from which appeal lies.
  105. Other orders.
  106. What Courts to hear appeals.
    GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO APPEALS
  107. Powers of Appellate Court.
  108. Procedure in appeals from appellate decrees and orders.
    APPEALS TO THE SUPREME COURT
  109. When appeals lie to the Supreme Court.
  110. [Omitted.].
  111. [Omitted.].
    111A. [Omitted.].
  112. Savings.
    PART VIII
    REFERENCE, REVIEW AND REVISION
  113. Reference to High Court.
    6
    SECTIONS
  114. Review.
  115. Revision.
    PART IX
    SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO THE HIGH COURTS NOT BEING
    THE COURT OF A JUDICIAL COMMISSIONER
  116. Part to apply only to certain High Courts.
  117. Application of Code to High Courts.
  118. Execution of decree before ascertainment of costs.
  119. Unauthorised persons not to address Court.
  120. Provisions not applicable to High Court in original civil jurisdiction.
    PART X
    RULES
  121. Effect of rules in First Schedule.
  122. Power of certain High Courts to make rules.
  123. Constitution of Rules Committees in certain States.
  124. Committee to report to High Court.
  125. Power of other High Courts to make rules.
  126. Rules to be subject to approval.
  127. Publication of rules.
  128. Matters for which rules may provide.
  129. Power of High Courts to make rules as to their original civil procedure.
  130. Power of other High Courts to make rules as to matters other than procedure.
  131. Publication of rules.
    PART XI
    MISCELLANEOUS
  132. Exemption of certain women from personal appearance.
  133. Exemption of other persons.
  134. Arrest other than in execution of decree.
  135. Exemption from arrest under civil process.
    135A. Exemption of members of legislative bodies from arrest and detention under civil process.
  136. Procedure where person to be arrested or property to be attached is outside district.
  137. Language of subordinate Courts.
  138. Power of High Court to require evidence to be recorded in English.
  139. Oath on affidavit by whom to be administered.
  140. Assessors in causes of salvage, etc.
  141. Miscellaneous proceedings.
  142. Orders and notices to be in writing.
    7
    SECTIONS
  143. Postage.
  144. Application for restitution.
  145. Enforcement of liability of surety.
  146. Proceedings by or against representatives.
  147. Consent or agreement by persons under disability.
  148. Enlargement of time.
    148A. Right to lodge a caveat.
  149. Power to make up deficiency of court-fees.
  150. Transfer of business.
  151. Saving of inherent powers of Court.
  152. Amendment of judgments, decrees or orders.
  153. General power to amend.
    153A. Power to amend decree or order where appeal is summarily dismissed.
    153B. Place of trial to be deemed to be open Court.
  154. [Repealed.].
  155. [Repealed.].
  156. [Repealed.].
  157. Continuance of orders under repealed enactments.
  158. Reference to Code of Civil Procedure and other repealed enactments.
    8
    THE FIRST SCHEDULE

ORDER I


Parties to Suits
RULES

  1. Who may be joined as plaintiffs.
  2. Power of Court to order separate trial.
  3. Who may be joined as defendants.
    3A. Power to order separate trials where joinder of defendants may embarrass or delay trial.
  4. Court may give judgment for or against one or more of joint parties.
  5. Defendant need not be interested in all the relief claimed.
  6. Joinder of parties liable on same contract.
  7. When plaintiff in doubt from whom redress is to be sought.
  8. One person may sue or defend on behalf of all in same interest.
    8A. Power of Court to permit a person or body of persons to present opinion or to take part in
    the proceedings.
  9. Misjoinder and non-joinder.
  10. Suit in name of wrong plaintiff.
    Court may strike out or add parties.
    Where defendant added, plaint to be amended.
    10A. Power of Court to request any pleader to address it.
  11. Conduct of suit.
  12. Appearance of one of several plaintiffs or defendants for others.
  13. Objections as to non-joinder or misjoinder.

ORDER II
Frame of Suit

  1. Frame of suit.
  2. Suit to include the whole claim.
    Relinquishment of part of claim.
    Omission to sue for one of several reliefs.
  3. Joinder of causes of action.
  4. Only certain claims to be joined for recovery of immovable property.
  5. Claims by or against executor, administrator or heir.
  6. Power of Court to order separate trials.
  7. Objections as to misjoinder.

ORDER III
Recognized Agents and Pleaders

  1. Appearances, etc., may be in person, by recognised agent or by pleader.
  2. Recognised agents.
  3. Service of process on recognised agent.
  4. Appointment of pleader.
  5. Service of process on pleader.
  6. Agent to accept service.
    Appointment to be in writing and to be filed in Court.
    9
    ORDER IV
    Institution of suits
    RULES
  7. Suit to be commenced by plaint.
  8. Register of suits.

ORDER V
Issue and Service of Summons
Issue of summons

  1. Summons.
  2. Copy of plaint annexed to summons.
  3. Court may order defendant or plaintiff to appear in person.
  4. No party to be ordered to appear in person unless resident within certain limits.
  5. Summons to be either to settle issues or for final disposal.
  6. Fixing day for appearance of defendant.
  7. Summons to order defendant to produce documents relied on by him.
  8. On issue of summons for final disposal, defendant to be directed to produce his witnesses.
    Service of Summons
  9. Delivery of summons by Court.
    9A. Summons given to the plaintiff for service.
  10. Mode of service.
  11. Service on several defendants.
  12. Service to be on defendant in person when practicable, or on his agent.
  13. Service on agent by whom defendant carries on business.
  14. Service on agent in charge in suits for immovable property.
  15. Where service may be on an adult member of defendant’s family.
  16. Person served to sign acknowledgement.
  17. Procedure when defendant refuses to accept service, or cannot be found.
  18. Endorsement of time and manner of service.
  19. Examination of serving officer.
    19A. [Omitted.].
  20. Substituted service.
    Effect of substituted service.
    Where service substituted, time for appearance to be fixed.
    20A. [Repealed.].
  21. Service of summons where defendant resides within jurisdiction of another Court.
  22. Service within presidency-towns of summons issued by Courts outside.
  23. Duty of Court to which summons is sent.
    10
    RULES
  24. Service on defendant in prison.
  25. Service where defendant resides out of India and has no agent.
  26. Service in foreign territory through Political Agent or Court.
    26A. Summonses to be sent to officers to foreign countries.
  27. Service on civil public officer or on servant of railway company or local authority.
  28. Service on soldiers, sailors or airmen.
  29. Duty of person to whom summons is delivered or sent for service.
  30. Substitution of letter for summons.
    ORDER VI
    Pleadings Generally
  31. Pleading.
  32. Pleading to state material facts and not evidence.
  33. Forms of pleading.
  34. Particulars to be given where necessary.
  35. [Omitted.].
  36. Condition precedent.
  37. Departure.
  38. Denial of contract.
  39. Effect of document to be stated.
  40. Malice, knowledge, etc.
  41. Notice.
  42. Implied contract, or relation.
  43. Presumptions of law.
  44. Pleading to be signed.
    14A. Address for service of notice.
  45. Verification of pleadings.
  46. Striking out pleadings.
  47. Amendment of pleadings.
  48. Failure to amend after order.

ORDER VII
Plaint

  1. Particulars to be contained in plaint.
  2. In money suits.
  3. Where the subject-matter of the suit is immovable property.
  4. When plaintiff sues as representative.
  5. Defendant’s interest and liability to be shown.
  6. Grounds of exemption from limitation law.
  7. Relief to be specifically stated.
    11
    RULES
  8. Relief founded on separate grounds.
  9. Procedure on admitting plaint.
  10. Return of plaint.
    Procedure on returning plaint.
    10A. Power of Court to fix a date of appearance in the Court where plaint is to be filed after its
    return.
    10B. Power of appellate Court to transfer suit to the proper Court.
  11. Rejection of plaint.
  12. Procedure on rejecting plaint.
  13. Where rejection of plaint does not preclude presentation of fresh plaint.
    Documents relied on in Plaint
  14. Production of document on which plaintiff sues or relies.
  15. [Omitted.].
  16. Suits on lost negotiable instruments.
  17. Production of shop-book.
    Original entry to be marked and returned.
  18. [Omitted.].

ORDER VIII
Written statement, set-off and counter-claim

  1. Written statement.
    1A. Duty of defendant to produce documents upon which relief is claimed or relied upon by him.
  2. New facts must be specially pleaded.
  3. Denial to be specific.
  4. Evasive denial.
  5. Specific denial.
  6. Particulars of set-off to be given in written statement.
    Effect of set-off.
    6A. Counter-claim by defendant.
    6B. Counter-claim to be stated.
    6C. Exclusion of counter-claim.
    6D. Effect of discontinuance of suit.
    6E. Default of plaintiff to reply to counter-claim.
    6F. Relief to defendant where counter-claim succeeds.
    6G. Rules relating to written statement to apply.
  7. Defence or set-off founded upon separate grounds.
  8. New ground of defence.
    8A. [Omitted.].
  9. Subsequent pleadings.
  10. Procedure when party fails to present written statement called for by Court.

ORDER IX
Appearance of Parties and Consequence of non-Appearance

  1. Parties to appear on day fixed in summons for defendant to appear and answer.
    12
    RULES
  2. Dismissal of suit where summons not served in consequence of plaintiff’s failure to pay costs.
  3. Where neither party appears suit to be dismissed.
  4. Plaintiff may bring fresh suit or Court may restore suit to file.
  5. Dismissal of suit where plaintiff after summons returned unserved, fails for seven days to apply
    for fresh summons.
  6. Procedure when only plaintiff appears.
    When summons duly served.
    When summons not duly served.
    When summons served but not in due time.
  7. Procedure where defendant appears on day of adjourned hearing and assigns good cause for
    previous non-appearance.
  8. Procedure where defendant only appears.
  9. Decree against plaintiff by default bars fresh suit.
  10. Procedure in case of non-attendance of one or more of several plaintiffs.
  11. Procedure in case of non-attendance of one or more of several defendants.
  12. Consequence of non-attendance, without sufficient cause shown, of party ordered to
    appear in person.
    Setting aside Decree ex parte
  13. Setting aside decree ex parte against defendant.
  14. No decree to be set aside without notice to opposite party.

ORDER X
Examination of Parties by the Court

  1. Ascertainment whether allegations in pleadings are admitted or denied.
    1A. Direction of the court to opt for any one mode of alternative dispute resolution.
    1B. Appearance before the conciliatory forum or authority.
    1C. Appearance before the court consequent to the failure of efforts of conciliation.
  2. Oral examination of party, or companion of party.
  3. Substance of examination to be written.
  4. Consequence of refusal or inability of pleader to answer.

ORDER XI
Discovery and Inspection

  1. Discovery by interrogatories.
  2. Particular interrogatories to be submitted.
  3. Costs of interrogatories.
  4. Form of interrogatories.
  5. Corporations.
  6. Objections to interrogatories by answer.
  7. Setting aside and striking out interrogatories.
  8. Affidavit in answer, filing.
  9. Form of affidavit in answer.
  10. No exception to be taken.
  11. Order to answer or answer further.
    13
    RULES
  12. Application for discovery of documents.
  13. Affidavit of documents.
  14. Production of documents.
  15. Inspection of documents referred to in pleadings or affidavits.
  16. Notice to produce.
  17. Time for inspection when notice given.
  18. Order for inspection.
  19. Verified copies.
  20. Premature discovery.
  21. Non-compliance with order for discovery.
  22. Using answers to interrogatories at trial.
  23. Order to apply to minors.

ORDER XII
Admissions

  1. Notice of admission of case.
  2. Notice to admit documents.
    2A. Document to be deemed to be admitted if not denied after service of notice to admit documents.
  3. Form of notice.
    3A. Power of Court to record admission.
  4. Notice to admit acts.
  5. Form of admissions.
  6. Judgment on admissions.
  7. Affidavit of signature.
  8. Notice to produce documents.
  9. Costs.

ORDER XIII
Production, Impounding and Return of Documents

  1. Original documents to be produced at or before the settlement of issues.
  2. [Omitted.].
  3. Rejection of irrelevant or inadmissible documents.
  4. Endorsements on documents admitted in evidence.
  5. Endorsements on copies of admitted entries in books, accounts and records.
  6. Endorsements on documents rejected an inadmissible in evidence.
  7. Recording of admitted and return of rejected documents.
  8. Court may order any document to be impounded.
  9. Return of admitted documents.
  10. Court may sent for papers from its own records or from other Courts.
  11. Provisions as to documents applied to material objects.

ORDER XIV
settlement of issues and determination of suit on issues of law or on
Issues agreed upon

  1. Framing of issues.
  2. Court to pronounce judgment on all issues.
    14
    RULES
  3. Materials from which issues may be framed.
  4. Court may examine witnesses or documents before framing issues.
  5. Power to amend and strike out, issues.
  6. Questions of fact or law may by agreement be stated in form of issues.
  7. Court, if satisfied that agreement was executed in good faith, may pronounce judgment.

ORDER XV
Disposal of the Suit at the First Hearing

  1. Parties not at issue.
  2. One of several defendants not at issue.
  3. Parties at issue.
  4. Failure to produce evidence.

ORDER XVI
Summoning and Attendance of Witnesses

  1. List of witnesses and summons to witnesses.
    1A. Production of witnesses without summons.
  2. Expenses of witness to be paid into Court on applying for summons.
    Experts.
    Scale of expenses.
    Expenses to be directly paid to witnesses.
  3. Tender of expenses to witness.
  4. Procedure where insufficient sum paid in.
    Expenses of witnesses detained more than one day.
  5. Time, place and purpose of attendance to be specified in summons.
  6. Summons to produce document.
  7. Power to require persons present in Court to give evidence or produce document.
    7A. Summons given to the party for service.
  8. Summons how served.
  9. Time for serving summons.
  10. Procedure where witness fails to comply with summons.
  11. If witness appears, attachment may be withdrawn.
  12. Procedure if witness fails to appear.
  13. Mode of attachment.
  14. Court may of its own accord summon as witnesses strangers to suit.
  15. Duty of persons summoned to give evidence or produce document.
  16. When they may depart.
  17. Application of rules 10 to 13.
  18. Procedure where witness apprehended cannot give evidence or produce document.
  19. No witness to be ordered to attend in person unless resident within certain limits.
  20. Consequence of refusal of party to give evidence when called on by Court.
  21. Rules as to witnesses to apply to parties summoned.
    15

ORDER XVI-A
Attendance of Witnesses Confined or Detained in Prisons
RULES

  1. Definitions.
  2. Power to require attendance of prisoners to give evidence.
  3. Expenses to be paid into Court.
  4. Power of State Government to exclude certain persons from the operation of rule 2.
  5. Officer in charge of prison to abstain from carrying out order in certain cases.
  6. Prisoner to be brought to Court in custody.
  7. Power to issue commission for examination of witness in prison.

ORDER XVII
Adjournment

  1. Court may grant time and adjourn hearing.
    Costs of adjournment.
  2. Procedure if parties fail to appear on day fixed.
  3. Court may proceed notwithstanding either party fails to produce evidence, etc.

ORDER XVIII
Hearing of the Suit and Examination of Witnesses

  1. Right to begin.
  2. Statement and production of evidence.
  3. Evidence where several issues.
    3A. Party to appear before other witnesses.
  4. Recording of evidence.
  5. How evidence shall be taken in appealable cases.
  6. When deposition to be interpreted.
  7. Evidence under section 138.
  8. Memorandum when evidence not taken down by Judge.
  9. When evidence may be taken in English.
  10. Any particular question and answer may be taken down.
  11. Questions objected to and allowed by Court.
  12. Remarks on demeanour of witnesses.
  13. Memorandum of evidence in unappealable cases.
  14. [Omitted.].
  15. Power to deal with evidence taken before another Judge.
  16. Power to examine witness immediately.
  17. Court may recall and examine witness.
    17A. [Omitted.].
  18. Power of Court to inspect.
  19. Power to get statements recorded on commission.

ORDER XIX
Affidavits

  1. Power to order any point to be proved by affidavit.
    16
    RULES
  2. Power to order attendance of deponent for cross-examination.
  3. Matters to which affidavits shall be confined.

ORDER XX
Judgment and Decree

  1. Judgment when pronounced.
  2. Power to pronounce judgment written by Judge’s predecessor.
  3. Judgment to be signed.
  4. Judgments of Small Cause Courts.
    Judgments of other Courts.
  5. Court to state its decision on each issue.
    5A. Court to inform parties as to where an appeal lies in cases where parties are not represented by
    pleaders.
  6. Contents of decree.
    6A. Preparation of Decree.
    6B. Copies of judgments when to be made available.
  7. Date of decree.
  8. Procedure where Judge has vacated office before signing decree.
  9. Decree for recovery of immovable property.
  10. Decree for delivery of movable property.
  11. Decree may direct payment by instalments.
    Order, after decree, for payment by instalments.
  12. Decree for possession and mesne profits.
    12A. Decree for specific performance of contract for the sale or lease of immovable property.
  13. Decree in administration-suit.
  14. Decree in pre-emption-suit.
  15. Decree in suit for dissolution of partnership.
  16. Decree in suit for account between principal and agent.
  17. Special directions as to accounts.
  18. Decree in suit for partition of property or separate possession of a share therein.
  19. Decree when set-off or counter-claim is allowed.
    Appeal from decree relating to set-off or counter-claim.
  20. Certified copies of judgment and decree to be furnished.

ORDER XXA
Costs

  1. Provisions relating to certain items.
  2. Costs to be awarded in accordance with the rules made by High Court.

ORDER XXI
Execution of Decrees and Orders
Payment under decree

  1. Modes of paying money under decree.
  2. Payment out of Court to decree-holder.
    17
    Courts executing decrees
    RULES
  3. Lands situate in more than one jurisdiction.
  4. Transfer to Court of Small Causes.
  5. Mode of transfer.
  6. Procedure where Court desires that its own decree shall be executed by another Court.
  7. Court receiving copies of decree, etc., to file same without proof.
  8. Execution of decree or order by Court to which it is sent.
  9. Execution by High court of decree transferred by other Court.
    Application for execution
  10. Application for execution.
  11. Oral application.
    Written application.
    11A. Application for arrest to state grounds.
  12. Application for attachment of movable property not in judgment-debtor’s possession.
  13. Application for attachment of immovable property to contain certain particulars.
  14. Power to require certified extract from Collector’s register in certain cases.
  15. Application for execution by joint decree-holders.
  16. Application for execution by transferee of decree.
  17. Procedure on receiving application for execution of decree.
  18. Execution in case of cross-decrees.
  19. Execution in case of cross-claims under same decree.
  20. Cross-decrees and cross-claims in mortgage suits.
  21. Simultaneous execution.
  22. Notice to show cause against execution in certain cases.
    22A. Sale not to be set aside on the death of the judgment-debtor before the sale but after the service
    of the proclamation of sale.
  23. Procedure after issue of notice.
    Process for execution
  24. Process for execution.
  25. Endorsement on process.
    Stay of execution
  26. When Court may stay execution.
    Power to require security from, or impose conditions upon, judgment-debtor.
  27. Liability of judgment-debtor discharged.
  28. Order of Court which passed decree or of Appellate Court to be binding upon Court applied to.
  29. Stay of execution pending suit between decree-holder and judgment-debtors.
    Mode of execution
  30. Decree for payment of money.
  31. Decree for specific movable property.
    18
    RULES
  32. Decree for specific performance for restitution of conjugal rights, or for an injunction.
  33. Discretion of Court in executing decrees for restitution of conjugal rights.
  34. Decree for execution of document, or endorsement of negotiable instrument.
  35. Decree for immovable property.
  36. Decree for delivery of immovable property when in occupancy of tenant.
    37.Discretionary power to permit judgment-debtor to show cause against detention in prison.
  37. Warrant for arrest to direct judgment-debtor to be brought up.
  38. Subsistence-allowance.
  39. Proceedings on appearance of judgment-debtor in obedience to notice or after arrest.
    Attachment of property
  40. Examination of judgment-debtor as to his property.
  41. Attachment in case of decree for rent or mesne profits or other matter, amount of which to be
    subsequently determined.
  42. Attachment of movable property, other than agricultural produce, in possession of judgmentdebtor.
    43A. Custody of movable property.
  43. Attachment of agricultural produce.
  44. Provisions as to agricultural produce under attachment.
  45. Attachment of debt, share and other property not in possession of judgment-debtor.
    46A. Notice to garnishee.
    46B . Order against garnishee.
    46C. Trial of disputed questions.
    46D. Procedure where debt belongs to third person.
    46E. Order as regards third person.
    46F. Payment by garnishee to be valid discharge.
    46G. Costs.
    46H. Appeals.
    46I. Application to negotiable instruments.
  46. Attachment of share in movables.
  47. Attachment of salary or allowances of servant of the Government or railway company or local
    authority.
    48A. Attachment of salary or allowances of private employees.
  48. Attachment of partnership property.
  49. Execution of decree against firm.
  50. Attachment of negotiable instruments.
    52.Attachment of property in custody of Court or public officer.
  51. Attachment of decrees.
  52. Attachment of immovable property.
  53. Removal of attachment after satisfaction of decree.
  54. Order for payment of coin or currency notes to party entitled under decree.
  55. Determination of attachment.
    Adjudication of claims and objections
  56. Adjudication of claims to, or objections to attachment, of property.
    19
    RULES
  57. Stay of sale.
  58. [Omitted.].
  59. [Omitted.].
  60. [Omitted.].
  61. [Omitted.].
    Sale generally
  62. Power to order property attached to be sold and proceeds to be paid to person entitled.
  63. Sales by whom conducted and how made.
  64. Proclamation of sales by public auction.
  65. Mode of making proclamation.
  66. Time of sale.
  67. Adjournment or stoppage of sale.
  68. [Omitted.].
  69. Defaulting purchaser answerable for loss on re-sale.
  70. Decree-holder not to bid for or buy property without permission.
    Where decree-holder purchases, amount of decree may be taken as payment.
    72A. Mortgagee not to bid at sale without the leave of the Court.
  71. Restriction on bidding or purchase by officers.
    Sale of movable property
  72. Sale of agricultural produce.
  73. Special provisions relating to growing crops.
  74. Negotiable instruments and shares in corporations.
  75. Sale by public auction.
  76. Irregularity not to vitiate sale, but any person injured may sue.
  77. Delivery of movable property, debts and shares.
  78. Transfer of negotiable instruments and shares.
  79. Vesting order in case of other property.
    Sale of immovable property.
  80. What Courts may order sales.
  81. Postponement of sale to enable judgment-debtor to raise amount of decree.
  82. Deposit by purchaser and re-sale on default.
  83. Time for payment in full of purchase-money.
  84. Procedure in default of payment.
  85. Notification on re-sale.
  86. Bid of co-sharer to have preference.
  87. Application to set aside sale on deposit.
  88. Application to set aside sale on ground of irregularity or fraud.
  89. Application by purchaser to set aside sale on ground of judgment-debtor having no saleable interest.
  90. Sale when to become absolute or be set aside.
  91. Return of purchaser-money in certain cases.
  92. Certificate to purchaser.
  93. Delivery of property in occupancy of judgment-debtor.
  94. Delivery of property in occupancy of tenant.
    Resistance to delivery of possession to decree-holder or purchaser
  95. Resistance or obstruction to possession of immovable property.
  96. Orders after adjudication.
  97. Dispossession by decree-holder or purchaser.
    20
    RULES
  98. Order to be passed upon application complaining of dispossession.
  99. Question to be determined.
  100. Rules not applicable to transferee pendente lite.
  101. Orders to be treated as decrees.
  102. Orders under rule 101 or rule 103 to be subject to the result of pending suit.
  103. Hearing of application.
  104. Setting aside orders passed ex parte, etc.

ORDER XXII
Death, Marriage and Insolvency of Parties

  1. No abatement by party’s death if right to sue survives.
  2. Procedure where one of several plaintiffs or defendants dies and right to sue survives.
  3. Procedure in case of death of one of several plaintiffs or of sole plaintiff.
  4. Procedure in case of death of one of several defendants or of sole defendant.
    4A. Procedure where there is no legal representative.
  5. Determination of question as to legal representative.
  6. No abatement by reason of death after hearing.
  7. Suit not abated by marriage of female party.
  8. When plaintiffs insolvency bars suit.
    Procedure where assignee fails to continue suit, or give security.
  9. Effect of abatement or dismissal.
    10.Procedure in case of assignment before final order in suit.
    10A. Duty of pleader to communicate to Court death of a party.
  10. Application of Order to appeals.
  11. Application of Order to proceedings.

ORDER XXIII
Withdrawal and Adjustment of Suits

  1. Withdrawal of suit or abandonment of part of claim.
    1A.When transposition of defendants as plaintiffs may be permitted.
  2. Limitation law not affected by first suit.
  3. Compromise of suit.
    3A. Bar to suit.
    3B. No agreement or compromise to be entered in a representative suit without leave of Court.
  4. Proceedings in execution of decrees not affected.

ORDER XXIV
Payment into Court

  1. Deposit by defendant of amount in satisfaction of claim.
  2. Notice of deposit.
  3. Interest on deposit not allowed to plaintiff after notice.
  4. Procedure where plaintiff accepts deposit as satisfaction in part.
    Procedure where he accepts it as satisfaction in full.
    21

ORDER XXV
Security for Costs
RULES

  1. When security for costs may be required from plaintiff.
  2. Effect of failure to furnish security.

ORDER XXVI
Commissions
Commissions to examine witnesses

  1. Cases in which Court may issue commission to examine witness.
  2. Order for commission.
  3. Where witness resides within Court’s jurisdiction.
  4. Persons for whose examination commission may issue.
    4A. Commission for examination of any person resident within the local limits of the
    jurisdiction of the Court.
  5. Commission or request to examine witness not within India.
  6. Court to examine witness pursuant to commission.
  7. Return of commission with depositions of witnesses.
  8. When depositions may be read in evidence.
    Commissions for local investigations
  9. Commissions to make local investigations.
  10. Procedure of Commissioner.
    Report and depositions to be evidence in suit.
    Commissioner may be examined in person.
    Commissions for scientific investigation, performance of ministerial act
    and sale of movable property
    10A. Commission for scientific investigation.
    10B. Commission for performance of a ministerial act.
    10C. Commission for the sale of movable property.
    Commissions to examine accounts
    11.Commission to examine or adjust accounts.
    12.Court to give Commissioner necessary instructions.
    Proceedings and report to be evidence.
    Court may direct further inquiry.
    Commissions to make partitions.
    13.Commission to make partition of immovable property.
  11. Procedure of Commissioner.
    General Provisions
  12. Expenses of commission to be paid into Court.
  13. Powers of Commissioners.
    16A. Questions objected to before the Commissioner.
  14. Attendance and examination of witnesses before Commissioner.
  15. Parties to appear before Commissioner.
    18A. Application of order to execution proceedings.
    18B. Court to fix a time for return of Commission.
    22
    Commissions issued of the instance of Foreign Tribunals
    RULES
  16. Cases in which High Court may issue commission to examine witness.
  17. Application for issue of commission.
  18. To whom commission may be issued.
  19. Issue, execution and return of commissions, and transmission of evidence to foreign Court.

ORDER XXVII
Suits by or against the Government or Public Officers in their Official Capacity

  1. Suits by or against Government.
  2. Persons authorised to act for Government.
  3. Plaints in suits by or against Government.
  4. Agent for Government to receive process.
  5. Fixing of day for appearance on behalf of Government.
    5A. Government to be joined as a party in a suit against a public officer.
    5B. Duty of Court in suits against the Government or a public officer to assist in arriving at a
    settlement.
  6. Attendance of person able to answer questions relating to suit against Government.
  7. Extension of time to enable public officer to make reference to Government.
  8. Procedure in suits against public officer.
    8A. No security to be required from Government or a public officer in certain cases.
    8B. Definitions of “Government” and “Government pleader”.

ORDER XXVII-A
Suits Involving a Substantial Question of Law as to the Interpretation of the Constitution or as to the
Validity of any Statutory Instrument

  1. Notice to the Attorney General or the Advocate-General.
    1A. Procedure in suits involving validity of any statutory instrument.
  2. Court may add Government as party.
    2A. Power of Court to add Government or other authority as a defendant in a suit relating to
    the validity of any statutory instrument.
  3. Costs.
  4. Application of Order to appeals.

ORDER XXVIII
Suits by or Against Military or Naval men or Airmen

  1. Officers, soldiers, sailors or airmen who cannot obtain leave may authorise any person to sue
    or defend for them.
  2. Person so authorised may act personally or appoint pleader.
  3. Service on person so authorised, or on his pleader, to be good service.

23
RULES
ORDER XXIX
Suits by or Against corporations

  1. Subscription and verification of pleading.
  2. Service on corporation.
  3. Power to require personal attendance of officer of corporation.

ORDER XXX
Suits by or against Firms and Persons carrying on
business in names other than their own

  1. Suing of partners in name of firm.
  2. Disclosure of partners’ names.
  3. Service.
  4. Rights of suit on death of partner.
  5. Notice in what capacity served.
  6. Appearance of partners.
  7. No appearance except by partners.
  8. Appearance under protest.
  9. Suits between co-partners.
  10. Suit against person carrying on business in name other than his own.

ORDER XXXI
Suits by or Against Trustees, Executors and Administrators

  1. Representation of beneficiaries in suits concerning property vested in trustees, etc.
  2. Joinder of trustees, executors and administrators.
  3. Husband of married executrix not to join.

ORDER XXXII
Suits by or Against Minors and Persons of Unsound Mind

  1. Minor to sue by next friend.
  2. Where suit is instituted without next friend, plaint to be taken off the file.
    2A. Security to be furnished by next friend when so ordered.
  3. Guardian for the suit to be appointed by Court for minor defendant.
    3A. Decree against minor not to be set aside unless prejudice has been caused to his interest.
  4. Who may act as next friend or be appointed guardian for the suit.
  5. Representation of minor by next friend or guardian for the suit.
  6. Receipt by next friend or guardian for the suit of property under decree for minor.
  7. Agreement or compromise by next friend or guardian for the suit.
  8. Retirement of next friend.
  9. Removal of next friend.
  10. Stay of proceedings on removal, etc., of next friend.
  11. Retirement, removal or death of guardian for the suit.
  12. Course to be followed by minor plaintiff or applicant on attaining majority.
  13. Where minor co-plaintiff attaining majority desires to repudiate suit.
  14. Unreasonable or improper suit.
  15. Rules 1 to 14 (except rule 2A) to apply to persons of unsound mind.
    24
    RULES
  16. Savings.

ORDER XXXIIA
Suits Relating to Matters Concerning the Family

  1. Application of the Order.
  2. Proceedings to be held in camera.
  3. Duty of Court to make efforts for settlement.
  4. Assistance of welfare expert.
  5. Duty to enquire into facts.
  6. “Family”—Meaning of.

ORDER XXXIII
Suits by Indigent Persons

  1. Suits may be instituted by indigent persons.
    1A. Inquiry into the means of an indigent person.
  2. Contents of application.
  3. Presentation of application.
  4. Examination of applicant.
    If presented by agent, Court may order applicant to be examined by commission.
  5. Rejection of application.
  6. Notice of day for receiving evidence of applicant’s indigency.
  7. Procedure at hearing.
  8. Procedure if application admitted.
  9. Withdrawal of permission to sue as an indigent person.
    9A. Court to assign a pleader to an unrepresented indigent person.
  10. Costs where indigent person succeeds.
  11. Procedure where indigent person fails.
    11A. Procedure where indigent person’s suit abates.
  12. State Government may apply for payment of court-fees.
  13. State Government to be deemed a party.
  14. Recovery of amount of court-fees.
  15. Refusal to allow applicant to sue as an indigent person to bar subsequent application of like
    nature.
    15A. Grant of time for payment of court-fee.
  16. Costs.
  17. Defence by an indigent person.
  18. Power of Government to provide for free legal services to indigent persons.

ORDER XXXIV
Suits Relating to Mortgages of Immovable Property

  1. Parties to suits for foreclosure, sale and redemption.
  2. Preliminary decree in foreclosure-suit.
  3. Final decree in foreclosure-suit.
  4. Preliminary decree in suit for sale.
    Power to decree sale in foreclosure-suit.
  5. Final decree in suit for sale.
  6. Recovery of balance due on mortgage in suit for sale.
    25
    RULES
  7. Preliminary decree in redemption suit.
  8. Final decree in redemption suit.
    8A. Recovery of balance due on mortgage in suit for redemption.
  9. Decree where nothing is found due or where mortgagee has been overpaid.
  10. Costs of mortgagee subsequent to decree.
    10A. Power of Court to direct mortgagee to pay mesne profits.
  11. Payment of interest.
  12. Sale of property subject to prior mortgage.
  13. Application of proceeds.
  14. Suit for sale necessary for bringing mortgaged property to sale.
  15. Mortgages by the deposit of title-deeds and charges.

ORDER XXXV
Interpleader

  1. Plaint in interpleader-suit.
  2. Payment of thing claimed into Court.
  3. Procedure where defendant is suing plaintiff.
  4. Procedure at first hearing.
  5. Agents and tenants may not institute interpleader-suits.
  6. Charge for plaintiff’s costs.

ORDER XXXVI
Special Case

  1. Power to state case for Court’s opinion.
  2. Where value of subject-matter must be stated.
  3. Agreement to be filed and registered as suit.
  4. Parties to be subject to Court’s jurisdiction.
  5. Hearing and disposal of case.
  6. No appeal from a decree passed under rule 5.

ORDER XXXVII
Summary Procedure

  1. Courts and classes of suits to which the Order is to apply.
  2. Institution of summary suits.
  3. Procedure for the appearance of defendant.
  4. Power to set aside decree.
  5. Power to order bill, etc., to be deposited with officer of Court.
  6. Recovery of cost of noting non-acceptance of dishonoured bill or note.
  7. Procedure in suits.

ORDER XXXVIII
Arrest and Attachment before Judgment
Arrest before Judgment

  1. Where defendant may be called upon to furnish security for appearance.
  2. Security.
    26
    RULES
  3. Procedure on application by surety to be discharged.
  4. Procedure where defendant fails to furnish security or find fresh security.
    Attachment before Judgment
  5. Where defendant may be called upon to furnish security for production of property.
  6. Attachment where cause not shown or security not furnished.
  7. Mode of making attachment.
  8. Adjudication of claim to property attached before judgment.
  9. Removal of attachment when security furnished or suit dismissed.
    10.Attachment before judgment not to affect rights of strangers, nor bar decree-holder from
    applying for sale.
    11.Property attached before judgment not to be re-attached in execution of decree.
    11A. Provisions applicable to attachment.
  10. Agricultural produce not attachable before judgment.
  11. Small Cause Court not to attach immovable property.
    ORDER XXXIX
    Temporary Injunctions and Interlocutory Orders
    Temporary injunctions
  12. Cases in which temporary injunction may be granted.
  13. Injunction to restrain repetition or continuance of breach.
    2A. Consequence of disobedience or breach of injunction.
  14. Before granting injunction, Court to direct notice to opposite party.
    3A. Court to dispose of application for injunction within thirty days.
  15. Order for injunction may be discharged, varied or set aside.
  16. Injunction to corporation binding on its officers.
    Interlocutory orders
  17. Power to order interim sale.
  18. Detention, preservation, inspection, etc., of subject-matter of suit.
  19. Application for such orders to be after notice.
  20. When party may be put in immediate possession of land the subject-matter of suit.
  21. Deposit of money, etc., in Court.

ORDER XL
Appointment of Receivers

  1. Appointment of receivers.
  2. Remuneration.
  3. Duties.
  4. Enforcement of receiver’s duties.
  5. When Collector may be appointed receiver.

ORDER XLI
Appeals from Original Decrees

  1. Form of appeal.
    What to accompany memorandum.
    Contents of memorandum.
    27
    RULES
  2. Grounds which may be taken in appeal.
  3. Rejection or amendment of memorandum.
    3A. Application for condonation of delay.
  4. One of several plaintiffs or defendants may obtain reversal of whole decree where it proceeds
    on ground common to all.
    Stay of proceedings and of execution
  5. Stay by Appellate Court.
    Stay by Court which passed the decree.
  6. Security in case of order for execution of decree appealed from.
  7. [Repealed.].
  8. Exercise of powers in appeal from order made in execution of decree.
    Procedure on admission of appeal
  9. Registry of memorandum of appeal.
  10. Appellate Court may require appellant to furnish security for costs.
    Where appellant resides out of India.
  11. Power to dismiss appeal without sending notice to Lower Court.
    11A. Time within which hearing under rule 11 should be concluded.
  12. Day for hearing appeal.
  13. [Omitted.].
  14. Publication and service of notice of day for hearing appeal.
    Appellate Court may itself cause notice to be served.
  15. [Omitted.].
    Procedure on hearing
  16. Right to begin.
  17. Dismissal of appeal for appellant’s default.
    Hearing appeal ex parte.
  18. [Omitted.].
  19. Re-admission of appeal dismissed for default.
  20. Power to adjourn hearing and direct persons appearing interested to be made respondents.
  21. Re-hearing on application of respondent against whom ex parte decree made.
  22. Upon hearing respondent may object to decree as if he had preferred a separate appeal.
    Form of objection and provisions applicable thereto.
  23. Remand of case by Appellate Court.
    23A. Remand in other cases.
  24. Where evidence on record sufficient, Appellate Court may determine case finally.
  25. Where Appellate Court may frame issues and refer them for trial to Court whose decree
    appealed from.
  26. Findings and evidence to be put on record.
    Objections to findings.
    Determination of appeal.
    28
    RULES
    26A. Order of remand to mention date of next hearing
  27. Production of additional evidence in Appellate Court.
  28. Mode of taking additional evidence.
  29. Points to be defined and recorded.
    Judgment in appeal
  30. Judgment when and where pronounced.
  31. Contents, date and signature of judgment.
  32. What judgment may direct.
  33. Power of Court of appeal.
  34. Dissent to be recorded.
    Decree in appeal
  35. Date and contents of decree.
    Judge dissenting from judgment need not sign decree.
  36. Copies of judgment and decree to be furnished to parties.
  37. Certified copy of decree to be sent to Court whose decree appealed from.

ORDER XLII
Appeals from Appellate Decrees

  1. Procedure.
  2. Power of Court to direct that the appeal be heard on the question formulated by it.
  3. Application of rule 14 of Order XLL.

ORDER XLIII
Appeals from Orders

  1. Appeals from orders.
    1A. Right to challenge non-appealable orders in appeal against decrees.
  2. Procedure.

ORDER XLIV
Appeals by Indigent Persons

  1. Who may appeal as an indigent person.
  2. Grant of time for payment of Court-fee.
  3. Inquiry as to whether applicant is an indigent person.

ORDER XLV
Appealsto the Supreme Court

  1. “Decree” defined.
  2. Application to Court whose decree complained of.
  3. Certificate as to value or fitness.
  4. [Repealed.].
  5. [Repealed.].
  6. Effect of refusal of certificate.
  7. Security and deposit required on grant of certificate.
  8. Admission of appeal and procedure thereon.
    29
    RULES
  9. Revocation of acceptance of security.
    9A. Power to dispense with notices in case of deceased parties.
  10. Power to order further security or payment.
  11. Effect of failure to comply with order.
  12. Refund of balance deposit.
  13. Powers of Court pending appeal.
  14. Increase of security found inadequate.
  15. Procedure to enforce orders of the Supreme Court.
  16. Appeal from order relating to execution.
  17. [Repealed.].
    ORDER XLVI
    Reference
  18. Reference of question to High Court.
  19. Court may pass decree contingent upon decision of High Court.
  20. Judgment of High Court to be transmitted, and case disposed of accordingly.
  21. Costs of reference to High Court.
    4A. Reference to High Court under proviso to section 113.
  22. Power to alter, etc., decree of Court making reference.
  23. Power to refer to High Court questions as to jurisdiction in small causes.
  24. Power to District Court to submit for revision proceeding had under mistake as to jurisdiction in
    small causes.

ORDER XLVII
Review

  1. Application for review of judgment.
  2. [Repealed.].
  3. Form of applications for review.
  4. Application where rejected.
    Application where granted.
  5. Application for review in Court consisting of two or more Judges.
  6. Application where rejected.
  7. Order of rejection not appealable.
    Objections to order granting application.
  8. Registry of application granted, and order for re-hearings.
  9. Bar of certain applications.

ORDER XLVIII
Miscellaneous

  1. Process to be served at expense of party issuing.
    Costs of service.
  2. Orders and notices how served.
  3. Use of forms in appendices.

ORDER XLIX
Chartered High Courts

  1. Who may serve processes of High Court.
    30
    RULES
  2. Saving in respect of Chartered High Courts.
  3. Application of rules.

ORDER L
Provincial Small Cause Courts

  1. Provincial Small Cause Courts.

ORDER LI
Presidency Small Cause Courts

  1. Presidency Small Cause Courts.
    APPENDIX — A. PLEADINGS.
    APPENDIX — B. PROCESS.
    APPENDIX—C. DISCOVERY, INSPECTION AND ADMISSION.
    APPENDIX —F. DECREES.
    APPENDIX —G. EXECUTION.
    APPENDIX —H. SUPPLEMENTAL PROCEEDINGS.
    APPENDIX— I. MISCELLANEOUS.
    THE SECOND SCHEDULE. — [Repealed].
    THE THIRD SCHEDULE. —[Repealed].
    THE FOURTH SCHEDULE. — [Repealed].
    THE FIFTH SCHEDULE. — [Repealed].
    ANNEXURE I
    31
    THE CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, 1908
    ACT NO. 5 OF 19081
    [21st March, 1908.]An Act to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the procedure of the Courts of Civil
    Judicature.
    WHEREAS it is expedient to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the procedure of the Courts
    of Civil Judicature: It is hereby enacted as follows :
    PRELIMINARY
  2. Short title, commencement and extent.—(1) This Act may be cited as the Code of Civil
    Procedure, 1908.
    (2) It shall come into force on the first day of January, 1909.
  3. This Act has been amended in its application to Assam by Assam Acts 2 of 1941 and 3 of 1953; to Tamil Nadu by
    Madras Act 34 of 1950, Madras A.O. 1950, and Tamil Nadu Act 15 of 1970; to Punjab by Punjab Act 7 of 1934; to Uttar
    Pradesh by U.P. Acts 4 of 1925, 35 of 1948, 24 of 1954, 17 of 1970, 57 of 1976 and 31 of 1978; to Karnataka by Mysore
    Act 14 of 1955; to Kerala by Kerala Act 13 of 1957; to Rajasthan by Rajasthan Act 19 of 1958; to Maharashtra by
    Maharashtra Act 22 of 1960 and 25 of 1970; It has been extended to Berar by the Berar Laws Act, 1941 (4 of 1941) and, by
    notification under ss. 5 and 5A of the Schedule Districts Act, 1874 (14 of 1874), also to the following Scheduled
    Districts:—
    (1) The district of Jalpaiguri, Cachar (excluding the North Cachar Hills, Goalpara (including the Eastern Duars),
    Kamrup, Darrang, Nowgong (excluding the Mikir Hill Tracts) Sibsagar (excluding the Mikir Hill Tracts) and
    Lakhimpur (excluding the Dibrugarh Frontier Tracts): Gazette of India, 1909, Pt. 1. p. 5 and ibid, 1914, Pt. I,
    p. 1690.
    (2) The District of Darjeeling and the District of Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Palamau and Manbhum in Chota Nagpur:
    Calcutta Gazette, 1909, Pt. I, p. 25 and Gazette of India, 1909, Pt. I, p. 33.
    (3) The Province of Kumaon and Garhwal and the Tarai Parganas (with modifications): U.P. Gazette, 1909, Pt. I, p. 3
    and Gazette of India, 1909, Pt. I, p. 31.
    (4) The Pargana of Jaunsar-Bawar in Dehradun and the Scheduled portion of the Mirzapur District : U.P. Gazette,
    1909, Pt. I, p. 4 and Gazette of India, 1909, Pt. I, p. 32.
    (5) Coorg: Gazette of India, 1909, Pt. I, p. 32.
    (6) Scheduled Districts in the Punjab: Gazette of India, 1909, Pt. I, p. 33.
    (7) Sections 36 to 43 to all the Scheduled Districts in Madras, Gazette of India, 1909, Pt. I., p. 152.
    (8) Scheduled Districts in the C.P., except so much as is already in force and so much as authorizes the
    attachment and sale of immovable property in execution of a decree, not being a decree directing the sale of such
    property: Gazette of India, 1909, Pt. I, p. 239.
    (9) Ajmer-Merwara except ss. 1 and 155 to 158: Gazette of India, 1909, Pt. II, p. 480.
    (10) Pargana Dhalbhum, the Municipality of Chaibassa in the Kolhan and the Porahat Estate in the
    District of Singhbhum: Calcutta, Gazette of India, 1909, Pt. I, p. 453 and Gazette of India, 1909, Pt. I, p. 443.
    Under s. 3(3)(a) of the Sonthal Parganas Settlement Regulation (3 of 1872), ss. 38 to 42 and 156 and rules
    4 to 9 in Order XXI in the First Schedule have been declared to be in force in the Sonthal Parganas and the
    rest of the Code for the trial of suits referred to in s. 10 of the Sonthal Parganas Justice Regulation,
    1893 (5 of 1893): see Calcutta, Gazette, 1909, Pt. I, p. 45.
    It has been declared to be in force in Panth Piploda by the Panth Piploda Laws Regulation,
    1929 (1 of 1929), s. 2; in the Khondmals District by the Khondmals Laws Regulation, 1936 (4 of 1936), s. 3
    and Sch. and in the Angul District by the Angul Laws Regulation, 1936 (5 of 1936 ), s. 3 and Sch.
    It has been extended to the District of Koraput and Ganjam Agency by Orissa Regulation (5 of 1951), s.2.
    It has been extended to the State of Manipur (w.e.f. 1-1-1957) by Act 30 of 1950, s. 3 to the whole of the
    Union Territory of Lakshadweep (w.e.f. 1-10-1967) by Regulation 8 of 1965, s. 3 and Sch.: to Goa, Daman and
    Diu (w.e.f. 15-6-1966) by Act 30 of 1965, s. 3; to Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w.e.f. 1-7-1965) by Reg. 6 of
    1963, s. 2 and Sch. 1 and to the State of Sikkim (w.e.f. 1-9-1984), vide Notification No. S.O. 599 (E),
    dated 13-8-1984, Gazette of India, Extraordinary., Part. II, s. 3.
    32
    1
    [(3) It extends to the whole of India except—
    2

(b) the State of Nagaland and the tribal areas:
Provided that the State Government concerned may, by notification in the Official Gazette, extend the
provisions of this Code or any of them to the whole or part of the State of Nagaland or such tribal areas,
as the case may be, with such supplemental, incidental or consequential modifications as may be specified
in the notification.
Explanation. — In this clause, “tribal areas” means the territories which, immediately before the
21st day of January, 1972, were included in the tribal areas of Assam as referred to in paragraph 20 of the
Sixth Schedule to the Constitution.
(4) In relation to the Amindivi Islands, and the East Godavari, West Godavari and Visakhapatnam
Agencies in the State of Andhra Pradesh and the Union Territory of Lakshadweep, the application of this
Code shall be without prejudice to the application of any rule or regulation for the time being in force in such
Islands, Agencies or such Union Territory, as the case may be, relating to the application of this Code.]

  1. Definitions.—In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,—
    (1) “Code” includes rules;
    (2) “decree” means the formal expression of an adjudication which, so far as regards the Court
    expressing it, conclusively determines the rights of the parties with regard to all or any of the matters in
    controversy in the suit and may be either preliminary or final. It shall be deemed to include the rejection
    of a plaint and the determination of any question within 3
    *** section 144, but shall not include—
    (a) any adjudication from which an appeal lies as an appeal from an order, or
    (b) any order of dismissal for default.
    Explanation.—A decree is preliminary when further proceedings have to be taken before the suit
    can be completely disposed of. It is final when such adjudication completely disposes of the suit.
    It may be partly preliminary and partly final;
    (3) “decree-holder” means any person in whose favour a decree has been passed or an order
    capable of execution has been made;
    (4) “district” means the local limits of the jurisdiction of a principal Civil Court of original
    jurisdiction (hereinafter called a “District Court”), and includes the local limits of the ordinary
    original civil jurisdiction of a High Court;
    4
    [(5) “foreign Court” means a Court situate outside India and not established or continued by the
    authority of the Central Government;](6) “foreign judgment” means the judgment of a foreign Court;
    (7) “Government Pleader” includes any officer appointed by the State Government to perform all
    or any of the functions expressly imposed by this Code on the Government Pleader and also any
    pleader acting under the directions of the Government Pleader;
    5
    [(7A) “High Court” in relation to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, means the High Court in
    Calcutta;
    (7B) “India”, except in sections 1, 29, 43, 44, 6
    [44A,] 78, 79, 82, 83 and 87A, means the territory
    of India excluding the State of Jammu and Kashmir;](8) “Judge” means the presiding officer of a Civil Court;
  2. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 2, for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  3. Clause (a) omitted by Act 34 of 2019, s. 95 and the Fifth Schedule (w.e.f. 31-10- 2019).
  4. The words and figures “section 47 or” omitted by s. 3, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  5. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 4, for clause 5 (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
  6. Ins. by s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
  7. Ins. by Act 42 of 1953, s. 4 and the Third Schedule (w.e.f. 23-12-1953).
    33
    (9) “judgment” means the statement given by the Judge of the grounds of a decree or order;
    (10) “judgment-debtor” means any person against whom a decree has been passed or an order
    capable of execution has been made;
    (11) “legal representative” means a person who in law represents the estate of a deceased person,
    and includes any person who intermeddles with the estate of the deceased and where a party sues or is
    sued in a representative character the person on whom the estate devolves on the death of the party so
    suing or sued;
    (12) “mesne profits” of property means those profits which the person in wrongful possession of
    such property actually received or might with ordinary diligence have received therefrom, together
    with interest on such profits, but shall not include profits due to improvements made by the person in
    wrongful possession;
    (13) “movable property” includes growing crops;
    (14) “order” means the formal expression of any decision of a Civil Court which is not a decree;
    (15) “pleader” means any person entitled to appear and plead for another in Court, and includes an
    advocate, a vakil and an attorney of a High Court;
    (16) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules;
    (17) “public officer” means a person falling under any of the following descriptions, namely :—
    (a) every Judge;
    (b) every member of 1
    [an All-India Service];
    (c) every commissioned or gazetted officer in the military 2
    [naval or air] forces of. 3
    [the Union]4
    *** while serving under the Government;
    (d) Every officer of a court of Justice whose duty it is, as such officer, to investigate or report on
    any matter of law or fact, or to make, authenticate or keep any document, or to take charge or
    dispose of any property, or to execute any judicial process, or to administer any oath, or to
    interpret, or to preserve order, in the Court, and every person especially authorised by a court of
    Justice to perform any of such duties;
    (e) every person who holds any office by virtue of which he is empowered to place or keep any
    person in confinement;
    (f) every officer of the Government whose duty it is, as such officer, to prevent offences, to give
    information of offences, to bring offenders to justice, or to protect the public health, safety or
    convenience;
    (g) every officer whose duty it is, as such officer, to take, receive, keep or expend any property
    on behalf of the Government, or to make any survey, assessment or contract on behalf of the
    Government, or to execute any revenue process, or to investigate, or to report on, any matter
    affecting the pecuniary interests of the Government, or to make, authenticate or keep any document
    relating to the pecuniary interests of the Government, or to prevent the infraction of any law for the
    protection of the pecuniary interests of the Government; and
    (h) every officer in the service or pay of the Government, or remunerated by fees or commission
    for the performance of any public duty;
    (18) “rules” means rules and forms contained in the First Schedule or made under section 122 or
    section 125;
    (19) “share in a corporation” shall be deemed to include stock, debenture stock, debentures or
    bonds; and
    (20) “signed”, save in the case of a judgment or decree, includes stamped.
  8. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 3, for “the Indian Civil Service” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  9. Subs. by Act 35 of 1934, s. 2 and the Schedule, for “or naval”.
  10. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “his Majesty”.
  11. The words “including His Majesty’s Indian Marine Service” omitted by Act 35 of 1934, s. 2 and the Schedule.
    34
    1

  1. Subordination of Courts.—For the purposes of this Code, the District Court is subordinate to the
    High Court, and every Civil Court of a grade inferior to that of a District Court and every Court of Small
    Causes is subordinate to the High Court and District Court.
  2. Savings.—(1) In the absence of any specific provision to the contrary, nothing in this Code shall be
    deemed to limit or otherwise affect any special or local law now in force or any special jurisdiction or
    power conferred, or any special form of procedure prescribed, by or under any other law for the time
    being in force.
    (2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the proposition contained in sub-section (1),
    nothing in this Code shall be deemed to limit or otherwise affect any remedy which a landholder or
    landlord may have under any law for the time being in force for the recovery of rent of agricultural land
    from the produce of such land.
  3. Application of the Code to Revenue Courts.—(1) Where any Revenue Courts are governed by
    the provisions of this Code in those matters of procedure upon which any special enactment applicable to
    them is silent, the State Government 2
    *** may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare that any
    portions of those provisions which are not expressly made applicable by this Code shall not apply to those
    Courts, or shall only apply to them with such modifications as the State Government 3
    *** may prescribe.
    (2) “Revenue Court” in sub-section (1) means a Court having jurisdiction under any local law to
    entertain suits or other proceedings relating to the rent, revenue or profits of land used for
    agricultural purposes, but does not include a Civil Court having original jurisdiction under this Code
    to try such suits or proceedings as being suits or proceedings of a civil nature.
  4. Pecuniary jurisdiction.—Save in so far as is otherwise expressly provided, nothing herein
    contained shall operate to give any Court jurisdiction over suits the amount or value of the subject-matter
    of which exceeds the pecuniary limits (if any) of its ordinary jurisdiction.
  5. Provincial Small Cause Courts.—The following provisions shall not extend to Courts
    constituted under the Provincial Small Cause Courts Act, 1887(9 of 1887) 4
    [or under the Berar Small
    Cause Courts Law, 1905], or to Courts exercising the jurisdiction of a Court of Small Causes 5
    [under the
    said Act or Law], 6
    [or to Courts in 7
    [any part of India to which the said Act does not extend] exercising a
    corresponding jurisdiction that is to say,—
    (a) so much of the body of the Code as relates to—
    (i) suits excepted from the cognizance of a Court of Small Causes;
    (ii) the execution of decrees in such suits;
    (iii) the execution of decrees against immovable property; and
    (b) the following sections, that is to say,—
    section 9,
    sections 91 and 92,
    sections 94 and 95 8
    [so far as they authorize or relate to]—
    (i) orders for the attachment of immovable property,
    (ii) injunctions,
  6. Clause (21) omitted by Act 2 of 1951, s. 4, Earlier Clause (21) ins. by the A.O. 1950.
  7. The words “with the previous sanction of the G.G. in C”, omitted by Act 38 of 1920, s. 2 and the First Schedule Pt. I.
  8. The words “with the sanction aforesaid” omitted by s. 2 and the First Schedule Pt. I, ibid.
  9. Ins. by Act 4 of 1941, s. 2 and the Third Schedule.
  10. Subs. by s. 2 and the Third Schedule., ibid., for “under that Act”.
  11. Ins. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 5.
  12. Subs. by the Adaptation of Laws (No. 2) Order, 1956, for “Part B States”.
  13. Subs. by Act 1 of 1926, s. 3, for “so far as they relate to injunctions and interlocutory orders” .
    35
    (iii) the appointment of a receiver of immovable property, or
    (iv) the interlocutory orders to in clause (e) of section 94], and sections 96 to 112 and 115.
  14. Presidency Small Cause Courts.—Save as provided in sections 24, 38 to 41, 75, clauses (a), (b)
    and (c), 76, 1
    [77, 157 and 158], and by the Presidency Small Cause Courts Act, 1882 (15 of 1882), the
    provisions in the body of this Code shall not extend to any suit or proceeding in any Court of Small
    Causes established in the towns of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay:
    2
    [Provided that—
    (1) the High Courts of Judicature at Fort William, Madras and Bombay, as the case may be, may
    from time to time, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct3
    that any such provisions not
    inconsistent with the express provisions of the Presidency Small Cause Courts Act, 1882 (15 of 1882),
    and with such modifications and adaptations as may be specified in the notification, shall extend to suits
    or proceedings or any class of suits or proceedings in such Court;
    (2) all rules heretofore made by any of the said High Courts under section 9 of the Presidency
    Small Cause Courts Act, 1882 (15 of 1882) shall be deemed to have been validly made.]PART I
    SUITS IN GENERAL
    JURISDICTION OF THE COURTS AND Res Judicata
  15. Courts to try all civil suits unless barred.—The Courts shall (subject to the provisions herein
    contained) have jurisdiction to try all suits of a civil nature excepting suits of which their cognizance is
    either expressly or impliedly barred.
    4
    [Explanation I].—A suit in which the right to property or to an office is contested is a suit of a civil
    nature, notwithstanding that such right may depend entirely on the decision of questions as to religious
    rites or ceremonies.
    5
    [Explanation II].—For the purposes of this section, it is immaterial whether or not any fees are attached
    to the office referred to in Explanation I or whether or not such office is attached to a particular place.]STATE AMENDMENTS
    Maharashtra.—
    Section 9A of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, in its application to the State of Maharashtra
    (hereinafter referred to as “the principal Act”), shall be deleted.
    [Vide Maharashtra Act 61 of 2018, sec. 2.]Notwithstanding the deletion of section 9A of the principal Act,—
    (1) where consideration of a preliminary issue framed under section 9A is pending on the date of
    commencement of the Code of Civil Procedure (Maharashtra Amendment) Act, 2018 (hereinafter, in this
    section, referred to as “the Amendment Act”), the said issue shall be deemed to be an issue framed under
    Order XIV of the principal Act and shall be decided by the Court, as it deems fit, along with all other
    issues, at the time of final disposal of the suit itself :
    Provided that, the evidence, if any, led by any party or parties to the suit, on the preliminary issue so
    framed under section 9A, shall be considered by the Court along with evidence, if any, led on other issues
    in the suit, at the time of final disposal of the suit itself ;
    (2) in all the cases, where a preliminary issue framed under section 9A has been decided, holding that
    the Court has jurisdiction to entertain the suit, and a challenge to such decision is pending before a
    revisional Court, on the date of commencement of the Amendment Act, such revisional proceedings shall
    stand abated :
  16. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 4, for “77 and 155 to 158” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  17. Added by Act 1 of 1914, s. 2.
  18. For instance of such direction, see Calcutta Gazette, 1910, Pt. I, p. 814.
  19. Explanation renumbered as Explanation I thereof by Act 104 of 1976, s. 5 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  20. Ins. by s. 5, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    36
    Provided that, where a decree in such suit is appealed from any error, defect or irregularity in the order
    upholding jurisdiction shall be treated as one of the ground of objection in the memorandum of appeal as
    if it had been included in such memorandum;
    (3) in all cases, where a preliminary issue framed under section 9A has been decided, holding that the
    Court has no jurisdiction to entertain the suit, and a challenge to such decision is pending before an
    appellate or revisional Court, on the date of commencement of the Amendment Act, such appellate or
    revisional proceedings shall continue as if the Amendment Act has not been enacted and section 9A has
    not been deleted :
    Provided that, in case the appellate or revisional Court, while partly allowing such appeal or revision,
    remands the matter to the trial Court for reconsideration of the preliminary issue so framed under
    section 9A, upon receipt of these proceedings by the trial Court, all the provisions of the principal Act
    shall apply ;
    (4) in all cases, where an order granting an ad-interim relief has been passed under sub-section (2) of
    section 9A prior to its deletion, such order shall be deemed to be an ad-interim order made under Order
    XXXIX of the principal Act and the Court shall, at the time of deciding the application in which such an
    order is made, either confirm or vacate or modify such order.
    [Vide Maharashtra Act 61 of 2018, sec. 3.]Maharashtra.—
    In section 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure (Maharashtra Amendment) Act, 2018, for clause (1), the
    following clause shall be substituted and shall be deemed to have been substituted with effect from 27th
    June 2018, being the date of commencement of the said Act, namely:—
    “(1) where consideration of a preliminary issue framed under section 9A is pending on the date of
    commencement of the Code of Civil Procedure (Maharashtra Amendment) Act, 2018 (hereinafter, in this
    section, referred to as “the Amendment Act”), the said issue shall be decided and disposed of by the Court
    under section 9A, as if the said section 9A has not been deleted;”.
    [Vide Maharashtra Act 72 of 2018, sec. 2, (w.e.f. 27-6-2018.)]
  21. Stay of suit.—No Court shall proceed with the trial of any suit in which the matter in issue is also
    directly and substantially in issue in a previously instituted suit between the same parties, or between
    parties under whom they or any of them claim litigating under the same title where such suit is pending in
    the same or any other Court in 1
    [India] have jurisdiction to grant the relief claimed, or in any Court
    beyond the limits of 1
    [India] established or continued by 2
    [the Central Government 3
    ***.] and having like
    jurisdiction, or before 4
    [the Supreme Court].
    Explanation.—The pendency of a suit in a foreign Court does not preclude the Courts in 1
    [India] from
    trying a suit founded on the same cause of action.
  22. Res judicata.—No Court shall try any suit or issue in which the matter directly and substantially
    in issue has been directly and substantially in issue in a former suit between the same parties, or between
    parties under whom they or any of them claim, litigating under the same title, in a Court competent to try
    such subsequent suit or the suit in which such issue has been subsequently raised, and has been heard and
    finally decided by such Court.
  23. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States”.
  24. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “the G.G. in C.”
  25. The words “or the Crown Representative” omitted by the A.O. 1948.
  26. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “His Majesty in Council”.
    37
    Explanation I.—The expression “former suit” shall denote a suit which has been decided prior to a suit
    in question whether or not it was instituted prior thereto.
    Explanation II.—For the purposes of this section, the competence of a Court shall be determined
    irrespective of any provisions as to a right of appeal from the decision of such Court.
    Explanation III.—The matter above referred to must in the former suit have been alleged by one party
    and either denied or admitted, expressly or impliedly, by the other.
    Explanation IV.—Any matter which might and ought to have been made ground of defence or attack
    in such former suit shall be deemed to have been a matter directly and substantially in issue in such suit.
    Explanation V.—Any relief claimed in the plaint, which is not expressly granted by the decree, shall
    for the purposes of this section, be deemed to have been refused.
    Explanation VI.—Where persons litigate bona fide in respect of a public right or of a private right
    claimed in common for themselves and others, all persons interested in such right shall, for the purposes
    of this section, be deemed to claim under the persons so litigating .
    1
    [Explanation VII.—The provisions of this section shall apply to a proceeding for the execution of a decree
    and references in this section to any suit, issue or former suit shall be construed as references, respectively, to a
    proceeding for the execution of the decree, question arising in such proceeding and a former proceeding for the
    execution of that decree.
    Explanation VIII. —An issue heard and finally decided by a Court of limited jurisdiction, competent to
    decide such issue, shall operate as res judicata in a subsequent suit, notwithstanding that such Court of
    limited jurisdiction was not competent to try such subsequent suit or the suit in which such issue has been
    subsequently raised.]
  27. Bar to further suit. —Where a plaintiff is precluded by rules from instituting a further suit in
    respect of any particular cause of action, he shall not be entitled to institute a suit in respect of such cause
    of action in any Court to which this Code applies.
  28. When foreign judgment not conclusive.—A foreign judgment shall be conclusive as to any
    matter thereby directly adjudicated upon between the same parties or between parties under whom they or
    any of them claim litigating under the same title except—
    (a) where it has not been pronounced by a Court of competent jurisdiction;
    (b) where it has not been given on the merits of the case;
    (c) where it appears on the face of the proceedings to be founded on an incorrect view of
    international law or a refusal to recognise the law of 2
    [India] in cases in which such law is applicable;
    (d) where the proceedings in which the judgment was obtained are opposed to natural justice;
    (e) where it has been obtained by fraud;
    (f) where it sustains a claim founded on a breach of any law in force in 2
    [India].
  29. Presumption as to foreign judgments.—The Court shall presume upon the production of any
    document purporting to be a certified copy of a foreign judgment, that such judgment was pronounced by
    a Court of competent jurisdiction, unless the contrary appears on the record; but such presumption may be
    displaced by proving want of jurisdiction.
    PLACE OF SUING
  30. Court in which suits to be instituted.—Every suit shall be instituted in the Court of the lowest
    grade competent to try it.
  31. Suits to be instituted where subject-matter situate.—Subject to the pecuniary or other
    limitations prescribed by any law, suits—
    (a) for the recovery of immovable property with or without rent or profits,
    (b) for the partition of immovable property,
  32. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 6 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  33. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States” (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
    38
    (c) for foreclosure, sale or redemption in the case of a mortgage of or charge upon immovable
    property,
    (d) or the determination of any other right to or interest in immovable property,
    (e) for compensation for wrong to immovable property,
    (f) for the recovery of movable property actually under distraint or attachment,
    shall be instituted in the Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the property is situate:
    Provided that a suit to obtain relief respecting, or compensation for wrong to, immovable property
    held by or on behalf of the defendant may, where the relief sought can be entirely obtained through his
    personal obedience, be instituted either in the Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the
    property is situate, or in the Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the defendant actually and
    voluntarily resides, or carries on business, or personally works for gain.
    Explanation.—In this section “property” means property situate in 1
    [India].
  34. Suits for immovable property situate within jurisdiction of different Courts.—Where a suit is to
    obtain relief respecting, or compensation for wrong to, immovable property situate within the jurisdiction of
    different Courts, the suit may be instituted in any Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction any
    portion of the property is situate :
    Provided that, in respect of the value of the subject-matter of the suit, the entire claim is cognizable
    by such Court.
  35. Place of Institution of suit where local limits of jurisdiction of Courts are
    uncertain.— (1) Where it is alleged to be uncertain within the local limits of the jurisdiction of which of
    two or more Courts, any immovable property is situate, any one of those Courts may, if satisfied that
    there is ground for the alleged uncertainty, record a statement to that effect and thereupon proceed to
    entertain and dispose of any suit relating to that property, and its decree in the suit shall have the same
    effect as if the property were situate within the local limits of its jurisdiction:
    Provided that the suit is one with respect to which the Court is competent as regards the nature and
    value of the suit to exercise jurisdiction.
    (2) Where a statement has not been recorded under sub-section (1), and an objection is taken before
    an Appellate or Revisional Court that a decree or order in a suit relating to such property was made by a
    Court not having jurisdiction where the property is situate, the Appellate or Revisional Court shall not
    allow the objection unless in its opinion there was, at the time of the institution of the suit, no reasonable
    ground for uncertainty as to the court having jurisdiction with respect thereto and there has been a
    consequent failure of justice.
  36. Suits for compensation for wrongs to person or movables.—Where a suit is for compensation for
    wrong done to the person or to movable property, if the wrong was done within the local limits of the
    jurisdiction of one Court and the defendant resides, or carries on business, or personally works for gain, within
    the local limits of the jurisdiction of another Court, the suit may be instituted at the option of the plaintiff in
    either of the said Courts.
    Illustrations
    (a) A, residing in Delhi, beats B in Calcutta. B may sue A either in Calcutta or in Delhi.
    (b) A, residing in Delhi, publishes in Calcutta statements defamatory of B. B may sue A either in Calcutta or in
    Delhi.
  37. Other suits to be instituted where defendants reside or cause of action arises.—Subject to
    the limitations aforesaid, every suit shall be instituted in a Court within the local limits of whose
    jurisdiction—
    (a) the defendant, or each of the defendants where there are more than one, at the time of the
    commencement of the suit, actually and voluntarily resides, or carries on business, or personally
    works for gain; or
    (b) any of the defendants, where there are more than one, at the time of the commencement of the
    suit, actually and voluntarily resides, or carries on business, or personally works for gain, provided
  38. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States” (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
    39
    that in such case either the leave of the Court is given, or the defendants who do not reside, or carry
    on business, or personally works for gain, as aforesaid, acquiesce in such institution; or
    (c) The cause of action, wholly or in part, arises.
    1

2
[Explanation].—A corporation shall be deemed to carry on business at its sole or principal office
in 3
[India] or, in respect of any cause of action arising at any place where it has also a subordinate
office, at such place.
Illustrations
(a) A is a tradesman in Calcutta, B carries on business in Delhi. B, by his agent in Calcutta, buys goods of A and
requests A to deliver them to the East Indian Railway Company. A delivers the goods accordingly in Calcutta. A
may sue B for the price of the goods either in Calcutta, where the cause of action has arisen, or in Delhi, where B
carries on business.
(b) A resides at Simla, B at Calcutta and C at Delhi. A, B and C being together at Benaras, B and C make a joint
promissory note payable on demand, and deliver it to A. A may sue B and C at Benaras, where the cause of action
arose. He may also sue them at Calcutta, where B resides, or at Delhi, where C resides but in each of these cases, if
the non-resident defendant objects, the suit cannot proceed without the leave of the Court.

  1. Objections to jurisdiction. —
    4
    [(1)] No objection as to the place of suing shall be allowed by any
    Appellate or Revisional Court unless such objection was taken in the Court of first instance at the earliest
    possible opportunity and in all cases where issues are settled at or before such settlement, and unless there
    has been a consequent failure of justice.
    5
    [(2) No objection as to the competence of a Court with reference to the pecuniary limits of its
    jurisdiction shall be allowed by any Appellate or Revisional Court unless such objection was taken in the
    Court of first instance at the earliest possible opportunity, and, in all cases where issues are settled, at or
    before such settlement, and unless there has been a consequent failure of justice.
    (3) No objection as to the competence of the executing Court with reference to the local limits of its
    jurisdiction shall be allowed by any Appellate or Revisional Court unless such objection was taken in the
    executing Court at the earliest possible opportunity, and unless there has been a consequent failure of
    justice.]6
    [21A. Bar on suit to set aside decree on objection as to place of suing.— No suit shall lie
    challenging the validity of a decree passed in a former suit between the same parties, or between the
    parties under whom they or any of them claim, litigating under the same title, on any ground based on an
    objection as to the place of suing.
    Explanation.—The expression “former suit” means a suit which has been decided prior to the decision
    in the suit in which the validity of the decree is questioned, whether or not the previously decided suit was
    instituted prior to the suit in which the validity of such decree is questioned.]
  2. Power to transfer suits which may be instituted in more than one Court.—Where a suit may
    be instituted in any one of two or more Courts and is instituted in one of such Courts, any defendant, after
    notice to the other parties, may, at the earliest possible opportunity and in all cases where issues are
    settled at or before such settlement, apply to have the suit transferred to another Court, and the Court to
    which such application is made, after considering the objections of the other parties (if any), shall
    determine in which of the several Courts having jurisdiction the suit shall proceed.
  3. Explanation 1 omitted by Act 104 of 1976, s. 7 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  4. Subs. by s. 7, ibid., for “Explanation II” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  5. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States” (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
  6. S. 21 renumbered as sub-section (1) by Act 104 of 1976, s. 8 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  7. Ins. by s. 8, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  8. Ins. by s. 9, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    40
  9. To what Court application lies.—(I) Where the several Courts having jurisdiction are subordinate to
    the same Appellate Court, an application under section 22 shall be made to the Appellate Court.
    (2) Where such Courts are subordinate to different Appellate Courts but to the same High Court, the
    application shall be made to the said High Court.
    (3) Where such Courts are subordinate to different High Courts, the application shall be made to the
    High Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the Court in which the suit is brought is situate.
  10. General power of transfer and withdrawal.—(1) On the application of any of the parties and
    after notice to the parties and after hearing such of them as desired to be heard, or of its own motion
    without such notice, the High Court or the District Court may at any stage—
    (a) transfer any suit, appeal or other proceeding pending before it for trial or disposal to any
    Court subordinate to it and competent to try or dispose of the same, or
    (b) withdraw any suit, appeal or other proceeding pending in any Court subordinate to it, and—
    (i) try or dispose of the same; or
    (ii) transfer the same for trial or disposal to any Court subordinate to it and competent to
    try or dispose of the same; or
    (iii) retransfer the same for trial or disposal to the Court from which it was withdrawn.
    (2) Where any suit or proceeding has been transferred or withdrawn under sub-section (1), the Court
    which 1
    [is thereafter to try or dispose of such suit or proceeding] may, subject to any special directions in the
    case of an order of transfer, either retry it or proceed from the point at which it was transferred or
    withdrawn.
    2
    [(3) For the purposes of this section,—
    (a) Courts of Additional and Assistant Judges shall be deemed to be subordinate to the
    District Court;
    (b) “proceeding” includes a proceeding for the execution of a decree or order.](4) The Court trying any suit transferred or withdrawn under this section from a Court of Small Causes
    shall, for the purposes of such suit, be deemed to be a Court of Small Causes.
    3
    [(5) A suit or proceeding may be transferred under this section from a Court which has no jurisdiction
    to try it.]4
    [25. Power of Supreme Court to transfer suits, etc.—(1) On the application of a party, and after notice
    to the parties, and after hearing such of them as desire to be heard, the Supreme Court may, at any stage, if
    satisfied that an order under this section is expedient for the ends of justice, direct that any suit, appeal or other
    proceeding be transferred from a High Court or other Civil Court in one State to a High Court or other Civil
    Court in any other State.
    (2) Every application under this section shall be made by a motion which shall be supported by an
    affidavit.
    (3) The Court to which such suit, appeal or other proceeding is transferred shall, subject to any special
    directions in the order of transfer, either retry it or proceed from the stage at which it was transferred to it.
    (4) In dismissing any application under this section, the Supreme Court may, if it is of opinion that the
    application was frivolous or vexatious, order the applicant to pay by way of compensation to any person
    who has opposed the application such sum, not exceeding two thousand rupees, as it considers
    appropriate in the circumstances of the case.
    (5) The law applicable to any suit, appeal or other proceeding transferred under this section shall be
    the law which the Court in which the suit, appeal or other proceeding was originally instituted ought to
    have applied to such suit, appeal or proceeding.]
  11. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 10, for “thereafter tries such suit” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  12. Subs. by s. 10, ibid., for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  13. Ins. by s. 10, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  14. Subs. by s. 11, ibid., for s. 25 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    41
    INSTITUTION OF SUITS
  15. Institution of suits. — 1
    [(1)] Every suit shall be instituted by the presentation of a plaint or in such
    other manner as may be prescribed.
    2
    [(2) In every plaint, facts shall be proved by affidavit.]*[Provided that such an affidavit shall be in the form and manner as prescribed under Order VI of
    Rule 15A.]SUMMONS AND DISCOVERY
  16. Summons to defendants.—Where a suit has been duly instituted, a summons may be issued to the
    defendant to appear and answer the claim and may be served in manner prescribed 3
[on such day not
beyond thirty days from date of the institution of the suit.]

Service of summons where defendant resides in another State.—(1) A summons may be sent for
service in another State to such Court and in such manner as may be prescribed by rules in force in that State.
(2) The Court to which such summons is sent shall, upon receipt thereof, proceed as if it had been
issued by such Court and shall then return the summons to the Court of issue together with the record
(if any) of its proceedings with regard thereto.
4
[(3) Where the language of the summons sent for service in another State is different from the
language of the record referred to in sub-section (2), a translation of the record,—
(a) in Hindi, where the language of the Court issuing the summons is Hindi, or
(b) in Hindi or English where the language of such record is other than Hindi or English,
shall also be sent together with the record sent under that sub-section.]5
[29. Service of foreign summonses.—Summonses and other processes issued by—
(a) any Civil or Revenue Court established in any part of India to which the provisions of this
Code do not extend, or
(b) any Civil or Revenue Court established or continued by the authority of the Central
Government outside India, or
(c) any other Civil or Revenue Court outside India to which the Central Government has, by
notification in the Official Gazette, declared the provisions of this section to apply,
may be sent to the Courts in the territories to which this Code extends, and served as if they were
summonses issued by such Courts.]

Power to order discovery and the like.—Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be
prescribed, the Court may, at any time, either of its own motion or on the application of any party,—
(a) make such orders as may be necessary or reasonable in all matters relating to the delivery and
answering of interrogatories, the admission of documents and facts, and the discovery, inspection,
production, impounding and return of documents or other material objects producible as evidence;
(b) issue summonses to persons whose attendance is required either to give evidence or to
produce documents or such other objects as aforesaid;
(c) order any fact to be proved by affidavit.

Summons to witness.—The provisions in sections 27, 28 and 29 shall apply to summonses to give
evidence or to produce documents or other material objects.

Penalty for default.—The Court may compel the attendance of any person to whom a summons
has been issued under section 30 and for that purpose may—
(a) issue a warrant for his arrest;
(b) attach and sell his property;

S. 26 renumbered as sub-section (1) by Act 46 of 1999, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).

Ins. by s. 3, ibid., (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).

Ins. by s. 3, ibid., (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 12 (w.e.f. 1-5-1977).

Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 6, for section 29 (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).

  • Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Schedule (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    42
    (c) impose a fine upon him 1
    [not exceeding five thousand rupees];
    (d) order him to furnish security for his appearance and in default commit him to the civil prison.
    JUDGMENT AND DECREE
  1. Judgment and decree.—The Court, after the case has been heard, shall pronounce judgment, and on
    such judgment a decree shall follow.
    INTEREST
  2. Interest.— (1) Where and in so far as a decree is for the payment of money, the Court may, in the decree,
    order interest at such rate as the Court deems reasonable to be paid on the principal sum adjudged, from the date of
    the suit to the date of the decree, in addition to any interest adjudged on such principal sum for any period prior to
    the institution of the suit, 2
    [with further interest at such rate not exceeding six per cent. per annum as the Court
    deems reasonable on such principal sum], from the date of the decree to the date of payment, or to such earlier date
    as the Court thinks fit:
    3
    [Provided that where the liability in relation to the sum so adjudged had arisen out of a commercial
    transaction, the rate of such further interest may exceed six per cent. per annum, but shall not exceed the
    contractual rate of interest or where there is no contractual rate, the rate at which moneys are lent or advanced
    by nationalised banks in relation to commercial transactions.
    Explanation I.—In this sub-section, “nationalised bank” means a corresponding new bank as defined in
    the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1970 (5 of 1970).
    Explanation II.—For the purposes of this section, a transaction is a commercial transaction, if it is
    connected with the industry, trade or business of the party incurring the liability.](2) Where such a decree is silent with respect to the payment of further interest 4
    [on such principal sum]from the date of the decree to the date of payment or other earlier date, the Court shall be deemed to have
    refused such interest, and a separate suit therefor shall not lie.
    COSTS
  3. Costs.—(1) Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be prescribed, and to the provisions of any
    law for the time being in force, the costs of an incident to all suits shall be in the discretion of the Court, and the
    Court shall have full power to determine by whom or out of what property and to what extent such costs are to be
    paid, and to give all necessary directions for the purposes aforesaid. The fact that the Court has no jurisdiction to
    try the suit shall be no bar to the exercise of such powers.
    (2) Where the Court directs that any costs shall not follow the event, the Court shall state its reasons in
    writing.
    5

*[35. Costs.— (1) In relation to any Commercial dispute, the Court, notwithstanding anything contained
in any other law for the time being in force or Rule, has the discretion to determine:
(a) whether costs are payable by one party to another;
(b) the quantum of those costs; and
(c) when they are to be paid.

  1. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 4, for “not exceeding five hundred rupees” (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).`
  2. Subs. by Act 66 of 1956, s. 2, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  3. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 13 (w.e.f. 1-7-1977).
  4. Subs. by Act 66 of 1956, s. 2, for “on such aggregate sum as aforesaid” (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  5. Sub-section (3) omitted by Act 66 of 1956, s. 3 (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
    *. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Schedule (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    43
    Explanation.—For the purpose of clause (a), the expression “costs” shall mean reasonable costs
    relating to—
    (i) the fees and expenses of the witnesses incurred;
    (ii) legal fees and expenses incurred;
    (iii) any other expenses incurred in connection with the proceedings.
    (2) If the Court decides to make an order for payment of costs, the general rule is that the unsuccessful
    party shall be ordered to pay the costs of the successful party:
    Provided that the Court may make an order deviating from the general rule for reasons to be recorded in
    writing.
    Illustration
    The Plaintiff, in his suit, seeks a money decree for breach of contract, and damages. The Court holds that the
    Plaintiff is entitled to the money decree. However, it returns a finding that the claim for damages is frivolous and
    vexatious.
    In such circumstances the Court may impose costs on the Plaintiff, despite the Plaintiff being the successful
    party, for having raised frivolous claims for damages.
    (3) In making an order for the payment of costs, the Court shall have regard to the following circumstances,
    including—
    (a) the conduct of the parties;
    (b) whether a party has succeeded on part of its case, even if that party has not been wholly successful;
    (c) whether the party had made a frivolous counterclaim leading to delay in the disposal of the case;
    (d) whether any reasonable offer to settle is made by a party and unreasonably refused by the other party;
    and
    (e) whether the party had made a frivolous claim and instituted a vexatious proceeding wasting the time of
    the Court.
    (4) The orders which the Court may make under this provision include an order that a party must pay––
    (a) a proportion of another party’s costs;
    (b) a stated amount in respect of another party’s costs;
    (c) costs from or until a certain date;
    (d) costs incurred before proceedings have begun;
    (e) costs relating to particular steps taken in the proceedings;
    (f) costs relating to a distinct part of the proceedings; and
    (g) interest on costs from or until a certain date.]STATE AMENDMENTS
    Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (UTs).—
    In Section 35, in sub-section (1) omit “Commercial”.
    [Vide the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Adaptation of Central Laws) Order, 2020, notification
    No. S.O. 1123(E) dated (18-3-2020).]44
    1
    [35A. Compensatory costs in respect of false or vexatious claims or defences.—(1) If in any suit
    or other proceedings 2
    [including an execution proceeding but 3
    [excluding an appeal or a revision] any
    party objects to the claim or defence on the ground that the claim or defence or any part of it is, as against
    the objector, false or vexatious to the knowledge of the party by whom it has been put forward, and if
    thereafter, as against the objector, such claim or defence is disallowed, abandoned or withdrawn in whole
    or in part, the Court, 4
    [if it so thinks fit], may, after recording its reasons for holding such claim or
    defence to be false or vexatious, make an order for the payment to the object or by the party by whom
    such claim or defence has been put forward, of cost by way of compensation.
    *[(2) No Court shall make any such order for the payment of an amount exceeding 5
    [three thousand
    rupees] or exceeding the limits of its pecuniary jurisdiction, whichever amount is less:
    Provided that where the pecuniary limits of the jurisdiction of any Court exercising the jurisdiction of a
    Court of Small Causes under the Provincial Small Cause Courts Act, 1887 (9 of 1887), 6
    [or under a
    corresponding law in force in 7
    [any part of India to which the said Act does not extend] and not being a Court
    constituted 8
    [under such Act or law], are less than two hundred and fifty rupees, the High Court may empower
    such Court to award as costs under this section any amount not exceeding two hundred and fifty rupees and not
    exceeding those limits by more than one hundred rupees :
    Provided, further, that the High Court may limit the amount which any Court or class of Courts is
    empowered to award as costs under this section.](3) No person against whom an order has been made under this section shall, by reason thereof, be
    exempted from any criminal liability in respect of any claim or defence made by him.
    (4) The amount of any compensation awarded under this section in respect of a false or vexatious
    claim or defence shall be taken into account in any subsequent suit for damages or compensation in
    respect of such claim or defence.]STATE AMENDMENTS
    Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (UTs).—
    In Section 35A, omit sub-section (2).
    [Vide the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Adaptation of Central Laws) Order, 2020, notification
    No. S.O. 1123(E) dated (18-3-2020).]9
    [35B. Costs for causing delay.—(1) If, on any date fixed for the hearing of a suit or for taking any
    step therein, a party to the suit—
    (a) fails to take the step which he was required by or under this Code to take on that date, or
    (b) obtains an adjournment for taking such step or for producing evidence or on any other ground,
    the Court may, for reasons to be recorded, make an order requiring such party to pay to the other party
    such costs as would, in the opinion of the Court, be reasonably sufficient to reimburse the other party in
    respect of the expenses incurred by him in attending the Court on that date, and payment of such costs, on
  6. Section 35A ins. by Act 9 of 1922, s. 2, which, under section 1(2) thereof may be brought into force in any State by the State
    Government on any specified date. It has been so brought into force in Bombay, Bengal, U.P., Punjab, Bihar, C.P., Assam,
    Orissa and Madras.
  7. Subs. by Act 66 of 1956, s. 4, for “not being an appeal” (w.e.f. 1-2-1957).
  8. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 14, for “excluding an appeal” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  9. Subs. by Act 66 of 1956, s. 4, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1957).
    *. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Schedule (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
  10. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 14, for “one thousand rupees” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  11. Ins. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 7.
  12. Subs. by the Adaptation of Laws (No. 2) Order, 1956, for “a Part B State”.
  13. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 7, for “under that Act” (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
  14. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 15 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    45
    the date next following the date of such order, shall be a condition precedent to the further prosecution
    of—
    (a) the suit by the plaintiff, where the plaintiff was ordered to pay such costs,
    (b) the defence by the defendant, where the defendent was ordered to pay such costs.
    Explanation.—Where separate defences have been raised by the defendant or groups of defendants,
    payment of such costs shall be a condition precedent to the further prosecution of the defence by such
    defendants or groups of defendants as have been ordered by the Court to pay such costs.
    (2) The costs, ordered to be paid under sub-section (1), shall not, if paid, be included in the costs
    awarded in the decree passed in the suit; but, if such costs are not paid, a separate order shall be drawn up
    indicating the amount of such costs and the names and addresses of the persons by whom such costs are
    payable and the order so drawn up shall be executable against such persons. ]PART II
    EXECUTION
    GENERAL
    1
    [36. Application to orders.—The provisions of this Code relating to the execution of decrees
    (including provisions relating to payment under a decree) shall, so far as they are applicable, be deemed
    to apply to the execution of orders (including payment under an order).]
  15. Definition of Court which passed a decree.—The expression “Court which passed a decree,”
    or words to that effect, shall, in relation to the execution of decrees, unless there is anything repugnant in
    the subject or context, be deemed to include,—
    (a) where the decree to be executed has been passed in the exercise of appellate jurisdiction, the
    Court of first instance, and
    (b) where the Court of first instance has ceased to exist or to have jurisdiction to execute it, the
    Court which, if the suit wherein the decree was passed was instituted at the time of making the
    application for the execution of the decree, would have jurisdiction to try such suit.
    2
    [Explanation.—The Court of first instance does not cease to have jurisdiction to execute a decree
    merely on the ground that after the institution of the suit wherein the decree was passed or after the passing
    of the decree, any area has been transferred from the jurisdiction of that Court to the jurisdiction of any other
    Court; but, in every such case, such other Court shall also have jurisdiction to execute the decree, if at the
    time of making the application for execution of the decree it would have jurisdiction to try the said suit.]COURTS BY WHICH DECREES MAY BE EXECUTED
  16. Court by which decree may be executed.—A decree may be executed either by the Court which
    passed it, or by the Court to which it is sent for execution.
  17. Transfer of decree.—(1) The Court which passed a decree may, on the application of the decreeholder, send it for execution to another Court 3
    [of competent jurisdiction],—
    (a) if the person against whom the decree is passed actually and voluntarily resides or carries on
    business, or personally works for gain, within the local limits of the jurisdiction of such other Court, or
    (b) if such person has not property within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court which
    passed the decree sufficient to satisfy such decree and has property within the local limits of the
    jurisdiction of such other Court, or
  18. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 16, for section 36 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  19. Ins. by s. 17, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  20. Ins. by s. 18, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    46
    (c) if the decree directs the sale or delivery of immovable property situate outside the local limits
    of the jurisdiction of the Court which passed it, or
    (d) if the Court which passed the decree considers for any other reason, which it shall record in
    writing, that the decree should be executed by such other Court.
    (2) The Court which passed a decree may of its own motion send it for execution to any subordinate
    Court of competent jurisdiction.
    1
    [(3) For the purposes of this section, a Court shall be deemed to be a Court of competent jurisdiction if, at
    the time of making the application for the transfer of decree to it, such Court would have jurisdiction to try the
    suit in which such decree was passed.]2
    [(4) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to authorise the Court which passed a decree to execute
    such decree against any person or property outside the local limits of its jurisdiction.]
  21. Transfer of decree to Court in another State.—Where a decree is sent for execution in another State, it
    shall be sent to such Court and executed in such manner as may be prescribed by rules in force in that State.
  22. Result of execution proceedings to be certified.—The Court to which a decree is sent for
    execution shall certify to the Court which passed it the fact of such execution, or where the former Court
    fails to execute the same the circumstances attending such failure.
  23. Powers of Court in executing transferred decree. — 3
    [(1)] The Court executing a decree sent to it shall
    have the same powers in executing such decree as if it had been passed by itself. All persons is disobeying
    or obstructing the execution of the decree shall be punishable by such Court in the same manner as if it had
    passed the decree. And its order in executing such decree shall be subject to the same rules in respect of
    appeal as if the decree had passed by itself.
    4
    [(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (1), the powers of the Court
    under that sub-section shall include the following powers of the Court which passed the decree, namely:—
    (a) power to send the decree for execution to another Court under section 39;
    (b) power to execute the decree against the legal representative of the deceased judgment-debtor
    under section 50;
    (c) power to order attachment of a decree.
    (3) A Court passing an order in exercise of the powers specified in sub-section (2) shall send a copy
    thereof to the Court which passed the decree.
    (4) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to confer on the Court to which a decree is sent for
    execution any of the following powers, namely:—
    (a) power to order execution at the instance of the transferee of the decree;
    (b) in the case of a decree passed against a firm, power to grant leave to execute such decree
    against any person, other than such a person as is referred to in clause (b), or clause (c) of
    sub-rule (1) of rule 50 of Order XXI. ]5
    [43. Execution of decrees passed by Civil Courts in places to which this Code does not extend.—
    Any decree passed by any Civil Court established in any part of India to which the provisions of this Code do
    not extend, or by any Court established or continued by the authority of the Central Government outside India,
    may, if it cannot be executed within the jurisdiction of the Court by which it was passed, be executed in the
    manner herein provided within the jurisdiction of any Court in the territories to which this Code extends.]
  24. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 18, (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  25. Ins. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  26. S. 42 renumbered as sub-section (1) by Act 104 of 1976, s. 19, (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  27. Ins. by s. 19, ibid., (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  28. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 8, for section 43 (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
    47
    1
    [44. Execution of decrees passed by Revenue Courts in places to which this Code does not
    extend.—The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare that the decrees of
    any Revenue Court in any part of India to which the provisions of this Code do not extend, or any class of
    such decrees, may be executed in the State as if they had been passed by Courts in that State.]2
    [44A. Execution of decrees passed by Courts in reciprocating territory.—(1) Where a certified
    copy of a decree of any of the superior Courts of 3
    *** any reciprocating territory has been filed in a
    District Court, the decree may be executed in 4
    [India] as if it had been passed by the District Court.
    (2) Together with the certified copy of the decree shall be filed a certificate from such superior Court
    stating the extent, if any, to which the decree has been satisfied or adjusted and such certificate shall, for the
    purposes of proceedings under this section, be conclusive proof of the extent of such satisfaction or
    adjustment.
    (3) The provisions of section 47 shall as from the filing of the certified copy of the decree apply to the
    proceedings of a District Court executing a decree under this section, and the District Court shall refuse
    execution of any such decree, if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Court that the decree falls within any
    of the exceptions specified in clauses (a) to (f) of section 13.
    5
    [Explanation 1.— “Reciprocating territory” means any country or territory outside India which the
    Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare to be a reciprocating territory for
    the purposes of this section; and “superior Courts”, with reference to any such territory, means such
    Courts as may be specified in the said notification.
    Explanation 2.— “Decree” with reference to a superior Court means any decree or judgment of such
    Court under which a sum of money is payable, not being a sum payable in respect of taxes or other
    charges of a like nature or in respect of a fine or other penalty, but shall in no case include an arbitration
    award, even if such an award is enforceable as a decree or judgment.]]6
    [45. Execution of decrees outside India.—So much of the foregoing sections of this Part as
    empowers a Court to send a decree for execution to another Court shall be construed as empowering a
    Court in any State to send a decree for execution to any Court established 7
    *** by the authority of the
    Central Government 8
    [outside India] to which the State Government has by notification in the Official
    Gazette declared this section to apply.]
  29. Precepts.—(1) Upon the application of the decree-holder the Court which passed the decree may,
    whenever it thinks fit, issue a precept to any other Court which would be competent to execute such
    decree to attach any property belonging to the judgment-debtor and specified in the precept.
    (2) The Court to which a precept is sent shall proceed to attach the property in the manner prescribed
    in regard to the attachment of property in execution of a decree:
    Provided that no attachment under a precept shall continue for more than two months unless the
    period of attachment is extended by an order of the Court which passed the decree or unless before the
    determination of such attachment the decree has been transferred to the Court by which the attachment
    has been made and the decree-holder has applied for an order for the sale of such property.
    QUESTIONS TO BE DETERMINED BY COURT EXECUTING DECREE
  30. Questions to be determined by the Court executing decree.—(1) All questions arising between
    the parties to the suit in which the decree was passed, or their representatives, and relating to the
    execution, discharge or satisfaction of the decree, shall be determined by the Court executing the decree
    and not by a separate suit.
  31. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 9, for section 44 (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
  32. Ins. by Act 8 of 1937, s. 2.
  33. The words “the United Kingdom or” omitted by Act 71 of 1952, s. 2.
  34. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States” (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
  35. Subs. by Act 71 of 1952, s. 2, for Explanations 1 to 3.
  36. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for section 45.
  37. The words “or continued” omitted by the A.O. 1948.
  38. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “in any Indian State”.
    48
    1

(3) Where a question arises as to whether any person is or is not the representative of a party, such
question shall, for the purposes of this section, be determined by the Court.
2
[Explanation I.—For the purposes of this section, a plaintiff whose suit has been dismissed and a
defendant against whom a suit has been dismissed are parties to the suit.
Explanation II.—(a) For the purposes of this section, a purchaser of property at a sale in execution of a
decree shall be deemed to be a party to the suit in which the decree is passed; and
(b) all questions relating to the delivery of possession of such property to such purchaser or his
representative shall be deemed to be questions relating to the execution, discharge or satisfaction of the decree
within the meaning of this section.]LIMIT OF TIME FOR EXECUTION

  1. [Execution barred in certain cases.] Rep. by the Limitation Act, 1963 (36 of 1963), s. 28
    (w.e.f. 1-1-1964).
    TRANSFEREES AND LEGAL REPRESENTATIVES
  2. Transferee.—Every transferee of a decree shall hold the same subject to the equities (if any) which
    the judgment-debtor might have enforced against the original decree-holder.
  3. Legal representative.—(1) Where a judgment-debtor dies before the decree has been fully satisfied,
    the holder of the decree may apply to the Court which passed it to execute the same against the legal
    representative of the deceased.
    (2) Where the decree is executed against such legal representative, he shall be liable only to the extent of
    the property of the deceased which has come to his hands and has not been duly disposed of; and, for the
    purpose of ascertaining such liability, the Court executing the decree may, of its own motion or on the
    application of the decree-holder, compel such legal representative to produce such accounts as it thinks
    fit.
    PROCEDURE IN EXECUTION
  4. Powers of Court to enforce execution.—Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be
    prescribed, the Court may, on the application of the decree-holder, order execution of the decree—
    (a) by delivery of any property specifically decreed;
    (b) by attachment and sale or by the sale without attachment of any property;
    (c) by arrest and detention in prison 3
    [for such period not exceeding the period specified in section 58,
    where arrest and detention is permissible under that section];
    (d) by appointing a receiver; or
    (e) in such other manner as the nature of the relief granted may require:
    4
    [Provided that, where the decree is for the payment of money, execution by detention in prison shall not
    be ordered unless, after giving the judgment-debtor an opportunity of showing cause why he should not be
    committed to prison, the Court, for reasons recorded in writing, is satisfied—
    (a) that the judgment-debtor, with the object or effect of obstructing or delaying the execution of the
    decree,—
    (i) is likely to abscond or leave the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court, or
    (ii) has, after the institution of the suit in which the decree was passed, dishonestly transferred,
    concealed, or removed any part of his property, or committed any other act of bad faith in relation to
    his property, or
    (b) that the judgment-debtor has, or has had since the date of the decree, the means to pay the amount
    of the decree or some substantial part thereof and refuses or neglects or has refused or neglected to pay the
    same, or
    (c) that the decree is for a sum for which the judgment-debtor was bound in a fiduciary capacity to
    account.
  5. Sub-section (2) omitted by Act 104 of 1976, s. 20 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  6. Subs. by s. 20, ibid. for the Explanation (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  7. Ins. by ibid, s. 21, (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  8. Ins. by Act 21 of 1936, s. 2.
    49
    Explanation. —In the calculation of the means of the judgment-debtor for the purposes of clause (b), there
    shall be left out of account any property which, by or under any law or custom having the force of law for the
    time being in force, is exempt from attachment in execution of the decree.]
  9. Enforcement of decree against legal representative.—(1) Where a decree is passed against a party
    as the legal representative of a deceased person, and the decree is for the payment of money out of the property
    of the deceased, it may be executed by the attachment and sale of any such property.
    (2) Where no such property remains in the possession of the judgment-debtor and he fails to satisfy the Court
    that he has duly applied such property of the deceased as is proved to have come into his possession, the decree
    may be executed against the judgment-debtor to the extent of the property in respect of which he has failed so to
    satisfy the Court in the same manner as if the decree had been against him personally.
  10. Liability of ancestral property.—For the purposes of section 50 and section 52, property in the hands
    of a son or other descendant which is liable under Hindu law for the payment of the debt of a deceased
    ancestor, in respect of which a decree has been passed, shall be deemed to be property of the deceased which
    has come to the hands of the son or other descendant as his legal representative.
  11. Partition of estate or separation of share.—Where the decree is for the partition of an undivided estate
    assessed to the payment of revenue to the Government, or for the separate possession of a share of such an estate,
    the partition of the estate or the separation of the share shall be made by the Collector or any gazetted subordinate
    of the Collector deputed by him in this behalf, in accordance with the law (if any) for the time being in force
    relating to the partition, or the separate possession of shares, of such estates.
    STATE AMENDMENT
    Karnataka.—
    For Section 54, the following Section shall be substituted, namely.—
    “54. Partition of estate or separation of share.—Where the decree is for the partition of an
    undivided estate assessed to the payment of revenue to the Government, or for the separate possession of
    a share of such an estate, the partition of the estate or the separation of the share of such an estate shall be
    made by the Court in accordance with the law if any, for the time being in force relating to the partition or
    the separate possession of shares, and if necessary on the report of a revenue officer, not below the rank
    of Tahsildar or such other person as the Court may appoint as Commissioner in that behalf.”
    [Vide Karnataka Act 36 of 1998, sec. 2.]ARREST AND DETENTION
  12. Arrest and detention.—(1) A judgment-debtor may be arrested in execution of a decree at any
    hour and on any day, and shall, as soon as practicable, be brought before the Court, and his detention may
    be in the civil prison of the district in which the Court ordering the detention is situate, or, where such
    civil prison does not afford suitable accommodation, in any other place which the State Government may
    appoint for the detention of persons ordered by the Courts of such district to be detained:
    Provided, firstly, that, for the purpose of making an arrest under this section, no dwelling-house shall be
    entered after sunset and before sunrise:
    Provided, secondly, that no outer door of a dwelling-house shall be broken open unless such dwellinghouse is in the occupancy of the judgment-debtor and he refuses or in any way prevents access thereto, but
    when the officer authorized to make the arrest has duly gained access to any dwelling-house, he may break
    open the door of any room in which he has reason to believe the judgment-debtor is to be found:
    Provided, thirdly, that, if the room is in the actual occupancy of a woman who is not the judgment-debtor
    and who according to the customs of the country does not appear in public, the officer authorized to make the
    arrest shall give notice to her that she is at liberty to withdraw, and, after allowing a reasonable time for her to
    withdraw and giving her reasonable facility for withdrawing, may enter the room for the purpose of making
    the arrest:
    Provided, fourthly, that, where the decree in execution of which a judgment-debtor is arrested, is a
    decree for the payment of money and the judgment-debtor pays the amount of the decree and the costs of
    the arrest to the officer arresting him, such officer shall at once release him.
    (2) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare that any person or class of
    persons whose arrest might be attended with danger or inconvenience to the public shall not be liable to arrest
    in execution of a decree otherwise than in accordance with such procedure as may be prescribed by the State
    Government in this behalf.
    50
    (3) Where a judgment-debtor is arrested in execution of a decree for the payment of money and brought
    before the Court, the Court shall inform him that he may apply to be declared an insolvent, and that he 1
    [may
    be discharged] if he has not committed any act of bad faith regarding the subject of the application and if he
    complies with the provisions of the law of insolvency for the time being in force.
    (4) Where a judgment-debtor expresses his intention to apply to be declared an insolvent and furnishes
    security, to the satisfaction of the Court, that he will within one month so apply, and that he will appear,
    when called upon, in any proceeding upon the application or upon the decree in execution of which he was
    arrested, the Court 2
    [may release] him from arrest, and, if he fails so to apply and to appear, the Court may
    either direct the security to be realized or commit him to the civil prison in execution of the decree.
  13. Prohibition of arrest or detention of women in execution of decree for money.—Notwithstanding
    anything in this Part, the Court shall not order the arrest or detention in the civil prison of a woman in
    execution of a decree for the payment of money.
  14. Subsistence-allowance.—The State Government may fix scales, graduated according to rank,
    race and nationality, of monthly allowances payable for the subsistence of judgment-debtors.
  15. Detention and release.—(1) Every person detained in the civil prison in execution of a decree
    shall be so detained,—
    (a) where the decree is for the payment of a sum of money exceeding 3
    [
    4
    [five thousand rupees],
    for a period not exceeding three months, and,]5
    [(b) where the decree is for the payment of a sum of money exceeding two thousand rupees,
    but not exceeding five thousand rupees, for a period not exceeding six weeks.]6
    [(1A) For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that no order for detention of the judgmentdebtor in civil prison in execution of a decree for the payment of money shall be made, where the total
    amount of the decree does not exceed 7
    [two thousand rupees.]](2) A judgment-debtor released from detention under this section shall not merely by reason of his
    release be discharged from his debt, but he shall not be liable to be re-arrested under the decree in
    execution of which he was detained in the civil prison.
  16. Release on ground of illness.—(1) At any time after a warrant for the arrest of a judgment-debtor
    has been issued the Court may cancel it on the ground of his serious illness.
    (2) Where a judgment-debtor has been arrested, the Court may release him if, in its opinion, he is not
    in a fit state of health to be detained in the civil prison.
    (3) Where a judgment-debtor has been committed to the civil prison, he may be released therefrom—
    (a) by the State Government, on the ground of the existence of any infectious or contagious
    disease, or
    (b) by the committing Court, or any Court to which that Court is subordinate, on the ground of his
    suffering from any serious illness.
    (4) A judgment-debtor released under this section may be re-arrested, but the period of his detention
    in civil prison shall not in the aggregate exceed that prescribed by section 58.
    ATTACHMENT
    8
  17. Property liable to attachment and sale in execution of decree.—(1) The following property is
    liable to attachment and sale in execution of a decree, namely, lands, houses or other buildings, goods,
    money, bank-notes, cheques, bills of exchange, hundis, promissory notes, Government securities, bonds
    or other securities for money, debts, shares in a corporation and, save as hereinafter mentioned, all other
  18. Subs. by Act 3 of 1921, s. 2, for “will be discharged”.
  19. Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for “shall release”.
  20. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 22, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  21. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 5, “one thousand rupees” (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  22. Subs. by s. 5, ibid., by clause (b) (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  23. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 22 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  24. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 5, for “five hundred rupees” (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  25. For amendments to s. 60, in its application to East Punjab, see the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act, 1934 (Pun. Act 7 of
    1934), s. 35, as amended by Pun. Acts 12 of 1940 and 6 of 1942.
    51
    saleable property, movable or immovable, belonging to the judgment-debtor, or over which, or the profits
    of which, he has a disposing power which he may exercise for his own benefit, whether the same be held
    in the name of the judgment-debtor or by another person in trust for him or on his behalf:
    Provided that the following particulars shall not be liable to such attachment or sale, namely:—
    (a) the necessary wearing-apparel, cooking vessels, beds and bedding of the judgment-debtor, his
    wife and children, and such personal ornaments as, in accordance with religious usage, cannot be
    parted with by any woman;
    (b) tools of artisans, and, where the judgment-debtor is an agriculturist, his implements of
    husbandry and such cattle and seed-grain as may, in the opinion of the Court, be necessary to enable
    him to earn his livelihood as such, and such portion of agricultural produce or of any class of
    agricultural produce as may have been declared to be free from liability under the provisions of the
    next following section;
    (c) houses and other buildings (with the materials and the sites thereof and the land immediately
    appurtenant thereto and necessary for their enjoyment) belonging to 1
    [an agriculturist or a labourer of
    a domestic servant] and occupied by him ;
    (d) books of account ;
    (e) a mere right to sue for damages ;
    (f) any right of personal service ;
    (g) stipends and gratuities allowed to pensioners of the Government 2
    [or of a local authority or of
    any other employer], or payable out of any service family pension fund 3
    notified in the Official
    Gazette by 4
    [the Central Government or the State Government] in this behalf, and political pensions;
    5
    [(h) the wages of labourers and domestic servants, whether payable in money or in kind;
    6
    ***]7
    [(i) salary to the extent of 8
    [the first 9
    [
    10[one thousand rupees]] and two third of the remainder] 11[in
    execution of any decree other than a decree for maintenance]:
    12[Provided that where any part of such portion of the salary as is liable to attachment has been under
    attachment, whether continuously or intermittently, for a total period of twenty-four months, such portion
    shall be exempt from attachment until the expiry of a further period of twelve months, and, where such
    attachment has been made in execution of one and the same decree, shall, after the attachment has
    continued for a total period of twenty-four months, be finally exempt from attachment in execution of that
    deeree.]]11[(ia) one-third of the salary in execution of any decree for maintenance;]13[(j) the pay and allowances of persons to whom the Air Force Act, 1950 (45 of 1950) or the Army
    Act, 1950 (46 of 1950), or the Navy Act, 1957 (62 of 1957), applies;](k) all compulsory deposits and other sums in or derived from any fund to which the Provident Funds Act,
    14[1925], (19 of 1925), for the time being applies in so far as they are declared by the said Act not to be liable to
    attachment;
    15[(ka) all deposits and other sums in or derived from any fund to which the Public Provident Fund Act, 1968
    (23 of 1968), for the time being applies, in so far as they are declared by the said Act as not to be liable to attachment;
  26. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 23, for “an agriculturist” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977)
  27. Ins. by s. 23, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  28. For such a notification, see Gazette of India, 1909, Pt. I, p. 5.
  29. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “the G.G. in C.”
  30. Subs. by Act 9 of 1937, s. 2, for clauses (h) and (i). The amendments made by that section have no effect in respect of any
    proceedings arising out of a suit instituted before 1st June, 1937, see ibid., section 3.
  31. The words “and salary, to the extent of the first hundred rupees and one-half the remainder of such salary” omitted by Act 5 of
    1943, s. 2.
  32. Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for clause (i) and the proviso.
  33. Subs. by Act 26 of 1963, s. 2, for “the first hundred rupees”.
  34. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 23, for “two hundred rupees and one-half the remainder” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  35. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 6, for “four hundred rupees” (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  36. Ins. by Act 66 of 1956, s. 6 (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  37. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 23, for “the proviso” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  38. Subs. by s. 23, ibid., for clause (j) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  39. Subs. by Act 9 of 1937, s. 2, for “1897”.
  40. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 23 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    52
    (kb) all moneys payable under a policy of insurance on the life of the judgment-debtor;
    (kc) the interest of a lessee of a residential of building to which the provisions of law for the time
    being in force relating to control of rents and accommodation apply;]1
    [(1) any allowance forming part of the emoluments of any 2
    [servant of the 3
    [Government]] or of any
    servant of a railway company or local authority which the 4
    [appropriate Government] may by notification in the
    Official Gazette declare to be exempt from attachment, and any subsistence grant or allowance made to 5
    [any
    such servant] while under suspension;](m) an expectancy of succession by survivorship or other merely contingent or possible right or interest;
    (n) a right to future maintenance;
    (o) any allowance declared by
    6
    [any Indian law] to be exempt from liability to attachment or sale in execution
    of a decree; and
    (p) where the judgment-debtor is a person liable for the payment of land-revenue; any movable property
    which, under any law for the time being applicable to him, is exempt from .sale for the recovery of an arrear of
    such revenue.
    7
    [Explanation I. —The moneys payable in relation to the matters mentioned in clauses (g), (h), (i), (ia), (j), (l)
    and (o) are exempt from attachment or sale, whether before or after they are actually payable, and, in the case of
    salary, the attachable portion thereof is liable to attachment, whether before or after it is actually payable.]8
    [
    9
    [Explanation II. —In clauses (i) and (ia)], “salary” means the total monthly emoluments, excluding any
    allowance declared exempt from attachment under the provisions of clause (1), derived by a person from his
    employment whether on duty or on leave.]10[Explanation 11[III]—In clause (1) “appropriate Government” means—
    (i) as respects any 12[person] in the service of the Central Government, or any servant of 13[a Railway
    Administration] or of a cantonment authority or of the port authority of a major port, the Central Government;
    14* * * * *
    (iii) as respects any other 2
    [servant of the 3
    [Government]] or a servant of any other 15*** local authority, the
    State Government.]16[Explanation IV—For the purposes of this proviso, “wages” includes bonus, and “labourer” includes a skilled
    unskilled or semi-skilled labourer.
    Explanation V—For the purposes of this proviso, the expression “agriculturist” means a person who cultivates
    land personally and who depends for his livelihood mainly on the income from agricultural land, whether as owner,
    tenant, partner or agricultural labourer.
    Explanation VI—For the purposes of Explanation V an agriculturist shall be deemed to cultivate land
    personally, if he cultivates land—
    (a) by his own labour, or
    (b) by the labour of any member of his family, or
    (c) by servants or labourers on wages payable in cash or in kind (not being as a share of the produce), or
    both.]16[(IA) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, an agreement by which
    a person agrees to waive the benefit of any exemption under this section shall be void.]
  41. Subs. by Act 9 of 1937, s. 2, for the original clause (l), see also footnote 3.
  42. Subs. by Act 5 of 1943, s. 2, for “public officer”.
  43. Subs. by the A.O. 1950 for “crown”.
  44. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “G.G. in C”.
  45. Subs. by Act 5 of 1943, s. 2, for “any such officer or servant”.
  46. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “any law passed under the Indian Councils Act 1861 and 1892”.
  47. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 23, for Explanation I (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  48. Added by Act 9 of 1937, s. 2, The amendments made by that section shall not effect in respect of any proceeding arising out of any
    suit instituted before 1st June, 1937, see ibid., section 3.
  49. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 23, “Explanation 2. —in clauses (h) and (i)” (w.e.f. 1-2- 1977).
  50. Ins. by the A.O. 1937.
  51. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 23, for figur “3” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  52. Subs. by Act 5 of 1943, s. 2, for “Public officer”.
  53. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “a Federal Railway”.
  54. Clause (ii) omitted by the A.O. 1948.
  55. The words “railway or” omitted by the A.O. 1950.
  56. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 23 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    53
    (2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed 1
    *** to exempt houses and other buildings (with the materials
    and the sites thereof and the lands immediately appurtenant thereto and necessary for their enjoyment) from
    attachment or sale in execution of decrees for rent of any such house, building, site or land 2

3


STATE AMENDMENTS
Kerala.—
In clause (g) of the Proviso to sub-section (1) of section 60, after the words “stipends and gratuities
allowed by pensioners of the Government” the words “or of a local authority” shall be inserted.
[Vide Kerala Act 13 of 1957, sec. 3.]In the proviso to sub section (1) of section 60 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (Central Act 5
of 1908), after clause (g), the following clause shall be inserted, namely: —
“(gg) all moneys payable to the beneficiaries under the Family Benefit Scheme for the employees
of the Government of Kerala.”
[Vide Kerala Act 1 of 1988, sec. 2.]STATE AMENDMENTS
Himachal Pradesh.—
Amendment in section 60. — (1) In Section 60 sub-section (1):
(i) at the end of clause (c), add the following:
or compensation paid for such houses and buildings (including compensation for the materials and
the sites and the land referred to above) acquired for a public purpose;
(ii) after clause (c), the following clause shall be inserted, namely: —
(cc) compensation paid for agricultural lands belonging to agriculturists and acquired for a public
purpose;
[Vide Himachal Pradesh Act 6 of 1956, sec. 2.]

  1. Partial exemption of agricultural produce.—The State Government 4
    *** may, by general or
    special order published in the Official Gazette, declare that such portion of agricultural produce, or of any
    class of agricultural produce, as may appear to the State Government to be necessary for the purpose of
    providing until the next harvest for the due cultivation of the land and for the support of the judgmentdebtor and his family, shall, in the case of all agriculturists or of any class of agriculturists, be exempted
    from liability to attachment or sale in execution of a decree.
  2. Seizure of property in dwelling-house.—(1) No person executing any process under this Code
    directing or authorizing seizure of movable property shall enter any dwelling-house after sunset and
    before sunrise.
    (2) No outer door of a dwelling-house shall be broken open unless such dwelling-house is in the
    occupancy of the judgment-debtor and he refuses or in any way prevents access thereto, but when the
    person executing any such process has duly gained access to any dwelling-house, he may break open the
    door of any room in which he has reason to believe any such property to be.
    (3) Where a room in a dwelling-house is in the actual occupancy of a woman who, according to the
    customs of the country, does not appear in public, the person executing the process shall give notice to such
    woman that she is at liberty to withdraw; and, after allowing reasonable time for her to withdraw and giving
    her reasonable facility for withdrawing, he may enter such room for the purpose of seizing the property, using
    at the same time every precaution, consistent with these provisions, to prevent its clandestine removal.
  3. Property attached in execution of decrees of several Courts.—(1) Where property not in the custody
    of any Court is under attachment in execution of decrees of more Courts than one, the Court which shall
    receive or realize such property and shall determine any claim thereto and any objection to the attachment
  4. The brackets and letter “(a)”, rep. by Act 10 of 1914, s. 3 and the Second Schedule.
  5. The word “or” rep. by, s. 3, ibid., and the Second Schedule.
  6. Clause (b) rep. by, s. 3 ibid., and the Second Schedule.
  7. The words “with the previous sanction of the G.G. in C.” omitted by Act 38 of 1920, s. 2 and the First Schedule Pt 1.
    54
    thereof shall be the Court of highest grade, or, where there is no difference in grade between such Courts, the
    Court under whose decree the property was first attached.
    (2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to invalidate any proceeding taken by a Court executing
    one of such decrees.
    1
    [Explanation.—For the purposes of sub-section (2), “proceeding taken by a Court” does not include
    an order allowing, to a decree-holder who has purchased property at a sale held in execution of a decree,
    set off to the extent of the purchase price payable by him.]
  8. Private alienation of property after attachment to be void. —2
    [(1)] Where an attachment has
    been made, any private transfer or delivery of the property attached or of any interest therein and any
    payment to the judgment-debtor of any debt, dividend or other monies contrary to such attachment, shall
    be void as against all claims enforceable under the attachment.
    3
    [(2) Nothing in this section shall apply to any private transfer or delivery of the property attached or of
    any interest therein, made in pursuance of any contract for such transfer or delivery entered into and
    registered before the attachment.]Explanation.—For the purpose of this section, claims enforceable under an attachment include claims
    for the rateable distribution of assets.
    S A L E
  9. Purchaser’s title.—Where immovable property is sold in execution of a decree and such sale has
    become absolute, the property shall be deemed to have vested in the purchaser from the time when the
    property is sold and not from the time when the sale becomes absolute.
  10. [Suit purchase being on behalf of plaintiff.]— Rep. by Act, 1988 (45 of 1988), s. 7 (w.e.f. 19-5-
    1988).
  11. Power for State Government to make rules as to sales of land in execution of decrees for payment of
    money. — 4
    [(1)] The State Government 5
    *** may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make rules for any local area
    imposing conditions in respect of the sale of any class of interests in land in execution of decrees for the payment of
    money, where such interest are so uncertain or undetermined as, in the opinion of the State Government, to make it
    impossible to fix their value.
    6
    [(2) When on the date on which this Code came into operation in any local area, any special rules as to sale of
    and in execution of decrees were in force therein, the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette
    declare such rules to be in force, or may 5
    *** by a like notification, modify the same.
    Every notification issued in the exercise of the powers conferred by this sub-section shall set out the rules so
    continued or modified.]7
    [(3) Every rule made under this section shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before the State
    Legislature.]DELEGATION TO COLLECTOR OF POWER TO EXECUTE DECREES
    AGAINST IMMOVABLE PROPERTY
  12. [Power to prescribe rules for transferring to collector execution of certain decrees.]— Rep. by the Code
    of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1956 (66 of 1956), s. 7 (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  13. [Provisions of Third Schedule to apply.]— Rep. by s. 7 ibid, (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  14. [Rules of Procedure.]— Rep. by s. 7 ibid, (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  15. [Jurisdiction of Civil Courts barred.]— Rep. by s. 7 ibid, (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  16. [Collector to deemed to be acting judicially.]— Rep. by s. 7 ibid, (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
    DISTRIBUTION OF ASSETS
  17. Explanation ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 24 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  18. Section 64 renumbered as sub-section (1) by Act 22 of 2002, s. 3 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  19. Ins. by, Act 22 of 2002, s. 3, (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  20. Section 67 renumbered as sub-section (1) by Act 1 of 1914, s. 3.
  21. The words “with the previous sanction of the G.G. in C.” omitted by Act 38 of 1920, s. 2 and the Schedule, Pt. 1.
  22. Added by Act 1 of 1914, s. 3.
  23. Ins. by Act 20 of 1983, s. 2 and the Schedule (w.e.f. 15-3-1984).
    55
  24. Proceeds of execution-sale to be rateably distributed among decree-holders.—(1) Where assets are held
    by a Court and more persons than one have, before the receipt of such assets, made application to the Court for the
    execution of decrees for the payment of money passed against the same judgment-debtor and have not obtained
    satisfaction thereof, the assets, after deducting the costs of realization, shall be rateably distributed among all such
    persons:
    Provided as follows:—
    (a) where any property is sold subject to a mortgage or charge, the mortgage or incumbrancer shall not be
    entitled to share in any surplus arising from such sale;
    (b) where any property liable to be sold in execution of a decree is subject to a mortgage or charge, the Court
    may, with the consent of the mortgagee or incumbrancer, order that the property be sold free from the mortgage
    or charge, giving to the mortgagee or incumbrancer the same interest in the proceeds of the sale as he had in the
    property sold;
    (c) where any immovable property is sold in execution of a decree ordering its sale for the discharge of an
    incumbrance thereon, the proceeds of sale shall be applied—
    First, in defraying the expenses of the sale;
    Secondly, in discharging the amount due under the decree;
    Thirdly, in discharging the interest and principal monies due on subsequent incumbrances
    (if any); and
    Fourthly, rateably among the holders of decrees for the payment of money against the judgment-debtor,
    who have, prior to the sale of the property, applied to the Court which passed the decree ordering such sale
    for execution of such decrees, and have no obtained satisfaction thereof.
    (2) Where all or any of the assets liable to be rateably distributed under this section are paid to a person
    not entitled to receive the same, any person so entitled may sue such person to compel him to refund the assets.
    (3) Nothing in this section affects any right of the Government.
    RESISTANCE TO EXECUTION
  25. Resistance to execution.— Where the Court is satisfied that the holder of a decree for the possession of
    immovable property or that the purchaser of immovable property sold in execution of a decree has been resisted or
    obstructed in obtaining possession of the property by the judgment-debtor or some person on his behalf and that
    such resistance or obstruction was without any just cause, the Court may, at the instance of the decree-holder or
    purchaser, order the judgment-debtor or such other person to be detained in the civil prison for a term which may
    extend to thirty days and may further direct that the decree-holder or purchaser be put into possession of the
    property.
    PART III
    INCIDENTAL PROCEEDINGS
    COMMISSIONS
  26. Power of Court to issue commissions.—Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be prescribed,
    the Court may issue a commission—
    (a) to examine any person;
    (b) to make a local investigation;
    (c) to examine or adjust accounts; or
    (d) to make a partition;
    1
    [(e) to hold a scientific, technical, or expert investigation;
    (f) to conduct sale of property which is subject to speedy and natural decay and which is in the
    custody of the Court pending the determination of the suit;
    (g) to perform any ministerial act.]
  27. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 26 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    56
  28. Commission to another Court.—(1) A commission for the examination of any person may be
    issued to any Court (not being a High Court) situate in a State other than the State in which the Court of
    issue is situate and having jurisdiction in the place in which the person to be examined resides.
    (2) Every Court receiving a commission for the examination of any person under sub-section (1) shall
    examine him or cause him to be examined pursuant thereto, and the commission, when it has been duly
    executed, shall be returned together with the evidence taken under it to the Court from which it was
    issued, unless the order for issuing the commission has otherwise directed, in which case the commission
    shall be returned in terms of such order.
  29. Letter of request.—In lieu of issuing a commission the Court may issue a letter of request to
    examine a witness residing at any place not within 1
    [India.]2
    [78. Commissions issued by foreign Courts.—Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be
    prescribed the provisions as to the execution and return of commissions for the examination of witnesses
    shall apply to commissions issued by or at the instance of—
    (a) Courts situate in any part of India to which the provisions of this Code do not extend; or
    (b) Courts established or continued by the authority of the Central Government outside India; or
    (c) Courts of any State or country outside India.]PART IV
    SUITS IN PARTICULAR CASES
    SUITS BY OR AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT OR PUBLIC OFFICERS IN THEIR OFFICIAL CAPACITY
    3
    [79. Suits by or against Government.—In a suit by or against the Government, the authority to be
    named as plaintiff or defendant, as the case may be, shall be—
    (a) in the case of a suit by or against the Central Government, 4
    [the Union of India], and
    (b) in the case of a suit by or against a State Government, the State.]
  30. Notice.— 5
    [(1)] 6
    [ Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (2), no suits 7
    [shall be instituted]against the Government (including the Government of the State of Jammu and Kashmir)] or against a
    public officer in respect of any act purporting to be done by such public officer in his official capacity,
    until the expiration of two months next after notice in writing has been 8
    [delivered to, or left at the office
    of—](a) in the case of a suit against the Central Government, 9
    [except where it relates to a railway] a
    Secretary to that Government;
    10[(b)] in the case of a suit against the Central Government where it relates to railway, the General
    Manager of that railway;
    11[(bb) in the case of a suit against the Government of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the Chief
    Secretary to that Government or any other officer authorized by that Government in this behalf;](c) in the case of a suit against 12[any other State Government], a Secretary to that Government or
    the Collector of the district; 13***
    14* * * * *
  31. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States”.
  32. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 11, for section 78 (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
  33. Subs by the A.O. 1948, for section 79.
  34. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “the Dominion of India”.
  35. S. 80 renumbered as sub-section (1) by Act 104 of 1976, s. 27 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  36. Subs. by s. 27, ibid., for “No suit shall be instituted” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  37. Subs. by Act 26 of 1963, s. 3, for “shall be instituted against the Government” (w.e.f. 5-6-1964). The words in italics
    were subs. by the A.O. 1948, for “Instituted against the Crown”
  38. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “in the case of the Secretary of State in Council, delivered to, or left at the office of a
    Secretary to the L.G. or the Collector of the District”.
  39. Ins. by Act 6 of 1948, s. 2.
  40. Clause (aa) ins. by Act 6 of 1948, s. 2 and relattered as clause (b) and the Former clause (b) omitted by the A.O. 1948.
  41. Ins. by Act 26 of 1963, s. 3 (w.e.f. 5-6-1964).
  42. Subs. by s. 3, ibid., for “a State Government” (w.e.f. 5-6-1964).
  43. The word “and” omitted by the A.O. 1948.
  44. Clause (d) omitted ibid.
    57
    and, in the case of a public officer, delivered to him or left at his office, stating the cause of action, the
    name, description and place of residence of the plaintiff and the relief which he claims; and the plaint
    shall contain a statement that such notice has been so delivered or left.
    1
    [(2) A suit to obtain an urgent or immediate relief against the Government (including the
    Government of the State of Jammu and Kashmir) or any public officer in respect of any act purporting to
    be done by such public officer in his official capacity, may be instituted, with the leave of the Court,
    without serving any notice as required by sub-section (1); but the Court shall not grant relief in the suit,
    whether interim or otherwise, except after giving to the Government or public officer, as the case may be,
    a reasonable opportunity of showing cause in respect of the relief prayed for in the suit:
    Provided that the Court shall, if it is satisfied, after hearing the parties, that no urgent or immediate
    relief need be granted in the suit, return the plaint for presentation to it after complying with the
    requirements of sub-section (1).
    (3) No suit instituted against the Government or against a public officer in respect of any act
    purporting to be done by such public officer in his official capacity shall be dismissed merely by reason
    of any error or defect in the notice referred to in sub-section (1), if in such notice—
    (a) the name, description and the residence of the plaintiff had been so given as to enable the
    appropriate authority or the public officer to identify the person serving the notice and such notice
    had been delivered or left at the office of the appropriate authority specified in sub-section (1), and
    (b) the cause of action and the relief claimed by the plaintiff had been substantially indicated.]
  45. Exemption from arrest and personal appearance.—In a suit instituted against a public officer
    in respect of any act purporting to be done by him in his official capacity—
    (a) the defendant shall not be liable to arrest nor his property to attachment otherwise than in
    execution of a decree, and,
    (b) where the Court is satisfied that the defendant cannot absent himself from his duty without
    detriment to the public service, it shall exempt him from appearing in person.
  46. Execution of decree.—2
    [(1) Where, in a suit by or against the Government or by or against a
    public officer in respect of any act purporting to be done by him in his official capacity, a decree is passed
    against the Union of India or a State or, as the case may be, the public officer, such decree shall not be
    executed except in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (2).](2) Execution shall not be issued on any such decree unless it remains unsatisfied for the period of
    three months computed from the date of 3
    [such decree].
    4
    [(3) The provisions of sub-sections (1) and (2) shall apply in relation to an order or award as they
    apply in relation to a decree, if the order or award—
    (a) is passed or made against 5
    [the Union of India] or a State or a public officer in respect of any
    such act as aforesaid, whether by a Court or by any other authority; and
    (b) is capable of being executed under the provisions of this Code or of any other law for the time
    being in force as if it were a decree.]
  47. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 27 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  48. Subs. by s. 28, ibid., for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  49. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 28, for “such report” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  50. Ins. by Act 32 of 1949, s. 2.
  51. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “the Dominion of India”.
    58
    1
    [SUITS BY ALIENS AND BY OR AGAINST FOREIGN RULERS, AMBASSADORS AND ENVOYS]
  52. When aliens may sue.—Alien enemies residing in India with the permission of the Central
    Government, and alien friends, may sue in any Court otherwise competent to try the suit, as if they were
    citizens of India, but alien enemies residing in India without such permission, or residing in a foreign country,
    shall not sue in any such Court.
    Explanation. —Every person residing in a foreign country, the Government of which is at war with India
    and carrying on business in that country without a licence in that behalf granted by the Central Government,
    shall, for the purpose of this section, be deemed to be an alien enemy residing in a foreign country.
  53. When foreign States may sue.—A foreign State may sue in any competent Court:
    Provided that the object of the suit is to enforce a private right vested in the Ruler of such State or in
    any officer of such State in his public capacity.
  54. Persons specially appointed by Government to prosecute or defend on behalf of foreign
    Rulers.—(1) The Central Government may, at the request of the Ruler of a foreign State or at the request of
    any person competent in the opinion of the Central Government to act on behalf of such Ruler, by order,
    appoint any persons to prosecute or defend any suit on behalf of such Ruler, and any persons so appointed
    shall be deemed to be the recognized agents by whom appearances, acts and applications under this Code
    may be made or done on behalf of such Ruler.
    (2) An appointment under this section may be made for the purpose of a specified suit or of several
    specified suits, or for the purpose of all such suits as it may from time to time be necessary to prosecute or
    defend on behalf of such Ruler.
    (3) A person appointed under this section may authorise or appoint any other persons to make
    appearances and applications and do acts in any such suit or suits as if he were himself a party thereto.
  55. Suits against foreign Rulers, Ambassadors and Envoys.—(1) No. 2
    *** foreign State may be
    sued in any Court otherwise competent to try the suit except with the consent of the Central Government
    certified in writing by a Secretary to that Government:
    Provided that a person may, as a tenant of immovable property, sue without such consent as aforesaid
    3
    [a foreign State] from whom he holds or claims to hold the property.
    (2) Such consent may be given with respect to a specified suit or to several specified suits or with
    respect to all suits of any specified class or classes, and may specify, in the case of any suit or class of
    suits, the Court in which 4
    [the foreign State] may be sued, but it shall not be given, unless it appears to the
    Central Government that 4
    [the foreign State]—
    (a) has instituted a suit in the Court against the person desiring to sue 5
    [it], or
    (b) by 6
    [itself] or another, trades within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court, or
    (c) is in possession of immovable property situate within those limits and is to be sued with reference to
    such property or for money charged thereon, or
    (d) has expressly or impliedly waived the privilege accorded to 5
    [it] by this section.
    7
    [(3) Except with the consent of the Central Government, certified in writing by a Secretary to that
    Government, no decree shall be executed against the property of any foreign State.](4) The preceding provisions of this section shall apply in relation to—
    8
    [(a) any ruler of a foreign State;]
  56. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 12, for the former heading and sub-sections 83 to 87 (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
  57. The words “Ruler of a” omitted by Act 104 of 1976, s. 29 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  58. Subs. by s. 29, ibid., for “a Ruler” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  59. Subs. by s. 29, ibid., for “the Ruler (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  60. Subs. by s. 29, ibid., for “him” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  61. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 29, for “himself” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  62. Subs. by s. 29, ibid., for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  63. Ins. by s. 29, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    59
    1
    [(aa)] any Ambassador or Envoy of a foreign State;
    (b) any High Commissioner of a Commonwealth country; and
    (c) any such member of the staff 2
    [of the foreign State or the staff or retinue of the Ambassador] or
    Envoy of a foreign State or of the High Commissioner of a Commonwealth country as the Central Government
    may, by general or special order, specify in this behalf.
    3
    [as they apply in relation to a foreign State].
    4
    [(5) The following persons shall not be arrested under this Code, namely: —
    (a) any Ruler of a foreign State;
    (b) any Ambassador or Envoy of a foreign State;
    (c) any High Commissioner of a Commonwealth country;
    (d) any such member of the staff of the foreign State or the staff or retinue of the Ruler, Ambassador
    or Envoy of a foreign State or of the High Commissioner of a Commonwealth country, as the Central
    Government may, by general or special order, specify in this behalf.
    (6) Where a request is made to the Central Government for the grant of any consent referred to in
    subsection (1), the Central Government shall, before refusing to accede to the request in whole or in part, give
    to the person making the request a reasonable opportunity of being heard.]
  64. Style of foreign Rulers as parties to suits.—The Ruler of a foreign State may sue, and shall be sued,
    in the name of his State:
    Provided that in giving the consent referred to in section 86, the Central Government may direct that the
    Ruler may be sued in the name of an agent or in any other name.
    87A. Definitions of “Foreign State” and “Rulers”.— (1) In this Part,—
    (a) “foreign State” means any State outside India which has been recognised by the Central
    Government; and
    (b) “Ruler”, in relation to a foreign State, means the person who is for the time being recognized by
    the Central Government to be the head of that State.
    (2) Every Court shall take judicial notice of the fact—
    (a) that a State has or has not been recognized by the Central Government;
    (b) that a person has or has not been recognized by the Central Government to be the head of a State.
    SUITS AGAINST RULERS OF FORMER INDIAN STATES
    87B. Applications of sections 85 and 86 to Rulers of former Indian States.—5
    [(1) In the case of any
    suit by or against the Ruler of any former Indian State which is based wholly or in part upon a cause of action
    which arose before the commencement of the Constitution or any proceeding arising out of such suit, the
    provisions of section 85 and sub-sections (1) and (3) of section 86 shall apply in relation to such Ruler as they
    apply in relation to the Ruler of a foreign State.](2) In this section—
    (a) “former Indian State” means any such Indian State as the Central Government may, by
    notification in the Official Gazette, specify for the purposes of this ;
    6

  1. Clause (a) re-lettered as clause (aa) by Act 104 of 1976, s. 29 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  2. Subs. by s. 29, ibid, for “or retinue of the Ruler, Ambassador” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  3. Subs. by s. 29, ibid, for “as they apply in relation to the Ruler of a foreign State” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  4. Ins. by s. 29, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  5. Subs. by Act 54 of 1972, s. 3, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 9-9-1972).
  6. The word “and” omitted by s. 3, ibid. (w.e.f. 9-9-1972).
    60
    1
    [(b) “Commencement of the Constitution” means the 26th day of January, 1950; and
    (c) “Ruler”, in relation to a former Indian State, has the same meaning as in article 363 of the
    Constitution. ]INTERPLEADER
  7. Where interpleader suit may be instituted.—Where two or more persons claim adversely to
    one another the same debts, sum of money or other property, movable or immovable, from another
    person, who claims no interest therein other than for charges or costs and who is ready to pay or deliver it
    to the rightful claimant, such other person may institute a suit of interpleader against all the claimants for
    the purpose of obtaining a decision as to the person to whom the payment or delivery shall be made and
    of obtaining indemnity for himself:
    Provided that where any suit is pending in which the rights of all parties can properly be decided, no
    such suit of interpleader shall be instituted.
    PART V
    SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS
    ARBITRATION
    2
    [89. Settlement of disputes outside the Court.—(1) Where it appears to the Court that there exist
    elements of a settlement which may be acceptable to the parties, the Court shall formulate the terms of
    settlement and give them to the parties for their observations and after receiving the observations of the
    parties, the Court may reformulate the terms of a possible settlement and refer the same for:—
    (a) arbitration;
    (b) conciliation;
    (c) judicial settlement including settlement through Lok Adalat; or
    (d) mediation.
    (2) Were a dispute has been referred—
    (a) for arbitration or conciliation, the provisions of the Arbitration and Conciliation
    Act, 1996 (26 of 1996) shall apply as if the proceedings for arbitration or conciliation were referred
    for settlement under the provisions of that Act;
    (b) to Lok Adalat, the Court shall refer the same to the Lok Adalat in accordance with the provisions
    of sub-section (1) of section 20 of the Legal Services Authority Act, 1987 (39 of 1987) and all other
    provisions of that Act shall .apply in respect of the dispute so referred to the Lok Adalat;
    (c) for judicial settlement, the Court shall refer the same to a suitable institution or person and
    such institution or person shall be deemed to be a Lok Adalat and all the provisions of the Legal
    Services Authority Act, 1987 (39 of 1987) shall apply as if the dispute were referred to a Lok Adalat
    under the provisions of that Act;
    (d) for mediation, the Court shall effect a compromise between the parties and shall follow such
    procedure as may be prescribed.]SPECIAL CASE
  8. Power to state case for opinion of Court.—Where any person agree in writing to state a case for
    the opinion of the Court, then the Court shall try and determine the same in the manner prescribed.
  9. Subs. by Act 54 of 1972, s. 3, for clause (b) (w.e.f. 9-9-1972).
  10. Ins. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 7 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002), Earlier rep by Act 10 of 1940, s. 49 or the Third Schedule.
    61
    1
    [PUBLIC NUISANCES AND OTHER WRONGFUL ACTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC]
  11. Public nuisances and other wrongful acts affecting the public.—2
    [(1) In the case of a public
    nuisance or other wrongful act affecting, or likely to affect, the public, a suit for a declaration and injunction
    or for such other relief as may be appropriate in the circumstances of the case, may be instituted,—
    (a) by the Advocate-General, or
    (b) with the leave of the Court, by two or more persons, even though no special damage has been
    caused to such persons by reason of such public nuisance or other wrongful act.](2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to limit or otherwise affect any right of suit which may
    exist independently of its provisions.
    3
  12. Public charities.—(1) In the case of any alleged breach of any express or constructive trust
    created for public purposes of a charitable or religious nature, or where the direction of the Court is
    deemed necessary for the administration of any such trust, the Advocate-General, or two or more persons
    having an interest in the trust and having obtained the 4
    [leave of the Court,] may institute a suit, whether
    contentious or not, in the principal Civil Court of original jurisdiction or in any other Court empowered in
    that behalf by the State Government within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the whole or any part of
    the subject-matter of the trust is situate to obtain a decree :—
    (a) removing any trustee;
    (b) appointing a new trustee;
    (c) vesting any property in a trustee;
    5
    [(cc) directing a trustee who has been removed or a person who has ceased to be a trustee, to
    deliver possession of any trust property in his possession to the person entitled to the possession of
    such property];
    (d) directing accounts and inquiries;
    (e) declaring what proportion of the trust property or of the interest therein shall be allocated to
    any particular object of the trust;
    (f) authorizing the whole or any part of the trust property to be let, sold, mortgaged or exchanged;
    (g) settling a scheme; or
    (h) granting such further or other relief as the nature of the case may require.
    (2) Save as provided by the Religious Endowments Act, 1863 (XX of 1863), 6
    [or by any
    corresponding law in force in 7
    [the territories which, immediately before the 1st November, 1956, were
    comprised in Part B States]], no suit claiming any of the reliefs specified in sub-section (1) shall be
    instituted in respect of any such trust as is therein referred to except in conformity with the provisions of
    that sub-section.
    8
    [(3) The Court may alter the original purposes of an express or constructive trust created for public
    purposes of a charitable or religious nature and allow the property or income of such trust or any portion
    thereof to be applied cy pres in one or more of the following circumstances, namely:—
    (a) where the original purposes of the trust, in whole or in part:—
    (i) have been, as far as may be, fulfilled; or
    (ii) cannot be carried out at all, or cannot be carried out according to the directions given in
    the instrument creating the trust or, where there is no such instrument, according to the spirit of
    the trust; or
  13. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 30, for the former headings (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  14. Subs. by s. 30, ibid., for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  15. S. 92 shall not apply to any religious trust in Bihar, see Bihar Act 1 of 1951.
  16. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 31, for “consent in writing of the Advocate-General” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  17. Ins. by Act 66 of 1956, s. 9 (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  18. Ins. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 13 (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
  19. Subs. by the A.O. (No. 2), 1956, for “a Part B State”.
  20. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 31 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    62
    (b) where the original purposes of the trust provide a use for a part only of the property available by
    virtue of the trust; or
    (c) where the property available by virtue of the trust and other property applicable for similar
    purposes can be more effectively used in conjunction with, and to that end can suitably be made
    applicable to any other purpose, regard being had to the spirit of the trust and its applicability to common
    purposes; or
    (d) where the original purposes, in whole or in part, were laid down by reference to an area which then
    was, but has since ceased to be, a unit for such purposes; or
    (e) where the original purposes, in whole or in part, have, since they were laid down:—
    (i) been adequately provided for by other means, or
    (ii) ceased, as being useless or harmful to the community, or
    (iii) ceased to be, in law, charitable, or
    (iv) ceased in any other way to provide a suitable and effective method of using the property
    available by virtue of the trust, regard being had to the spirit of the trust.]
  21. Exercise of powers of Advocate-General outside presidency-towns.—The powers conferred by
    sections 91 and 92 on the Advocate-General may, outside the presidency-towns, be, with the previous
    sanction of the State Government, exercised also by the Collector or by such officer as the State
    Government may appoint in this behalf.
    PART VI
    SUPPLEMENTAL PROCEEDINGS
  22. Supplemental proceedings.—In order to prevent the ends of justice from being defeated the
    Court may, if it is so prescribed, —
    (a) issue a warrant to arrest the defendant and bring him before the Court to show cause why he should
    not give security for his appearance, and if he fails to comply with any order for security commit him to
    the civil prison;
    (b) direct the defendant to furnish security to produce any property belonging to him and to place
    the same at the disposal of the Court or order the attachment of any property;
    (c) grant a temporary injunction and in case of disobedience commit the person guilty thereof to
    the civil prison and order that his property be attached and sold;
    (d) appoint a receiver of any property and enforce the performance of his duties by attaching and
    selling his property;
    (e) make such other interlocutory orders as may appear to the Court to be just and convenient.
  23. Compensation for obtaining arrest, attachment or injunction on insufficient
    grounds.—(1) Where, in any suit in which an arrest or attachment has been effected or a temporary
    injunction granted under the last preceding section,—
    (a) it appears to the Court that such arrest, attachment or injunction was applied for on insufficient
    grounds, or
    (b) the suit of the plaintiff fails and it appears to the Court that there was no reasonable or probable
    grounds for instituting the same,
    the defendant may apply to the Court, and the Court may, upon such application, award against the
    plaintiff by its order such amount 1
    [not exceeding fifty thousand rupees], as it deems a reasonable
    compensation to the defendant for the 2
    [expense or injury (including injury to reputation) caused to him]:
    Provided that a Court shall not award, under this section an amount exceeding the limits of its pecuniar
    jurisdiction.
    (2) An order determining any such application shall bar any suit for compensation in respect of such
    arrest, attachment or injunction.
  24. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 8, for “not exceeding one thousand rupees” (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  25. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 32, for “expense or injury caused to him” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    63
    PART VII
    APPEALS
    APPEALS FROM ORIGINAL DECREES
  26. Appeal from original decree.—(1) Save where otherwise expressly provided in the body of this
    Code or by any other law for the time being in force, an appeal shall lie from every decree passed by any
    Court exercising original jurisdiction the Court authorized to hear appeals from the decisions of such Court.
    (2) An appeal may lie from an original decree passed ex parte.
    (3) No appeal shall lie from a decree passed by the Court with the consent of parties.
    1
    [(4) No appeal shall lie, except on a question of law, from a decree in any suit of the nature
    cognisable by Courts of Small Causes, when the amount or value of the subject-matter of the original suit
    does not exceed 2
    [ten thousand rupees.]]
  27. Appeal from final decree where no appeal from preliminary decree.—Where any party
    aggrieved by a preliminary decree passed after the commencement of this Code does not appeal from such
    decree, he shall be precluded from disputing its correctness in any appeal which may be preferred from
    the final decree.
  28. Decision where appeal heard by two or more Judges.—(1) Where an appeal is heard by a Bench
    of two or more Judges, the appeal shall be decided in accordance with the opinion of such Judges or of the
    majority (if any) of such Judges.
    (2) Where there is no such majority which concurs in a judgment varying or reversing the decree
    appealed from, such decree shall be confirmed :
    Provided that where the Bench hearing the appeal is 3
    [composed of two or other even number of
    Judges belonging to a Court consisting of more Judges than those constituting the Bench] and the Judges
    composing the Bench differ in opinion on a point of law, they may state the point of law upon which they
    differ and the appeal shall then be heard upon that point only by one or more of the other Judges, and
    such point shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority (if any) of the Judges who have heard
    the appeal, including those who first heard it.
    4
    [(3) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to alter or otherwise affect any provision of the letters to
    patent of any High Court.]
  29. No decree to be reversed or modified for error or irregularity not affecting merits or
    jurisdiction.—No decree shall be reversed or substantially varied, nor shall any case be remanded, in appeal
    on account of any misjoinder 5
    [or non-joinder] of parties or causes of action or any error, defect or irregularity
    in any proceedings in the suit, not affecting the merits of the case or the jurisdiction of the Court:
    6
    [Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to non-joinder of a necessary party.]7
    [99A. No order under section 47 to be reversed or modified unless decision of the case is
    prejudicially affected.—Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of section 99, no order under
    section 47 shall be reversed or substantially varied, on account of any error, defect or irregularity in any
    proceeding relating to such order, unless such error, defect or irregularity has prejudicially affected the decision
    of the case.]APPEALS FROM APPELLATE DECREES
    8
    [100. Second appeal.—(1) Save as otherwise expressly provided in the body of this Code or by any
  30. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 33 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  31. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 9, for “three thousand rupees” (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  32. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 34, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  33. Ins. by Act 18 of 1928, s. 2 and the First Schedule.
  34. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 35 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  35. Proviso Added by s. 35, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  36. Ins. by s. 36, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  37. Subs. by s. 37, ibid., for section 100 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    64
    other law for the time being in force, an appeal shall lie to the High Court from every decree passed in
    appeal by any Court subordinate to the High Court, if the High Court is satisfied that the case involves a
    substantial question of law.
    (2) An appeal may lie under this section from an appellate decree passed ex parte.
    (3) In an appeal under this section, the memorandum of appeal shall precisely state the substantial
    question of law involved in the appeal.
    (4) Where the High Court is satisfied that a substantial question of law is involved in any case, it shall
    formulate that question.
    (5) The appeal shall be heard on the question so formulated and the respondent shall, at the hearing of
    the appeal, be allowed to argue that the case does not involve such question:
    Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall be deemed to take away or abridge the power of the
    Court to hear, for reasons to be recorded, the appeal on any other substantial question of law, not
    formulated by it, if it is satisfied that the case involves such question.]STATE AMENDMENT
    Kerala.
    In sub-section (1) of section 100 of the Principal Act, after clause (c), the following clause shall be
    added, namely:
    (d) the finding of the lower appellate court on any question of fact material to the right decision of the
    case on the merits being in conflict with the finding of the Court of first instance on such question.
    [Vide Kerala Act 13 of 1957 sec. 4.]1
    [100A. No further appeal in certain cases.—Notwithstanding anything contained in any Letters Patent
    for any High Court or in any instrument having the force of law or in any other law for the time being in force,
    where any appeal from an original or appellate decree or order is heard and decided by a Single Judge of a
    High Court, no further appeal shall lie from the judgment and decree of such Single Judge.]
  38. Second appeal on no other grounds.—No second appeal shall lie except on the ground
    mentioned in section 100.
    2
    [102. No second appeal in certain cases.—No second appeal shall lie from any decree, when the
    subject matter of the original suit is for recovery of money not exceeding twenty-five thousand rupees.]3
    [103. Power of High Court to determine issue of fact.—In any second appeal, the High Court
    may, if the evidence on the record is sufficient, determine any issue necessary for the disposal of the
    appeal,—
    (a) which has not been determined by the lower Appellate Court or both by the Court of first
    instance and the lower Appellate Court, or
    (b) which has been wrongly determined by such Court or Courts by reason of a decision on such
    question of law as is referred to in section 100.]APPEALS FROM ORDERS
  39. Orders from which appeal lies.—(1) An appeal shall lie from the following orders, and save as
    otherwise expressly provided in the body of this Code or by any law for the time being in force, from no
    other orders:—
    4

5
[(ff) an order under section 35A;]

  1. Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 4, for section 100 A (w.e.f 1-7-2002).
  2. Subs. by s. 5, ibid., for section 102 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  3. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 40, for section 103 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  4. Clauses (a) to (f) omitted by Act 10 of 1940, s. 49 and the Third Schedule.
  5. Ins. by Act 9 of 1922, s. 3, see also foot-note to section 35A, Supra.
    65
    1
    [(ffa) an order under section 91 or section 92 refusing leave to institute a suit of the nature
    referred to in section 91 or section 92, as the case may be;](g) an order under section 95;
    (h) an order under any of the provisions of this Code imposing a fine or directing the arrest or
    detention in the civil prison of any person except where such arrest or detention is in execution of a
    decree;
    (i) any order made under rules from which an appeal is expressly allowed by rules:
    5
    [Provided that no appeal shall lie against any order specified in clause (ff) save on the ground
    that no order, or an order for the payment of a less amount, ought to have been made.](2) No appeal shall lie from any order passed in appeal under this section.
  6. Other orders.—(1) Save as otherwise expressly provided, no appeal shall lie from any order
    made by a Court in the exercise of its original or appellate jurisdiction; but where a decree is appealed
    from, any error, defect or irregularity in any order, affecting the decision of the case, may be set forth as a
    ground of objection in the memorandum of appeal.
    (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where any party aggrieved by an order of
    remand 2
    *** from which an appeals lies does not appeal therefrom, he shall thereafter be precluded from
    disputing its correctness.
  7. What Courts to hear appeals.—Where an appeal from any order is allowed it shall lie to the Court
    to which an appeal would lie from the decree in the suit in which such order was made, or where such order is
    made by a Court (not being a High Court) in the exercise of appellate jurisdiction, then to the High Court.
    GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO APPEALS
  8. Powers of Appellate Court.—(1) Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be
    prescribed, an Appellate Court shall have power—
    (a) to determine a case finally;
    (b) to remand a case;
    (c) to frame issues and refer them for trial;
    (d) to take additional evidence or to require such evidence to be taken.
    (2) Subject as aforesaid, the Appellate Court shall have the same powers and shall perform as nearly
    as may be the same duties as are conferred and imposed by this Code on Courts of original jurisdiction in
    respect of suits instituted therein.
  9. Procedure in appeals from appellate decrees and orders.—The provisions of this Part
    relating to appeals from original decrees shall, so far as may be, apply to appeals—
    (a) from appellate decrees, and
    (b) from orders made under this Code or under any special or local law in which a different
    procedure is not provided.
    APPEALS TO THE SUPREME COURT
    3
    [109. When appeals lie to the Supreme Court.—Subject to the provisions in Chapter IV of Part V of
    the Constitution and such rules as may, from time to time, be made by the Supreme Court regarding appeals
  10. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 41 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  11. Words “made after the commencement of this Code” omitted by, s. 42, ibid., (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  12. Subs. by Act 49 of 1973, s. 2, for section 109 (w.e.f. 29-11-1973).
    66
    from the Courts of India, and to the provisions hereinafter contained, an appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court
    from any judgment, decree or final order in a civil proceeding of a High Court, if the High Court certifies—
    (i) that the case involves a substantial question of law of general importance; and
    (ii) that in the opinion of the High Court the said question needs to be decided by the Supreme
    Court.]
  13. [Value of subject matters.] omitted by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1973 (49 of
    1973), s. 3 (w.e.f. 29-11-1973).
  14. [Bar of certain appeals.] omitted by the A.O. 1950.
    1
    [111A. [Appeals to Federal Court] Rep. by the Federal Court Act, 1941 (21 of 1941), s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-9-
    1942).
  15. Savings.—2
    [(1) Nothing contained in this Code shall be deemed—
    (a) to affect the powers of the Supreme Court under article 136 or any other provision of the
    Constitution; or
    (b) to interfere with any rules made by the Supreme Court, and for the time being in force for the
    presentation of appeals to that Court, or their conduct before that Court.](2) Nothing herein contained applies to any matter of criminal or admiralty or vice-admiralty
    jurisdiction or to appeals from orders and decrees of Prize Courts.
    PART VIII
    REFERENCE, REVIEW AND REVISION
  16. Reference to High Court.—Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be prescribed,
    any Court may state a case and refer the same for the opinion of the High Court, and the High Court may
    make such order thereon as it thinks fit:
    3
    [Provided that where the Court is satisfied that a case pending before it involves a question as to the
    validity of any Act, Ordinance or Regulation or of any provision contained in an Act, Ordinance or
    Regulation, the determination of which is necessary for the disposal of the case, and is of opinion that
    such Act, Ordinance, Regulation or provision is invalid or inoperative, but has not been so declared by the
    High Court to which that Court is subordinate or by the Supreme Court, the Court shall state a case
    setting out its opinion and the reasons therefor, and refer the same for the opinion of the High Court.
    Explanation.—In this section, “Regulation” means any Regulation of the Bengal, Bombay or Madras
    Code or Regulation as defined in the General Clauses Act,1897, (10 of 1897) or in the General Clauses
    Act of a State.]
  17. Review.—Subject as aforesaid, any person considering himself aggrieved—
    (a) by a decree or order from which an appeal is allowed by this Code, but from which no appeal
    has been preferred.
    (b) by a decree or order from which no appeal is allowed by this Code, or
    (c) by a decision on a reference from a Court of Small Causes,
    may apply for a review of judgment to the Court which passed the decree or made the order, and the
    Court may make such order thereon as it thinks fit.
  18. Revision.—4
    [(1)] The High Court may call for the record of any case which has been decided by
    any Court subordinate to such High Court and in which no appeal lies thereto, and if such subordinate
    Court appears—
  19. Ins. by the A.O. 1937.
  20. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for the former sub-section (1).
  21. Added by Act 24 of 1951, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
  22. Section 115 re-numbered as sub-section (1) by Act 104 of 1976, s. 43 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    67
    (a) to have exercised a jurisdiction not vested in it by law, or
    (b) to have failed to exercise a jurisdiction so vested, or
    (c) to have acted in the exercise of its jurisdiction illegally or with material irregularity,
    the High Court may make such order in the case as it thinks fit:
    1
    [Provided that the High Court shall not, under this section, vary or reverse any order made, or any order
    deciding an issue, in the course of a suit or other proceeding, except where the order, if it had been made in
    favour of the party applying for revision would have finally disposed of the suit or other proceedings.]2
    [(2) The High Court shall not, under this section, vary or reverse any decree or order against which
    an appeal lies either to the High Court or to any Court subordinate thereto.
    3
    [(3) A revision shall not operate as a stay of suit or other proceeding before the Court except where
    such suit or other proceeding is stayed by the High Court.]Explanation.—In this section, the expression “any case which has been decided” includes any order
    made, or any order deciding an issue in the course of a suit or other proceeding.]STATE AMENDMENTS
    Orrisa
    Amendment of section 115.—In the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) for section 115, the
    following section shall be substituted, namely:—
  23. Revision.—The High Court, in cases arising out of original suits or other proceedings of the
    value exceeding one lakh rupees, and the District Court, in any other case including a case arising out of
    an original suit or other proceedings instituted before the commencement of the Code of Civil Procedure
    ( Orissa Amendment) Act, 1991, may call for the record of any case which has been decided by any
    Court subordinate to the High Court or the District Court, as the case may be, and in which no appeal
    lies thereto, and if such subordinate Court appears—
    (a) to have failed to exercised a jurisdiction not vested in it by law; or
    (b) to have failed to exercise a jurisdiction so vested; or
    (c) to have acted in the exercise of its jurisdiction illegally or with material irregularity;
    the High Court or the District Court, as the case may be, may make such order in the case as it thinks fit:
    Provided that in respect of cases arising out of original suits, or other proceedings of any valuation
    decided by the District Court, the High Court alone shall be competent to make an order under this
    section:
    Provided further that the High Court or the District Court shall not, under this section, vary or reverse
    any order, including an order deciding an issue, made in the course of a suit or other proceedings, except
    where—
    (i) the order, if so varied or reversed, would finally dispose of the suit or other proceedings; or
    (ii) the order, if allowed to stand, would occasion a failure of justice or cause irreparable injury
    to the party against whom it was made.
  24. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s.12, for “proviso” (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  25. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 43 (w.e.f 1-2-1977).
  26. Ins. by Act 46 of 1999, s.12 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    68
    Explanation—In this section, the expression “ any case which has been decided” includes any
    order deciding an issue in the course of a suit or other proceeding.”.
  27. Saving.—The amendment made by this Act shall not affect the validity, invalidity, effect or
    consequence of anything already done or suffered, or any jurisdiction already exercised, and any
    proceeding instituted or commenced in the High Court under section 115 of the Code of Civil Procedure,
    1908 (5 of 1908) prior to the commencement of this Act shall, notwithstanding such amendment, continue
    to be heard and decided by such Court.
    [Vide the Orissa Act 26 of 1991, s. 2]Amendment of section 115.—In the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), for section 115, the
    following section shall be substituted, namely:—
  28. Revision.—(1) The High Court, in cases arising out of original suits or other proceedings of the
    value exceeding five lakhs rupees and the District Court, in any other cases, including a case arising out
    of an original suit or other proceedings instituted before the commencement of the Code of Civil
    Procedure ( Orissa Amendment) Act, 2010, may call for the record of any case which has been decided
    by any Court subordinate to the High Court or the District Court, as the case may be, and in which no
    appeal lies thereto, and if such subordinate Court appears—
    (a) to have exercised a jurisdiction not vested in it by law; or
    (b) to have failed to exercise a jurisdiction so vested; or
    (c) to have acted in the exercise of its jurisdiction illegally or with material irregularity,
    the High Court or the District Court, as the case may be, may make such order in the case as it thinks fit:
    Provided that in respect of cases arising out of original suits or other proceedings of any valuation
    decided by the District Court, the High Court alone shall be competent to make an order under this
    section.
    (2) The High Court or the District Court, as the case may be, shall not under this section, vary or
    reverse any order, including an order deciding an issue, made in the course of a suit or other proceedings,
    except where the order, if it had been made in favor of the party applying for revision, would have finally
    disposed of the suit or other proceedings.
    (3) A revision shall not operate as a stay of suit or other proceeding before the Court except where
    such suit or other proceeding is stayed by the High Court or District Court, as the case may be.
    Explanation—In this section, the expression, “any case which has been decided” includes any order
    deciding an issue in the course of a suit or other proceeding.”.
    [Vide the Orissa Act 14 of 2010, s. 2]PART IX
    SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO THE 1
    [HIGH COURTS 2
    [NOT BEING THE COURT OF A
    JUDICIAL COMMISSIONER ]
  29. Part to apply only to certain High Courts.—This Part applies only to High Courts 7
    [not being
    the court of a Judicial Commissioner].
  30. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 14, for “CHARTERED HIGH COURTS”.
  31. Subs. by the Adaptation of Laws (No. 2) Order, 1956 for “For Part A States and Part B States”.
    69
  32. Application of Code to High Courts.—Save as provided in this Part or in Part X or in rules, the
    provisions of this Court shall apply to such High Courts.
  33. Execution of decree before ascertainment of costs.—Where any such High Court considers it
    necessary that a decree passed in the exercise of its original civil jurisdiction should be executed before
    the amount of the costs incurred in the suit can be ascertained by taxation, the Court may order that the
    decree shall be executed forthwith, except as to so much thereof as relates to the costs;
    and, as to so much thereof as relates to the costs, that the decree may be executed as soon as the
    amount of the costs shall be ascertained by taxation.
    119.Unauthorized persons not to address Court.—Nothing in this Code shall be deemed to authorize
    any person on behalf of another to address the Court in the exercise of its original civil jurisdiction, or to
    examine witnesses, except where the Court shall have in the exercise of the power conferred by its charter
    authorized him so to do, or to interfere with the power of the High Court to make rules concerning
    advocates, vakils and attorneys.
  34. Provisions not applicable to High Court in original civil jurisdiction.—(1) The following
    provisions shall not apply to the High Court in the exercise of its original civil jurisdiction, namely,
    sections 16, 17 and 20.
    1

PART X
RULES

  1. Effect of rules in First Schedule.—The rules in a First Schedule shall have effect as if enacted
    in the body of this Code until annulled or altered in accordance with the provisions of this Part.
  2. Power of certain High Courts to make rules.—2
    [High Courts 3
    [not being the Court of a
    Judicial Commissioner]] 4
    *** may, from time to time after previous publication, make rules regulating
    their own procedure and the procedure of the Civil Courts subjects to their superintendence, and may by
    such rules annul, alter or add to all or any of the rules in the First Schedule.
  3. Constitution of Rules Committees in certain States.—(1) A Committee, to be called the Rule
    Committee, shall be constituted at 5
    [the town which is the usual place of sitting of each of the High Courts
    6
    *** referred to in section 122].
    (2) Each such Committee shall consist of the following persons, namely:—
    (a) three Judges of the High Court established at the town at which such Committee is constituted,
    one of whom at least has served as a District Judge or 7
    *** a Divisional Judge for three years,
    8
    [(b) two legal practitioners enrolled in that Court,]9
    [(c) a Judge of a Civil Court subordinate to the High Court, 10***
  4. Sub-section (2) rep. by Act 3 of 1909, s. 127 and the Third Sch.
  5. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “Courts which are High Courts for the purposes of the Government of India Act, 1935”.
  6. Subs. by the Adaptation of Laws (No. 2) Order, 1956, for “for Part A States and Part B States”. The words in italics were ins. by Act
    2 of 1951, s. 15 (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
  7. The words “and the Chief Court of Lower Burma” rep. by Act 11 of 1923, s. 3 and the Second Sch edule.
  8. Subs. by Act 13 of 1916, s. 2 and the Schedule, for “each of the towns of Calcutta, Madr as, Bombay, Allahabad,
    Lahore and Rangoon”.
  9. The words “and of the Chief Court” omitted by the Act 11 of 1923, s. 3 and the Second Schedule. These words were again ins. by Act
    32 of 1925, and subsequently omitted by the A.O. 1948.
  10. The brackets and words “(in Burma)” rep. by Act 11 of 1923, s. 3 and the Second Schedule.
  11. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 16, for clauses (b) and (c).
  12. Clauses (d) and (e) re-lettered as clauses (c) and (d) respectively by s. 16, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-4-1961).
  13. The word “and” omitted by Act 38 of 1978, s. 3 and the Second Schedule (w.e.f. 26-11-1978).
    70
    1

(3) The members of each Committee shall be appointed by the 2
[High Court], which shall also
nominate one of their number to be President:
3


(4) Each member of any such Committee shall hold office for such period as may be prescribed by
the 2
[High Court] in this behalf; and whenever any member retires, resigns, dies or ceases reside in the
State in which the Committee was constituted, or becomes incapable of acting as a member of the
Committee, the said 2
[High Court] may appoint another person to be a member in his stead.
(5) There shall be a secretary to each such Committee, who shall be appointed by the 2
[High Court]and shall receive such remuneration as may be provided in this behalf 4
[by the State Government].
STATE AMENDMENTS
Assam.—
For clause (a) of sub-section (2) of section 123 the following shall be substituted—
“(a) three Judges of the High Court established at the town at which such Committee is constituted,
provided that the Chief Justice may appoint only two Judges of the High Court on the Committee if the
number of Judges of the High Court does not exceed three.”
[Vide Assam Act 8 of 1953, sec. 2.]

  1. Committee to report to High Court.—Every Rule Committee shall make a report to the High
    Court established at the town at which it is constituted on any proposal to annul, alter or add to the rules
    in the First Schedule or to make new rules, and before making any rules under section 122 the High Court
    shall take such report into consideration.
  2. Power of other High Courts to make rules.—High Courts, other than the Courts specified in
    section 122, may exercise the powers conferred by that section in such manner and subject to such
    conditions 5
    [as 6
    [the State Government] may determine:]Provided that any such High Court may, after previous publication, make a rule extending within the
    local limits of its jurisdiction any rules which have been made by any other High Court.
    7
    [126. Rules to be subject to approval.—Rules made under the foregoing provisions shall be subject to
    the previous approval of the Government of the State in which the Court whose procedure the rules regulate
    is situate or, if that Court is not situate in any State, to the previous approval of 8
    [Central Government.]]
  3. Publication of rules.—Rules so made and 9
    [approved] shall be published in the 10[Official Gazette], and
    shall from the date of publication or from such other date as may be specified have the same force and effect, within
    the local limits of the jurisdiction of the High Court which made them, as if they had been contained in the First
    Schedule.
  4. Matters for which rules may provide.—(1) Such rules shall be not inconsistent with the provisions in the
    body of this code, but, subject thereto, may provide for any matters relating to the procedure of Civil Courts.
  5. Clause (d) omitted by s. 3, ibid. and the Second Schedule.
  6. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 44, for “Chief Justice or Chief Judge” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  7. Proviso omitted by s. 44, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  8. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “by the G.G. in C. or by the L.G., as the case may be”.
  9. Subs. by Act 38 of 1920, s. 2 and the First Schedule, Pt. I, for “as the G.G. in C. may determine”.
  10. Subs. by the A.O.1937, for “in the case of the Court of the Judicial Commissioner of Coorg, the G.G. in C., and, in other cases
    the L.G.”.
  11. Subs. by the A.O.1937, for section 126.
  12. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “Governor General”.
  13. Subs. by Act 24 of 1917, s. 2 and the First Schedule, for “sanctioned”.
  14. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “Gazette of India or in the local Official Gazette, as the case may be”. Strictly the substitution
    would read “Official Gazette or in the Official Gazette, as the case may be, but the latter words have been omitted as being
    redundant”.
    71
    (2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the powers conferred by sub-section (1),
    such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:—
    (a) the service of summonses, notices and other processes by post or in any other manner either
    generally or in any specified areas, and the proof of such service;
    (b) the maintenance and custody, while under attachment, of live-stock and other movable
    property, the fees payable for such maintenance and custody, the sale of such live-stock and property,
    and the proceeds of such sale;
    (c) procedure in suits by way of counterclaim, and the valuation of such suits for the purposes of
    jurisdiction;
    (d) procedure in garnishee and charging orders either in addition to, or in substitution for, the
    attachment and sale of debts;
    (e) procedure where the defendant claims to be entitled to contribution or indemnity over against
    any person whether a party to the suit or not;
    (f) summary procedure—
    (i) in suits in which the plaintiff seeks only to recover a debt or liquidated demand in money payable
    by the defendant, with or without interest, arising—
    on a contract express or implied; or on an enactment where the sum sought to be recovered is a
    fixed sum of money or in the nature of a debt other than a penalty; or
    on a guarantee, where the claim against the principal is in respect of a debt or a liquidated demand
    only; or on a trust; or
    (ii) in suits for the recovery of immovable property, with or without a claim for rent or mesne profits,
    by a landlord against a tenant whose term has expired or has been duly determined by notice to quit, or has
    become liable to forefeiture for non-payment of rent, or against persons claiming under such tenant;
    (g) procedure by way of originating summons;
    (h) consolidation of suits, appeals and other proceedings;
    (i) delegation to any Registrar, Prothonotary or Master or other official of the Court of any
    judicial, quasi-judicial and non judicial duties; and
    (j) all forms, registers, books, entries and accounts which may be necessary or desirable for the
    transaction of the business of Civil Courts.
  15. Power of High Courts to make rules as to their original Civil procedure.—Notwithstanding
    anything in this Code, any High Court 1
    [not being the Court of a Judicial Commissioner] may make such
    rules not inconsistent with the Letters Patent 2
    [or order] 3
    [or other law] establishing it to regulate its own
    procedure in the exercise of its original civil jurisdiction as it shall think fit, and nothing herein contained
    shall affect the validity of any such rules in force at the commencement of this Code.
    4
    [130. Powers of other High Courts to make rules as to matters other than procedure.—A High
    Court 5
    [not being a High Court to which section 129 applies] may, with the previous approval of the State
    Government, make with respect to any matter other than procedure any rule which a High Court 6
    [for a
    7
    *** State] might under 8
    [article 227 of the Constitution] make with respect to any such matter for any
    part of the territories under its jurisdiction which is not included within the limits of a presidency town.]
  16. Subs. by the Adaptation of Laws (No. 2) Order, 1956, for “for a Part A State or a Part B State”.
  17. Ins. by the A.O. 1950.
  18. Ins. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 17 (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
  19. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for section 130.
  20. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “not constituted by His Majesty by Letters Patent”.
  21. Subs., ibid., for “so constituted”.
  22. The word and letter “Part A” omitted by the Adaptation of Laws (No. 2) Order, 1956.
  23. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “section 224 of the Government of India Act, 1935”.
    72
  24. Publication of rules.—Rules made in accordance with section 129 or section 130 shall be
    published in the 1
    [Official Gazette] and shall from the date of publication or from such other date as may
    be specified have the force of law.
    PART XI
    MISCELLANEOUS
  25. Exemption of certain women from personal appearance.—(1) Women who, according to the
    customs and manners of the country, ought not to be compelled to appear in public shall be exempt from
    personal appearance in Court.
    (2) Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to exempt such women from arrest in execution of civil
    process in any case in which the arrest of women is not prohibited by this Code.
  26. Exemption of other persons.—2
    [(1) The following persons shall be entitled to exemption from
    personal appearance in Court, namely:—
    (i) the President of India;
    (ii) the Vice-President of India;
    (iii) the Speaker of the House of the People;
    (iv) the Ministers of the Union;
    (v) the Judges of the Supreme Court;
    (vi) the Governors of States and the administrators of Union territories;
    (vii) the Speakers of the State Legislative Assemblies;
    (viii) the Chairman of the State Legislative Councils;
    (ix) the Ministers of States;
    (x) the Judges of the High Courts; and
    (xi) the persons to whom section 87B applies.]3

(3) Where any person 4
*** claims the privilege of such exemption, and it is consequently necessary to
examine him by commission, he shall pay the costs of that commission, unless the party requiring his
evidence pays such costs.

  1. Arrest other than in execution of decree.—The provisions of sections 55, 57 and 59 shall
    apply, so far as may be, to all persons arrested under this Code.
  2. Exemption from arrest under civil process.—(1) No Judge, Magistrate or other judicial officer
    shall be liable to arrest under civil process while going to, presiding in, or returning from, his Court.
    (2) Where any matter is pending before a tribunal having jurisdiction therein, or believing in good
    faith that it has such jurisdiction, the parties thereto, their pleaders, mukhtars, revenue-agents and
    recognized agents, and their witnesses acting in obedience to a summons, shall be exempt from arrest
    under civil process other than process issued by such tribunal for contempt of Court while going to or
    attending such tribunal for the purpose of such matter, and while returning from such tribunal.
  3. Subs. by the A.O.1937, for “Gazette of India or in the Local Official Gazette, as the case may be”. Strictly the substitution
    would read “Official Gazette or in the Official Gazette, as the case may be,” but the latter words have been omitted as being
    redundant.
  4. Subs. by Act 66 of 1956, s. 12, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  5. Sub-section (2) omitted by Act 66 of 1956, s. 12 (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  6. The words “so exempted” omitted by s. 12, ibid.
    73
    (3) Nothing in sub-section (2) shall enable a judgment-debtor to claim exemption from arrest under
    an order for immediate execution or where such judgment-debtor attends to show cause why he should
    not be committed to prison in execution of a decree.
    1
    [135A. Exemption of members of legislative bodies from arrest and detention under civil
    process.—2
    [(1) No person shall be liable to arrest or detention in prison under civil process—
    (a) if he is a member of—
    (i) either House of Parliament, or
    (ii) the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of a State, or
    (iii) a Legislative Assembly of a Union territory,
    during the continuance of any meeting of such House of Parliament or, as the case may be, of the
    Legislative Assembly or the Legislative Council;
    (b) if he is a member of any committee of—
    (i) either House of Parliament, or
    (ii) the Legislative Assembly of a State or Union territory, or
    (iii) the Legislative Council of a State, during the continuance of any meeting of such
    committee;
    (c) if he is a member of—
    (i) either House of Parliament, or
    (ii) a Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of a State having both such Houses,
    during the continuance of a joint sitting, meeting, conference or joint committee of the Houses of
    Parliament or, Houses of the State Legislature, as the case may be, and during the forty days before and
    after such meeting, sitting or conference.](2) A person released from detention under sub-section (1) shall, subject to the provisions, of the said
    sub-section, be liable to re-arrest and to the further detention to which he would have been liable if he had
    not been released under the provisions of sub-section (1).]
  7. Procedure where person to be arrested or property to be attached is outside district.—(1)
    Where an application is made that any person shall be arrested or that any property shall be attached
    under any provision of this Code not relating to the execution of decrees, and such person resides or such
    property is situate outside the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court to which the application is made,
    the Court may, in its discretion, issue, a warrant of arrest of make an order of attachment, and send to the
    District Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction such person or property resides or is situate a
    copy of the warrant or order, together with the probable amount of the costs of the arrest or attachment.
    (2) The District Court shall, on receipt of such copy and amount, cause the arrest or attachment to be
    made by its own officers, or by a Court subordinate to itself, and shall inform the Court which issued or
    made such warrant or order of the arrest or attachment.
    (3) The Court making an arrest under this section shall send the person arrested to the Court by which
    the warrant of arrest was issued, unless he shows cause to the satisfaction of the former Court why he
    should not be sent to the later Court, or unless he furnishes sufficient security for his appearance before
    the later Court or for satisfying any decree that may be passed against him by that Court, in either of
    which cases the Court making the arrest shall release him.
    (4) Where a person to be arrested or movable property to be attached under this section is within the
    local limits of the ordinary original civil jurisdiction of the High Court of Judicature at Fort William in
    Bengal or at Madras or at Bombay, 3
    *** the copy of the warrant of arrest or of the order of attachment,
    and the probable amount of the costs of the arrest or attachment, shall be sent to the Court of Small-
  8. Ins. by Act 23 of 1925, s. 3.
  9. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 45, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  10. The words or “of the Chief Court of Lower Burma”, omitted by the A.O. 1937.
    74
    Causes of Calcutta, Madras 1
    [or Bombay], as the case may be, and that Court, on receipt of the copy and
    amount, shall proceed as if it were the District Court.
  11. Language of subordinate Courts.—(1) The language which, on the commencement of this
    Code, is the language of any Court subordinate to a High Court shall continue to be the language of such
    subordinate Court until the State Government otherwise directs.
    (2) The State Government may declare what shall be the language of any such Court and in what
    character applications to and proceedings in such Courts shall be written.
    (3) Where this Court requires or allows anything other that the recording of evidence to be done in
    writing in any such Court, such writing may be in English; but if any party or his pleader is unacquainted
    with English a translation into the language of the Court shall, at his request, be supplied to him; and the
    Court shall make such order as it thinks fit in respect of the payment of the costs of such translation.
    2
    [138. Power of High Court to require evidence to be recorded in English.—(1) The 3
    [High
    Court] may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct with respect to any Judge specified in the
    notification, or falling under a description set forth therein, that evidence in cases in which an appeal is
    allowed shall be taken down by him in the English language and in manner prescribed.
    (2) Where a Judge is prevented by any sufficient reason from complying with a direction under
    sub-section (1), he shall record the reason and cause the evidence to be taken down in writing from his
    dictation in open Court.
  12. Oath on affidavit by whom to be administered.— In the case of any affidavit under this Code—
    (a) any Court or Magistrate, or
    4
    [(aa) any notary appointed under the Notaries Act, 1952 (53 of 1952); or](b) any officer or other person whom a High Court may appoint in this behalf, or
    (c) any officer appointed by any other Court which the State Government has generally or
    specially empowered in this behalf,
    may administer the oath to the deponent.
  13. Assessors in causes of salvage, etc.—(1) In any admiralty or vice-admiralty cause of salvage to
    wage or collision the Court, whether it be exercising its original or its appellate jurisdiction, may, if it
    thinks fit, and shall upon request of either party to such cause, summon to its assistance, in such manner as
    it may direct or as may be prescribed, two competent assessors; and such assessors shall attend and assist
    accordingly.
    (2) Every such assessor shall receive such fees for his attendance, to be paid by such of the parties
    as the Court may direct or as may be prescribed.
  14. Miscellaneous proceedings.—The procedure provided in this Code in regard to suits shall be
    followed, as far as it can be made applicable, in all proceedings in any Court of civil jurisdiction.
    5
    [Explanation.— In this section, the expression “proceedings” includes proceedings under
    Order IX, but does not include any proceedings under article 226 of the Constitution.]
  15. Orders and notices to be in writing.—All orders and notices served on or given to any
    person under the provisions of this Code shall be in writing.
  16. Postage.—Postage, where chargeable on a notice, summons or letter issued under this Code
    and forwarded by post, and the fee for registering the same, shall be paid within a time to be fixed
    before the communication is made:
  17. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “Bombay or Rangoon”.
  18. For s. 138, as applicable to Assam, see the Civil Procedure (Assam Amendment) Act 1941, (Assam 1 of 1941),
    s. 2.
  19. Subs. by Act 4 of 1914, s. 2 and the Schedule, Pt. I, for “L.G.”.
  20. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 46 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  21. Ins. by, s. 47, ibid. (w.e.f 1-2-1977).
    75
    Provided that the State Government 1
    *** may remit such postage, or fee, or both, or may prescribe
    a scale of court-fees to be levied in lieu thereof.
  22. Application for restitution.—(1) Where and in so far as a decree 2
    [or an order] is 3
    [varied or
    reversed in any appeal, revision or other proceeding or is set aside or modified in any suit instituted for the
    purpose, the Court which passed the decree or order] shall, on the application of any party entitled to any
    benefit by way of restitution or otherwise, cause such restitution to be made as will, so far as may be, place
    the parties in the position which they would have occupied but for such decree 4
    [or order] or 4
    [such part
    thereof as has been varied, reversed, set aside or modified]; and for this purpose, the Court may make any
    orders, including orders for the refund of costs and for the payment of interest, damages, compensation and
    mesne profits, which are properly 5
    [consequential on such variation, reversal, setting aside or modification
    of the decree or order].
    6
    [Explanation.—For the purposes of sub-section (1), the expression “Court which passed the
    decree or order” shall be deemed to include,—
    (a) where the decree or order has been varied or reversed in exercise of appellate or revisional
    jurisdiction, the Court of first instance;
    (b) where the decree or order has been set aside by a separate suit, the court of first instance
    which passed such decree or order.
    (c) where the Court of first instance has ceased to exist or has ceased to have jurisdiction to execute, it,
    the Court which, if the suit wherein the decree or order was passed were instituted at the time of making
    the application for restitution under this section, would have jurisdiction to try such suit.](2) No suit shall be instituted for the purpose of obtaining any restitution or other relief which could
    be obtained by application under sub-section (1).
  23. Enforcement of liability of surety.—Where any person 7
    [has furnished security or given a
    guarantee]—
    (a) for the performance of any decree or any part thereof, or
    (b) for the restitution of any property taken in execution of a decree, or
    (c) for the payment of any money, or for the fulfilment of any condition imposed on any person,
    under an order of the Court in any suit or in any proceeding consequent thereon,
    8
    [the decree or order may be executed in the manner therein provided for the execution of decrees,
    namely:—
    (i) if he has rendered himself personally liable, against him to that extent;
    (ii) if he has furnished any property as security, by sale of such property to the extent of the
    security;
    (iii) if the case falls both under clauses (i) and (ii) then to the extent specified in those clauses,
    and such person shall, be deemed to be a party within the meaning of section 47]:
    Provided that such notice as the Court in each case thinks sufficient has been given to the surety.
  24. Proceedings by or against representatives.—Save as otherwise provided by this Code or by
    any law for the time being in force, where any proceeding may be taken or application made by or against
    any person then the proceeding may be taken or the application may be made by or against any person
    claiming under him.
  25. The words “with the previous sanction of the G.G, in C.” omitted by Act 38 of 1920, s. 2 and the First Schedule I, Pt. I
  26. Ins. by Act 66 of 1956, s. 13 (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  27. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976. s. 48, for “varied or reversed, the Court of first instance” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  28. Subs. by s. 48, ibid., for “such part thereof as has been varied or reversed” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  29. Subs. by s. 48, ibid., for “consequential on such variation or reversal” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  30. Ins. by. s. 48, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  31. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 49, for “has become liable as surety” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  32. Subs. by s. 49, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    76
  33. Consent or agreement by persons under disability.—In all suits to which any person under
    disability is a party, any consent or agreement, as to any proceeding shall, if given or made with the
    express leave of the Court by the next friend or guardian for the suit, have the same force and effect as if
    such person, were under no disability and had given such consent or made such agreement.
  34. Enlargement of time.—Where any period is fixed or granted by the Court for the doing of any act
    prescribed or allowed by this Code, the Court may, in its discretion, from time to time, enlarge such period,
    1
    [not exceeding thirty days in total,] even though the period originally fixed or granted may have expired.
    2
    [148A. Right to lodge a caveat.—(1) Where an application is expected to be made, or has been
    made, in a suit or proceeding instituted, or about to be instituted, in a Court, any person claiming a right
    to appear before the Court on the hearing of such application may lodge a caveat in respect thereof.
    (2) Where a caveat has been lodged under sub-section (1), the person by whom the caveat has been
    lodged (hereinafter referred to as the caveator) shall serve a notice of the caveat by registered post,
    acknowledgement due, on the person by whom the application has been, or is expected to be, made, under
    sub-section (1).
    (3) Where, after a caveat has been lodged under sub-section (1), any application is filed in any suit or
    proceeding, the Court, shall serve a notice of the application on the caveator.
    (4) Where a notice of any caveat has been served on the applicant, he shall forthwith furnish the
    caveator at the caveator’s expense, with a copy of the application made by him and also with copies of
    any paper or document which has been, or may be, filed by him in support of the application.
    (5) Where a caveat has been lodged under sub-section (1), such caveat shall not remain in force after
    the expiry of ninety days from the date on which it was lodged unless the application referred to in
    sub-section (1) has been made before the expiry of the said period.]
  35. Power to make up deficiency of court-fees.—Where the whole or any part of any fee prescribed for
    any document by the law for the time being in force relating to court-fees has not been paid, the Court may, in
    its discretion, at any stage, allow the person, by whom such fee is payable, to pay the whole or part, as the case
    may be, of such court-fee; and upon such payment the document, in respect of which fee is payable, shall have
    the same force and effect as if such fee had been paid in the first instance.
  36. Transfer of business.— Save as otherwise provided, where the business of any Court is transferred
    to any other Court, the Court to which the business is so transferred shall have the same powers and shall
    perform the same duties as those respectively conferred and imposed by or under this Code upon the Court
    from which the business was so transferred.
  37. Saving of inherent powers of Court.—Nothing in this Code shall be deemed to limit or
    otherwise affect the inherent power of the Court to make such orders as may be necessary for the ends of
    justice or to prevent abuse of the process of the Court.
  38. Amendment of judgments, decrees or orders.—Clerical or arithmetical mistakes in
    judgments, decrees or orders or errors arising therein from any accidental slip or omission may at any
    time be corrected by the Court either of its own motion or on the application of any of the parties.
  39. General power to amend.— The Court may at any time, and on such terms as to costs or otherwise
    as it may think fit, amend any defect or error in any proceeding in a suit; and all necessary amendments shall be
    made for the purpose of determining the real question or issue raised by or depending on such proceeding.
    3
    [153A. Power to amend decree or order where appeal is summarily dismissed.—Where an Appellate
    Court dismisses an appeal under rule 11 of Order XLI, the power of the Court to amend, under section 152, the
    decree or order appealed against may be exercised by the Court which had passed the decree or order in the
    first instance, notwithstanding that the dismissal of the appeal has the effect of confirming the decree or order,
    as the case may be, passed by the Court of first instance.
  40. Ins. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 13 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  41. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 50 (w.e.f. 1-5-1977).
  42. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976. s. 51 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    77
    153B. Place of trial to be deemed to be open Court.—The place in which any Civil Court is held
    for the purpose of trying any suit shall be deemed to be an open Court, to which the public generally may
    have access so far as the same can conveniently contain them:
    Provided that the presiding Judge may, if he thinks fit, order at any stage of any inquiry into or trial of
    any particular case, that the public generally, or any particular person, shall not have access to, or be or
    remain in, the room or building used by the Court.]
  43. [Saving of present right of appeal.] Rep. by the Repealing and Amending Act, 1952 (48 of 1952),
    s. 2 and the First Schedule.
  44. [Amendment of certain Acts.] Rep. by s. 2 and the First Schedule., ibid.
  45. [Repeals.] Rep. by the Second Repealing and Amending Act, 1914 (17 of 1914). s. 3 and the Second
    Schedule.
  46. Continuance of orders under repealed enactments.—Notifications published, declarations
    and rules made, places appointed, agreements filed, scales prescribed, forms framed, appointments made
    and powers conferred under Act VIII of 1859 or under any Code of Civil Procedure or any Act amending
    the same or under any other enactment hereby repealed shall, so far as they are consistent with this Code,
    have the same force and effect as if they had been respectively published, made, appointed, filed,
    prescribed, framed and conferred under this Code and by the authority empowered thereby in such behalf.
  47. Reference to Code of Civil Procedure and other repealed enactments.—In every enactment
    or notification passed or issued before the commencement of this Code in which reference is made to or
    to any Chapter or section of Act VIII of 1859 or any Code of Civil Procedure or any Act amending the
    same or any other enactment hereby repealed, such reference shall, so far as may be practicable, be taken
    to be made to this Code or to its corresponding Part, Order, section or rule.

78
THE FIRST SCHEDULE


ORDER I
Parties to Suits
1
[1. Who may be joined as plaintiffs.—All persons may be joined in one suit as plaintiffs where—
(a) any right to relief in respect of, or arising out of, the same act or transaction or series of acts or
transactions is alleged to exist in such persons, whether jointly, severally or in the alternative; and
(b) if such persons brought separate suits, any common question of law or fact would
arise.]

  1. Power of Court to order separate trial.—Where it appears to the Court that any joinder of
    plaintiffs may embarrass or delay the trial of the suit, the Court may put the plaintiffs to the election or
    order separate trials or make such other order as may be expedient.
    1
    [3. Who may be joined as defendants.—All persons may be joined in one suit as defendants
    where—
    (a) any right to relief in respect of, or arising out of, the same act or transaction or series of acts or
    transactions is alleged to exist against such persons, whether jointly, severally or in the alternative;
    and
    (b) if separate suits were brought against such persons, any common question of law or fact
    would arise.]2
    [3A. Power to order separate trials where joinder of defendants may embarrass or delay
    trial.—Where it appears to the Court that any joinder of defendants may embarrass or delay the trial of
    the suit, the Court may order separate trials or make such other order as may be expedient in the interests
    of justice.]
  2. Court may give judgment for or against one or more of joint parties.—Judgment may be given
    without any amendment —
    (a) for such one or more of the plaintiffs as may be found to be entitled to relief, for such relief
    as he or they may be entitled to;
    (b) against such one or more of the defendants as may be found to be liable, according to their
    respective liabilities.
  3. Defendant need not be interested in all the relief claimed.—It shall not be necessary that every
    defendant shall be interested as to all the relief claimed in any suit against him.
  4. Joinder of parties liable on same contract.—The plaintiff may, at his option, join as parties to
    the same suit all or any of the persons severally, or jointly and severally, liable on any one contract,
    including parties to bills of exchange, hundis and promissory notes.
  5. When plaintiff in doubt from whom redress is to be sought.—Where the plaintiff is in doubt as to
    the persons from whom he is entitled to obtain redress, he may join two or more defendants in order that the
    question as to which of the defendants is liable, and to what extent, may be determined as between all
    parties.
  6. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 52, for rules 1 and 3 respectively (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  7. Ins. by s. 52, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    79
    1
    [8. One person may sue or defend on behalf of all in same interest.—(1) Where there are
    numerous persons having the same interest in one suit,—
    (a) one or more of such persons may, with the permission of the Court, sue or be sued, or may
    defend such suit, on behalf of, or for the benefit of, all persons so interested;
    (b) the Court may direct that one or more of such persons may sue or be sued, or may defend
    such suit, on behalf of, or for the benefit of, all persons so interested.
    (2) The Court shall, in every case where a permission or direction is given under sub-rule (1), at the
    plaintiff’s expense, give notice of the institution of the suit to all persons so interested, either by personal
    service, or, where, by reason of the number of persons or any other cause, such service is not reasonably
    practicable, by public advertisement, as the Court in each case may direct.
    (3) Any person on whose behalf, or for whose benefit, a suit is instituted, or defended, under
    sub-rule (1), may apply to the Court to be made a party to such suit.
    (4) No part of the claim in any such suit shall be abandoned under sub-rule (1), and no such suit shall
    be withdrawn under sub-rule (3), of rule 1 of Order XXIII, and no agreement, compromise or satisfaction
    shall be recorded in any such suit under rule 3 of that Order, unless the Court has given, at the plaintiff’s
    expense, notice to all persons so interested in the manner specified in sub-rule (2).
    (5) Where any person suing or defending in any such suit does not proceed with due diligence in the suit
    or defence, the Court may substitute in his place any other person having the same interest in the suit.
    (6) A decree passed in a suit under this rule shall be binding on all persons on whose behalf, or for
    whose benefit, the suit is instituted, or defended, as the case may be.
    Explanation.—For the purpose of determining whether the persons who sue or are sued, or defend,
    have the same interest in one suit, it is not necessary to establish that such persons have the same cause of
    action as the persons on whose behalf, or for whose benefit, they sue or are sued, or defend the suit, as
    the case may be.]2
    [8A. Power of Court to permit a person or body of persons to present opinion or to take part in the
    proceedings.— While trying a suit, the Court may, if satisfied that a person or body of persons is interested in
    any question of law which is directly and substantially in issue in the suit and that it is necessary in the public
    interest to allow that person or body of persons to present his or its opinion on that question of law, permit that
    person or body of persons to present such opinion and to take such part in the proceedings of the suit as the
    Court may specify.]
  8. Misjoinder and non-joinder.—No suit shall be defeated by reason of the misjoinder or
    non-joinder of parties, and the Court may in every suit deal with the matter in controversy so far as
    regards the rights and interests of the parties actually before it:
    3
    [Provided that nothing in this rule shall apply to non-joinder of a necessary party.]
  9. Suit in name of wrong plaintiff.—(1) Where a suit has been instituted in the name of the wrong
    person as plaintiff or where it is doubtful whether it has been instituted in the name of the right plaintiff,
    the Court may at any stage of the suit, if satisfied that the suit has been instituted through a bona fide
    mistake, and that it is necessary for the determination of the real matter in dispute so to do, order any
    other person to be substituted or added as plaintiff upon such terms as the Court thinks just.
    (2) Court may strike out or add parties.—The Court may at any stage of the proceedings, either
    upon or without the application of either party, and on such terms as may appear to the Court to be just,
    order that the name of any party improperly joined, whether as plaintiff or defendant, be struck out, and
    that the name of any person who ought to have been joined, whether as plaintiff or defendant, or whose
  10. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 52, for rule 8 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  11. Ins. by s. 52, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  12. The proviso added by, ibid., s. 52 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    80
    presence before the Court may be necessary in order to enable the Court effectually and completely to
    adjudicate upon and settle all the questions involved in the suit, be added.
    (3) No person shall be added as a plaintiff suing without a next friend or as the next friend of a
    plaintiff under any disability without his consent.
    (4) Where defendant added, plaint to be amended.—Where a defendant is added, the plaint shall,
    unless the Court otherwise directs, be amended in such manner as may be necessary, and amended copies
    of the summons and of the plaint shall be served on the new defendant and, if the Court thinks fit, on the
    original defendant
    (5) Subject to the provisions of the 1
    [Indian Limitation Act, 1877 (XV of 1877)], section 22, the
    proceedings as against any person added as defendant shall be deemed to have begun only on the service
    of the summons.
    2
    [10A. Power of Court to request any pleader to address it.—The Court may, in its discretion,
    request any pleader to address it as to any interest which is likely to be affected by its decision on any
    matter in issue in any suit or proceeding, if the party having the interest which is likely to be so affected is
    not represented by any pleader.]
  13. Conduct of suit.—The Court may give the conduct of 3
    [a suit] to such persons as it deems proper.
  14. Appearance of one of several plaintiffs or defendants for others.—(1) Where there are more
    plaintiffs than one, any one or more of them may be authorized by any other of them to appear, plead or
    act for such other in any proceeding; and in like manner, where there are more defendants than one, any
    one or more of them may be authorized by any other of them to appear, plead or act for such other in any
    proceeding.
    (2) The authority shall be in writing signed by the party giving it and shall be filed in Court.
  15. Objections as to non-joinder or misjoinder.—All objections on the ground of non-joinder or
    misjoinder of parties shall be taken at the earliest possible opportunity and, in all cases where issues are
    settled, at or before such settlement, unless the ground of objection has subsequently arisen, and any such
    objection not so taken shall be deemed to have been waived.

ORDER II
Frame of suit

  1. Frame of suit.—Every suit shall as far as practicable be framed so as to afford ground for final
    decision upon the subjects in dispute and to prevent further litigation concerning them.
  2. Suit to include the whole claim.—(1) Every suit shall include the whole of the claim which the
    plaintiff is entitled to make in respect of the cause of action; but a plaintiff may relinquish and portion of
    his claim in order to bring the suit within the jurisdiction of any Court.
    (2) Relinquishment of part of claim.—Where a plaintiff omits to sue in respect of, or intentionally
    relinquishes, any portion of his claim, he shall not afterwards sue in respect of the portion so omitted or
    relinquished.
    (3) Omission to sue for one of several reliefs.—A person entitled to more than one relief in respect
    of the same cause of action may sue for all or any of such reliefs; but if he omits, except with the leave of
    the Court, to sue for all such reliefs, he shall not afterwards sue for any relief so omitted.
    Explanation.—For the purposes of this rule an obligation and a collateral security for its performance
    and successive claims arising under the same obligation shall be deemed respectively to constitute but one
    cause of action.
  3. See now the Limitation Act, 1963 (36 of 1963), s. 21.
  4. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 52 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  5. Subs. by s. 52, ibid., for “the suit” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    81
    Illustration
    A lets a house to B at a yearly of rent Rs. 1,200. The rent for the whole of the years 1905, 1906 and 1907 is due and unpaid.
    A sues B in 1908 only for the rent due for 1906. A shall not afterwards sue B for the rent due for 1905 or 1907.
  6. Joinder of causes of action.—(1) Save as otherwise provided, a plaintiff may unite in the same
    suit several causes of action against the same defendant, or the same defendants jointly; and any plaintiffs
    having causes of action in which they are jointly interested against the same defendant or the same
    defendants jointly may unite such causes of action in the same suit.
    (2) Where causes of action are united, the jurisdiction of the Court as regards the suit shall depend on
    the amount or value of the aggregate subject-matters at the date of instituting the suit.
  7. Only certain claims to be joined for recovery of immovable property.—No cause of action
    shall, unless with the leave of the Court, be joined with a suit for the recovery of immovable property,
    except—
    (a) claims for mesne profits or arrears of rent in respect of the property claimed or any part
    thereof;
    (b) claims for damages for breach of any contract under which the property or any part thereof is
    held; and
    (c) claims in which the relief sought is based on the same cause of action:
    Provided that nothing in this rule shall be deemed to prevent any party in a suit for foreclosure or
    redemption from asking to be put into possession of the mortgaged property.
  8. Claims by or against executor, administrator or heir.—No claim by or against an executor,
    administrator or heir, as such, shall be joined with claims by or against him personally, unless the last
    mentioned claims are alleged to arise with reference to the estate in respect of which the plaintiff or defendant
    sues or is sued as executor, administrator or heir, or are such as he was entitled to, or liable for, jointly with
    the deceased person whom he represents.
    1
    [6. Power of Court to order separate trials.—Where it appears to the Court that the joinder of
    causes of action in one suit may embarrass or delay the trial or is otherwise inconvenient, the Court may
    order separate trials or make such other order as may be expedient in the interests of justice.]
  9. Objections as to misjoinder.—All objections on the ground of misjoinder of causes of action shall
    be taken at the earliest possible opportunity and, in all cases where issues are settled, at or before such
    settlement, unless the ground of objection has subsequently arisen, and any such objection not so taken
    shall be deemed to have been waived.

ORDER III
Recognized Agents and Pleaders

  1. Appearances, etc., may be in person, by recognized agent or by pleader.—Any appearance,
    application or act in or to any Court, required or authorized by law to be made or done by a party in such Court,
    may, except where otherwise expressly provided by any law for the time being in force, be made or done by the
    party in person, or by his recognized agent, or by a pleader 2
    [appearing, applying or acting, as the case may be,]on his behalf :
    Provided that any such appearance shall, if the Court so directs, be made by the party in person.
  2. Recognised agents.—The recognised agents of parties by whom such appearances, applications and
    acts may be made or done are—
    (a) persons holding powers-of-attorney, authorising them to make and do such appearances,
    applications and acts on behalf of such parties;
  3. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 53, for rule 6 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  4. Subs. by Act 22 of 1926, s. 2, for “duly appointed to act”.
    82
    (b) persons carrying on trade or business for and in the names of parties not resident within the
    local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court within which limits the appearance, application or act is
    made or done, in matters connected with such trade or business only, where no other agent is
    expressly authorised to make and do such appearances, applications and acts.
  5. Service of process on recognised agent.—(1) Processes served on the recognised agent of a party
    shall be as effectual as if the same had been served on the party in person, unless the Court otherwise directs.
    (2) The provisions for the service of process on a party to a suit shall apply to the service of process
    on his recognised agent.
    1
    [4. Appointment of pleader.—(1) No pleader shall act for any person in any Court, unless he has been
    appointed for the purpose by such person by a document in writing signed by such person or by his recognised
    agent or by some other person duly authorised by or under a power-of-attorney to make such appointment.
    (2) Every such appointment shall be 2
    [filed in Court and shall, for the purposes of sub-rule (1), be]deemed to be in force until determined with the leave of the Court by a writing signed by the client or the
    pleader, as the case may be, and filed in Court, or until the client or the pleader dies, or until all
    proceedings in the suit are ended so far as regards the client.
    3
    [Explanation. —For the purposes of this sub-rule, the following shall be deemed to be proceedings in
    the suit,—
    (a) an application for the review of decree or order in the suit,
    (b) an application under section 144 or under section 152 of this Code, in relation to any decree or
    order made in the suit,
    (c) an appeal from any decree or order in the suit, and
    (d) any application or act for the purpose of obtaining copies of documents or return of documents
    produced or filed in the suit or of obtaining refund of moneys paid into the Court in connection with
    the suit.]4
    [(3) Nothing in sub-rule (2) shall be construed—
    (a) as extending, as between the pleader and his client, the duration for which the pleader is
    engaged, or
    (b) as authorising service on the pleader of any notice or document issued by any Court other than
    the Court for which the pleader was engaged, except where such service was expressly agreed to by
    the client in the document referred to in sub-rule (1).](4) The High Court may, by general order, direct that, where the person by whom a pleader is appointed
    is unable to write his name, his mark upon the document appointing the pleader shall be attested by such
    person and in such manner as may be specified by the order.
    (5) No pleader who has been engaged for the purpose of pleading only shall plead on behalf of any
    party, unless he has filed in court a memorandum of appearance signed by himself and stating—
    (a) the names of the parties to the suit,
    (b) the name of the party for whom he appears, and
    (c) the name of the person by whom he is authorised to appear:
    Provided that nothing in this sub-rule shall apply to any pleader engaged to plead on behalf of any
    party by any other pleader who has been duly appointed to act in Court on behalf of such party.]
  6. Subs. by Act 22 of 1926, s. 2, for rule 4.
  7. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 54, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  8. Ins. by s. 54, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  9. Subs. by s. 54, ibid., for sub-rule (3) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    83
  10. Service of process on pleader.—1
    [Any process served on the pleader who has been duly appointed
    to act in Court for any party] or left at the office or ordinary residence of such pleader, and whether the
    same is for the personal appearance of the party or not, shall be presumed to be duly communicated and
    made known to the party whom the pleader represents, and, unless the Court otherwise directs, shall be as
    effectual for all purposes as if the same had been given to or served on the party in person.
  11. Agent to accept service.—(1) Besides the recognised agents described in rule 2 any person
    residing within the jurisdiction of the Court may be appointed an agent to accept service of process.
    (2) Appointment to be in writing and to be filed in Court.—Such appointment may be special or
    general and shall be made by an instrument in writing signed by the principal, and such instrument or, if
    the appointment is general, a certified copy thereof shall be filed in Court.
    2
    [(3) The Court may, at any stage of the suit, order any party to the suit not having a recognised agent
    residing within the jurisdiction of the Court, or a pleader who has been duly appointed to act in the Court
    on his behalf, to appoint, within a specified time, an agent residing within the jurisdiction of the Court to
    accept service of the process on his behalf.]

ORDER IV
Institution of suits

  1. Suit to be commenced by plaint.—(1) Every suit shall be instituted by presenting 3
    [plaint in
    duplicate to the Court] or such officer as it appoints in this behalf.
    (2) Every plaint shall comply with the rules contained in Orders VI and VII, so far as they are
    applicable.
    4
    [(3) The plaint shall not be deemed to be duly instituted unless it complies with the requirements
    specified in sub-rules (1) and (2)].
  2. Register of suits.—The Court shall cause the particulars of every suit to be entered in a book to be
    kept for the purpose and called the register of civil suits. Such entries shall be numbered in every year
    according to the order in which the plaints are admitted.

ORDER V
Issue and service of summons
Issue of Summons

  1. Summons.—5
    [(1) When a suit has been duly instituted, a summons may be issued to the defendant
    to appear and answer the claim and to file the written statement of his defence, if any, within thirty days
    from the date of service of summons on that defendant:
    Provided that no such summons shall be issued when a defendant has appeared at the presentation of
    plaint and admitted the plaintiff’s claim:
    *[Provided further that where the defendant fails to file the written statement within the said period of
    thirty days, he shall be allowed to file the written statement on such other day, as may be specified by the
    Court, for reasons to be recorded in writing and on payment of such costs as the Court deems fit, but
    which shall not be later than one hundred twenty days from the date of service of summons and on expiry
  2. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 54, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  3. Ins. by s. 54, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  4. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 14, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  5. Ins. by s. 14, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  6. Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 6, for sub-rule (1) (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    *. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value only by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Schedule (w.e.f. 23-10-
    2015).
    84
    of one hundred twenty days from the date of service of summons, the defendant shall forfeit the right to
    file the written statement and the Court shall not allow the written statement to be taken on record.](2) A defendant to whom a summons has been issued under sub-rule (1) may appear—
    (a) in person, or
    (b) by a pleader duly instructed and able to answer all material questions relating to the suit, or
    (c) by a pleader accompanied by some person able to answer all such questions.
    (3) Every such summons shall be signed by the Judge or such officer as he appoints, and shall be
    sealed with the seal of the Court.
    STATE AMENDMENT
    Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (UTs).—
    In Order V, in Rule 1, for the second proviso, substitute the following proviso, namely;-
    Provided further that where the defendant fails to file the written statement within the said period of
    thirty days, he shall be allowed to file the written statement on such other day, as may be specified by the
    court, for reasons to be recorded in writing and on payment of such costs as the court deems fit, but which
    shall not be later than one hundred twenty days from the date of service of summons and on expiry of one
    hundred twenty days from the date of service of summons, the defendant shall forfeit the right to file the
    written statement and the court shall not allow the written statement to be taken on record.
    [Vide the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Adaptation of Central Laws) Order, 2020, notification
    No. S.O. 1123(E) dated (18-3-2020).]1
    [2. Copy of plaint annexed to summons.—Every summon shall be accompanied by a copy of the
    plaint.]
  7. Court may order defendant or plaintiff to appear in person.—(1) Where the court sees reason
    to require the personal appearance of the defendant, the summons shall order him to appear in person in
    Court on the day therein specified.
    (2) Where the Court sees reason to require the personal appearance of the plaintiff on the same day, it
    shall make an order for such appearance.
  8. No party to be ordered to appear in person unless resident within certain limits.—No party
    shall be ordered to appear in person unless he resides—
    (a) within the local limits of the Court’s ordinary original jurisdiction, or
    (b) without such limits but at place less than fifty or (where there is railway or steamer
    communication or other established public conveyance for five-sixths of the distance between the
    place where he resides and the place where the Court is situate) less than two hundred miles distance
    from the court-house.
  9. Summons to be either to settle issues or for final disposal.—The Court shall determine, at the
    time of issuing the summons, whether it shall be for the settlement of issues only, or for the final disposal
    of the suit; and the summons shall contain a direction accordingly:
    Provided that, in every suit heard by a Court of Small Causes, the summons shall be for the final
    disposal of the suit.
  10. Fixing day for appearance of defendant.—The day 2
    [under sub-rule (1) of rule 1] shall be
    fixed with reference to the current business of the Court, the place of residence of the defendant and the
    time necessary for the service of the summons; and the day shall be so fixed as to allow the defendant
    sufficient time to enable him to appear and answer on such day.
  11. Summons to order defendant to produce documents relied on by him.—The summons to
    appear and answer shall order the defendant to produce 3
    [all documents or copies thereof specified in rule
    lA of Order VIII] in his possession or power upon which he intends to rely in support of his case.
  12. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 15, for sub-rule (2) (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  13. Subs. by, s. 15, ibid., for the appearance of the defendant (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  14. Subs. by s. 15, ibid., for all documents (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    85
  15. On issue of summons for final disposal, defendant to be directed to produce his witnesses.—Where
    the summons is for the final disposal of the suit, it shall also direct the defendant to produce, on the day fixed
    for his appearance, all witnesses upon whose evidence he intends to rely in support of his case.
    Service of summons
    1
    [9. Delivery of summons by Court.—(1) Where the defendant resides within the jurisdiction of the
    Court in which the suit is instituted, or has an agent resident within that jurisdiction who is empowered to
    accept the service of the summons, the summons shall, unless the Court otherwise directs, be delivered or sent
    either to the proper officer to be served by him or one of his subordinates or to such courier services as are
    approved by the Court.
    (2) The proper officer may be an officer of a Court other than that in which the suit is instituted, and, where
    he is such an officer, the summons may be sent to him in such manner as the Court may direct.
    (3) The services of summons may be made by delivering or transmitting a copy thereof by registered post
    acknowledgment due, addressed to the defendant or his agent empowered to accept the service or by speed post
    or by such courier services as are approved by the High Court or by the Court referred to in sub-rule (1) or by
    any other means of transmission of documents (including fax message or electronic mail service) provided by
    the rules made by the High Court:
    Provided that the service of summons under this sub-rule shall be made at the expenses of the plaintiff.
    (4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-rule (1), where a defendant resides outside the jurisdiction
    of the Court in which the suit is instituted, and the Court directs that the service of summons on that defendant
    may be made by such mode of service of summons as is referred to in sub-rule (3) (except by registered post
    acknowledgment due), the provisions of rule 21 shall not apply.
    (5) When an acknowledgment or any other receipt purporting to be signed by the defendant or his agent is
    received by the Court or postal article containing the summons is received back by the Court with an
    endorsement purporting to have been made by a postal employee or by any person authorised by the courier
    service to the effect that the defendant or his agent had refused to take delivery of the postal article containing
    the summons or had refused to accept the summons by any other means specified in sub-rule (3) when tendered
    or transmitted to him, the Court issuing the summons shall declare that the summons had been duly served on
    the defendant:
    Provided that where the summons was properly addressed, pre-paid and duly sent by registered post
    acknowledgment due, the declaration referred to in this sub-rule shall be made notwithstanding the fact that the
    acknowledgment having been lost or mislaid, or for any other reason, has not been received by the Court
    within thirty days from the date of issue of summons.
    (6) The High Court or the District Judge, as the case may be, shall prepare a panel of courier agencies for
    the purposes of sub-rule (1).
    9A. Summons given to the plaintiff for service.—(1) The Court may, in addition to the service of
    summons under rule 9, on the application of the plaintiff for the issue of a summons for the appearance of the
    defendant, permit such plaintiff to effect service of such summons on such defendant and shall, in such a case,
    deliver the summons to such plaintiff for service.
    (2) The service of such summons shall be effected by or on behalf of such plaintiff by delivering or
    tendering to the defendant personally a copy thereof signed by the Judge or such officer of the Court as he may
    appoint in this behalf and sealed with the seal of the Court or by such mode of service as is referred to in
    sub-rule (3) of rule 9.
    (3) The provisions of rules 16 and 18 shall apply to a summons personally served under this rule as if the
    person effecting service were a serving officer.
    (4) If such summons, when tendered, is refused or if the person served refuses to sign an acknowledgment of
    service or for any reason such summons cannot be served personally, the Court shall, on the application of the party,
    re-issue such summons to be served by the Court in the same manner as a summons to a defendant.]
  16. Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 6, for rule 9 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    86
  17. Mode of service.—Service of the summons shall be made by delivering or tendering a copy thereof signed
    by the Judge or such officer as he appoints in this behalf, and sealed with the seal of the Court.
  18. Service on several defendants.—Save as otherwise prescribed, where there are more defendants
    than one, service of the summons shall be made on each defendant.
  19. Service to be on defendant in person when practicable, or on his agent. —Wherever it is
    practicable, service shall be made on the defendant in person, unless he has an agent empowered to accept
    service, in which case service on such agent shall be sufficient.
  20. Service on agent by whom defendant carries on business.—(1) In a suit relating to any
    business or work against a person who does not reside within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the
    Court from which the summons is issued, service on any manager or agent, who, at the time of service,
    personally carries on such business or work for such person within such limits, shall be deemed good
    service.
    (2) For the purpose of this rule the master of a ship shall be deemed to be the agent of the owner or
    charterer.
  21. Service on agent in charge in suits for immovable property.—Where in a suit to obtain relief
    respecting, or compensation for wrong to, immovable property, service cannot be made on the defendant
    in person, and the defendant has no agent empowered to accept the service, it may be made on any agent
    of the defendant in charge of the property.
    1
    [15. Where service may be on an adult member of defendant’s family.— Where in any suit the
    defendant is absent from his residence at the time when the service of summons is sought to be effected
    on his at his residence and there is no likelihood of his being found at the residence within a reasonable
    time and he has no agent empowered to accept service of the summons on his behalf, service may be
    made on any adult member of the family, whether male or female, who is residing with him.
    Explanation. —A servant is not a member of the family within the meaning of this rule.]
  22. Person served to sign acknowledgment.—Where the serving officer delivers or tenders a copy
    of the summons to the defendant personally, or to an agent or other person on his behalf, he shall require
    the signature of the person to whom the copy is so delivered or tendered to an acknowledgment of service
    endorsed on the original summons.
  23. Procedure when defendant refuses to accept service, or cannot be found.—Where the
    defendant or his agent or such other person as aforesaid refuses to sign the acknowledgment, or where the
    serving officer, after using all due and reasonable diligence, cannot find the defendant,
    2
    [who is absent
    from his residence at the time when service is sought to be effected on him at his residence and there is no
    likelihood of his being found at the residence within a reasonable time] and there is no agent empowered
    to accept service of the summons on his behalf, nor any other person on whom service can be made, the
    serving officer shall affix a copy of the summons on the outer door or some other conspicuous part of the
    house in which the defendant ordinarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain, and
    shall then return the original to the Court from which it was issued, with a report endorsed thereon or
    annexed thereto stating that he has so affixed the copy, the circumstances under which he did so, and the
    name and address of the person (if any) by whom the house was identified and in whose presence the
    copy was affixed.
  24. Endorsement of time and manner of service.—The serving officer shall, in all cases in which
    the summons has been served under rule 16, endorse or annex, or cause to be endorsed or annexed, on or
    to the original summons, a return stating the time when and the manner in which the summons was
    served, and the name and address of the person (if any) identifying the person served and witnessing the
    delivery or tender of the summons.
  25. Examination of serving officer.—Where a summons is returned under rule 17, the Court shall, if the
    return under that rule has not been verified by the affidavit of the serving officer, and may, if it has been so
    verified, examine the serving officer on oath, or cause him to be so examined by another Court, touching his
  26. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 55, for rule 15 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  27. Ins. by s. 55, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    87
    proceedings, and may make such further enquiry in the matter as it thinks fit; and shall either declare that
    the summons has been duly served or order such service as it thinks fit.
    19A. [Simultaneous issue of summons for service by post in addition to personal service.] Omitted by
    the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1999 (46 of 1999, s. 15 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  28. Substituted service.—(1) Where the Court is satisfied that there is reason to believe that the
    defendant is keeping out of the way for the purpose of avoiding service, or that for any other reason the
    summons cannot be served in the ordinary way, the Court shall order the summons to be served by
    affixing a copy thereof in some conspicuous place in the Court-house, and also upon some conspicuous
    part of the house (if any) in which the defendant is known to have last resided or carried on business or
    personally worked for gain, or in such other manner as the Court thinks fit.
    1
    [(1A) Where the Court acting under sub-rule (1) orders service by an advertisement in a newspaper,
    the newspaper shall be a daily newspaper circulating in the locality in which the defendant is last known
    to have actually and voluntarily resided, carried on business or personally worked for gain.](2) Effect of substituted service.—Service substituted by order of the Court shall be as effectual as if
    it had been made on the defendant personally.
    (3) Where service substituted, time for appearance to be fixed.—Where service is substituted by
    order of the Court, the Court shall fix such time for the appearance of the defendant as the case may
    require.
    2
    [20A. Service of summons by post.] Rep. by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1976
    (104 of 1976), s. 55 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977)].
  29. Service of summons where defendant resides within jurisdiction of another Court.—A
    summons may be sent by the Court by which it is issued, whether within or without the State, either by
    one of its officers 3
    [or by post or by such courier service as may be approved by the High Court, by fax
    message or by Electronic Mail service or by any other means as may be provided by the rules made by the
    High Court] to any Court (not being the High Court) having jurisdiction in the place where the defendant
    resides.
  30. Service within presidency towns of summons issued by Courts outside.—Where a summons
    issued by any Court established beyond the limits of the towns of Calcutta, Madras 4
    [and Bombay] is to
    be served within any such limits, it shall be sent to the Court of Small Causes within whose jurisdiction it
    is to be served.
  31. Duty of Court to which summons is sent.—The Court to which a summons is sent under rule 21 or
    rule 22 shall, upon receipt thereof, proceed as if it had been issued by such Court and shall then return the
    summons to the Court of issue, together with the record (if any) of its proceedings with regard thereto.
  32. Service on defendant in prison.—Where the defendant is confined in a prison, the summons
    shall be delivered or sent 3
    [or by post or by such courier service as may be approved by the High Court,
    by fax message or by Electronic Mail service or by any other means as may be provided by the rules made
    by the High Court] to the officer in charge of the prison for service on the defendant.
  33. Service where defendant resides out of India and has no agent.—Where the defendant resides
    out of 5
    [India] and has no agent in 5
    [India] empowered to accept service, the summons shall be addressed
    to the defendant at the place where he is residing and sent to him 3
    [or by post or by such courier service as
    may be approved by the High Court, by fax message or by Electronic Mail service or by any other means
    as may be provided by the rules made by the High Court], if there is postal communication between such
    place and the place where the Court is situate:
  34. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 55 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  35. Ins. by Act 66 of 1956, s. 14 (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  36. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 15, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  37. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “Bombay and Rangoon”.
  38. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the State”.
    88
    1
    [Provided that where any such defendant 2
    [resides in Bangladesh or Pakistan], the summons, together
    with a copy thereof, may be sent for service on the defendant, to any Court in that country (not being the
    High Court) having jurisdiction in the place where the defendant resides :
    Provided further that where any such defendant is a public officer 3
    [in Bangladesh or Pakistan (not
    belonging to the Bangladesh or, as the case may be, Pakistan military, naval or air forces)] or is a servant
    of a railway company or local authority in that country, the summons, together with a copy thereof, may
    be sent for service on the defendant, to such officer or authority in that country as the Central Government
    may by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf.]4
    [26. Service in foreign territory through Political Agent or Court.—Where—
    (a) in the exercise of any foreign jurisdiction vested in the Central Government, a Political Agent
    has been appointed, or a Court has been established or continued, with power to serve a summons,
    issued by a Court under this Code, in any foreign territory in which the defendant actually and
    voluntarily resides, carries on business or personally works for gain, or
    (b) the Central Government has, by notification in the Official Gazette, declared in respect of any
    Court situate in any such territory and not established or continued in the exercise of any such
    jurisdiction as aforesaid, that service by such Court of any summons issued by a Court under this
    Code shall be deemed to be valid service,
    the summons may be sent to such Political Agent or Court, by post, or otherwise, or if so directed by the
    Central Government, through the Ministry of that Government dealing with foreign affairs, or in such
    other manner as may be specified by the Central Government for the purpose of being served upon the
    defendant; and, if the Political Agent or Court returns the summons with an endorsement purporting to
    have been made by such Political Agent or by the Judge or other officer of the Court to the effect that the
    summons has been served on the defendant in the manner hereinbefore directed, such endorsement shall
    be deemed to be evidence of service.
    26A. Summonses to be sent to officers to foreign countries.—Where the Central Government has, by
    notification in the Official Gazette, declared in respect of any foreign territory that summonses to be served
    on defendants actually and voluntarily residing or carrying on business or personally working for gain in that
    foreign territory may be sent to an officer of the Government of the foreign territory specified by the Central
    Government, the summonses may be sent to such officer, through the Ministry of the Government of India
    dealing with foreign affairs or in such other manner as may be specified by the Central Government; and if
    such officer returns any such summons with an endorsement purporting to have been made by him that the
    summons has been served on the defendant, such endorsement shall be deemed to be evidence of service].
  39. Service on civil public officer or on servant of railway company or local authority.—Where
    the defendant is a public officer (not belonging to the 5
    [the Indians] military 6
    [naval or air] forces 7
    ***), or
    is the servant of a railway company or local authority, the Court may, if it appears to it that the summons
    may be most conveniently so served, send it for service on the defendant to the head of the office in which
    he is employed, together with a copy to be retained by the defendant.
  40. Service on soldiers, sailors or airmen.—Where the defendant is a soldier, 8
    [sailor] 9
    [or airman],
    the Court shall send the summons for service to his commanding officer together with a copy to be
    retained by the defendant.
  41. Ins. by Act 19 of 1951, s. 2.
  42. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 53, for “resides in Pakistan,” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  43. Subs. by s. 55, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  44. Subs. by s. 55, ibid., for rule 26 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  45. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “his Majesty’s”.
  46. Subs. by Act 10 of 1927, s. 2 and the First Sch., for “or naval”.
  47. The words “or His Majesty’s Indian Marine Service” omitted by Act 35 of 1934, s. 2 and the Schedule.
  48. Ins. by s. 2 and the Schedule ibid.
  49. Ins. by Act 10 of 1927, s. 2 and the First Schedule.
    89
  50. Duty of person to whom summons is delivered or sent for service.—(1) Where a summons is
    delivered or sent to any person for service under rule 24, rule 27 or rule 28, such person shall be bound to
    serve it if possible, and to return it under his signature, with the written acknowledgment of the defendant,
    and such signature shall be deemed to be evidence of service.
    (2) Where from any cause service is impossible, the summons shall be returned to the Court with a
    full statement of such cause and of the steps taken to procure service, and such statement shall be deemed
    to be evidence of non-service.
  51. Substitution of letter for summons.— (1) The Court may, notwithstanding anything hereinbefore
    contained, substitute for a summons a letter signed by the Judge or such officer as he may appoint in this behalf,
    where the defendant is, in the opinion of the Court, of a rank entitling him to such mark of consideration.
    (2) A letter substituted under sub-rule (1) shall contain all the particulars required to be stated in a
    summons, and, subject to the provisions of sub-rule (3), shall be treated in all respects as a summons.
    (3) A letter so substituted may be sent to the defendant by post or by a special messenger selected by
    the Court, or in any other manner which the Court thinks fit; and, where the defendant has an agent
    empowered to accept service, the letter may be delivered or sent to such agent.

ORDER VI
Pleadings generally

  1. Pleading.—“Pleading” shall mean plaint or written statement.
    1
    [2. Pleading to state material facts and not evidence.—(1) Every pleading shall contain, and
    contain only, a statement in a concise form of the material facts on which the party pleading relies for his
    claim or defence, as the case may be, but not the evidence by which they are to be proved.
    (2) Every pleading shall, when necessary, be divided into paragraphs, numbered consecutively, each
    allegation being, so far as is convenient, contained in a separate paragraph.
    (3) Dates, sums and numbers shall be expressed in a pleading in figures as well as in words.]
  2. Forms of pleading.—The forms in Appendix A when applicable, and where they are not
    applicable forms of the like character, as nearly as may be, shall be used for all pleadings.
    *[3A. Forms of pleading in Commercial Courts.––In a commercial dispute, where forms of
    pleadings have been prescribed under the High Court Rules or Practice Directions made for the purposes
    of such commercial disputes, pleadings shall be in such forms.]
  3. Particulars to be given where necessary.—In all cases in which the party pleading relies on any
    misrepresentation, fraud, breach of trust, wilful default, or undue influence, and in all other cases in which
    particulars may be necessary beyond such as are exemplified in the forms aforesaid, particulars (with
    dates and items if necessary) shall be stated in the pleading.
  4. [Further and better statement, or particulars.] Omitted by the Code of Civil Procedure
    (Amendment) Act, 1999 (46 of 1999), s. 16 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  5. Condition precedent. —Any condition precedent, the performance or occurrence of which is intended
    to be contested, shall be distinctly specified in his pleading by the plaintiff or defendant, as the case may be;
    and, subject thereto, an averment of the performance or occurrence of all conditions precedent necessary for
    the case of the plaintiff or defendant shall be implied in his pleading.
  6. Departure.—No pleading shall, except by way of amendment, raise any new ground of claim or
    contain any allegation of fact inconsistent with the previous pleadings of the party pleading the same.
  7. Denial of contract.—Where a contract is alleged in any pleading, a bare denial of the same by the
    opposite party shall be construed only as a denial in fact of the express contract alleged or of the matters of fact
    from which the same may be implied, and not as a denial of the legality or sufficiency in law of such contract.
  8. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 56, for rule 2 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  • Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Sch. (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    90
  1. Effect of document to be stated.—Wherever the contents of any document are material, it shall be
    sufficient in any pleading to state the effect thereof as briefly as possible, without setting out the whole or
    any part thereof, unless the precise words of the document or any part thereof are material.
  2. Malice, knowledge, etc.—Wherever it is material to allege malice, fradulent intention, knowledge
    or other condition of the mind of any person, it shall be sufficient to allege the same as a fact without
    setting out the circumstances from which the same is to be inferred.
  3. Notice.—Wherever it is material to allege notice to any person of any fact, matter or thing, it shall
    be sufficient to allege such notice as a fact, unless the form or the precise terms of such notice, or the
    circumstances from which such notice is to be inferred, are material.
  4. Implied contract, or relation.—Whenever any contract or any relation between any persons is to
    be implied from a series of letters or conversations or otherwise from a number of circumstances, it shall
    be sufficient to allege such contract or relation as a fact, and to refer generally to such letters,
    conversations or circumstances without setting them out in detail. And if in such case the person so
    pleading desires to rely in the alternative upon more contracts or relations than one as to be implied from
    such circumstances, he may state the same in the alternative.
  5. Presumptions of law.—Neither party need in any pleading allege any matter of fact which the
    law presumes in his favour or as to which the burden of proof lies upon the other side unless the same has
    first been specifically denied (e.g., consideration for a bill of exchange where the plaintiff sues only on the
    bill and not for the consideration as a substantive ground of claim).
  6. Pleading to be signed.—Every pleading shall be signed by the party and his pleader (if any):
    Provided that where a party pleading is, by reason of absence or for other good cause, unable to sign the
    pleading, it may be signed by any person duly authorized by him to sign the same or to sue or defend on
    his behalf
    1
    [14A. Address for service of notice.—(1) Every pleading, when filed by a party, shall be accompanied
    by a statement in the prescribed form, signed as provided in rule 14, regarding the address of the party.
    (2) Such address may, from time to time, be changed by lodging in Court a form duly filled up and
    stating the new address of the party and accompanied by a verified petition.
    (3) The address furnished in the statement made under sub-rule (1) shall be called the “registered
    address” of the party, and shall, until duly changed as aforesaid, be deemed to be the address of the party
    for the purpose of service of all processes in the suit or in any appeal from any decree or order therein
    made and for the purpose of execution, and shall hold good, subject as aforesaid, for a period of two years
    after the final determination of the cause or matter.
    (4) Service of any process may be effected upon a party at his registered address in all respects as
    though such party resided thereat.
    (5) Where the registered address of a party is discovered by the Court to be incomplete. false or
    fictitious, the Court may, either on its own motion, or on the application of any party, order—
    (a) in the case where such registered address was furnished by a plaintiff, stay of the suit, or
    (b) in the case where such registered address was furnished by a defendant, his defence be
    struck out and he be placed in the same position as if he had not put up any defence.
  7. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 56 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    91
    (6) Where a suit is stayed or a defence is struck out under sub-rule (5), the plaintiff or, as the case may be,
    the defendant may, after furnishing his true address, apply to the Court for an order to set aside the order of
    stay or, as the case may be, the order striking out the defence.
    (7) The Court, if satisfied that the party was prevented by any sufficient cause from filing the true address
    at the proper time, shall set aside the order of stay or order striking out the defence, on such terms as to costs or
    otherwise as it thinks fit and shall appoint a day for proceeding with the suit or defence, as the case may be.
    (8) Nothing in this rule shall prevent the Court from directing the service of a process at any other address,
    if, for any reason, it thinks fit to do so.]
  8. Verification of pleadings.—(1) Save as otherwise provided by any law for the time being in force,
    every pleading shall be verified at the foot by the party or by one of the parties pleading or by some other
    person proved to the satisfaction of the Court to be acquainted with the facts of the case.
    (2) The person verifying shall specify, by reference to the numbered paragraphs of the pleading, what he
    verifies of his own knowledge and what he verifies upon information received and believed to be true.
    (3) The verification shall be signed by the person making it and shall state the date on which and the place
    at which it was signed.
    1
    [(4) The person verifying the pleading shall also furnish an affidavit in support of his pleadings.
    *[15A. Verification of pleadings in a commercial dispute.— (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in
    Rule 15, every pleading in a commercial dispute shall be verified by an affidavit in the manner and form
    prescribed in the Appendix to this Schedule.
    (2) An affidavit under sub-rule (1) above shall be signed by the party or by one of the parties to the
    proceedings, or by any other person on behalf of such party or parties who is proved to the satisfaction of the
    Court to be acquainted with the facts of the case and who is duly authorised by such party or parties.
    (3) Where a pleading is amended, the amendments must be verified in the form and manner referred to in
    sub-rule (1) unless the Court orders otherwise.
    (4) Where a pleading is not verified in the manner provided under sub-rule (1), the party shall not be
    permitted to rely on such pleading as evidence or any of the matters set out therein.
    (5) The Court may strike out a pleading which is not verified by a Statement of Truth, namely, the affidavit
    set out in the Appendix to this Schedule.]2
    [16. Striking out pleadings.—The Court may at any stage of the proceedings order to be struck out or
    amended any matter in any pleading—
    (a) which may be unnecessary, scandalous, frivolous or vexatious, of
    (b) which may tend to prejudice, embarrass or delay the fair trail of the suit, or
    (c) which is otherwise an abuse of the process of the Court.]3
    [17. Amendment of pleadings.—The Court may at any stage of the proceedings allow either party to
    alter or amend his pleadings in such manner and on such terms as may be just, and all such amendments shall
    be made as may be necessary for the purpose of determining the real questions in controversy between the
    parties:
    Provided that no application for amendment shall be allowed after the trial has commenced, unless the
    Court comes to the conclusion that in spite of due diligence, the party could not have raised the matter before
    the commencement of trial.
  9. Ins. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 16 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  10. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 56, for rule 16 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  11. Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 7, for rules 17 and 18 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  • Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Sch. (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    92
  1. Failure to amend after Order.—If a party who has obtained an order for leave to amend does not
    amend accordingly within the time limited for that purpose by the order, or if no time is thereby limited then
    within fourteen days from the date of the order, he shall not be permitted to amend after the expiration of such
    limited time as aforesaid or of such fourteen days, as the case may be, unless the time is extended by the
    Court.]

ORDER VII
Plaint

  1. Particulars to be contained in plaint.—The plaint shall contain the following particulars:—
    (a) the name of the Court in which the suit is brought;
    (b) the name, description and place of residence of the plaintiff;
    (c) the name, description and place of residence of the defendant, so far as they can be ascertained;
    (d) where the plaintiff or the defendant is a minor or a person of unsound mind, a statement to that
    effect;
    (e) the facts constituting the cause of action and when it arose;
    (f) the facts showing that the Court has jurisdiction;
    (g) the relief which the plaintiff claims;
    (h) where the plaintiff has allowed a set-off or relinquished a portion of his claim, the amount so
    allowed, or relinquished; and
    (i) a statement of the value of the subject-matter of the suit for the purposes of jurisdiction and of
    court-fees, so far as the case admits.
  2. In money suits.—Where the plaintiff seeks the recovery of money, the plaint shall state the precise amount
    claimed :
    But where the plaintiff sues for mesne profits, or for an amount which will be found due to him on taking
    unsettled accounts between him and the defendant, 1
    [or for movables in the possession of the defendant, or for debts
    of which the value he cannot, after the exercise of reasonable diligence, estimate, the plaint shall state approximately
    the amount or value sued for.]*[2A. Where interest is sought in the suit. — (1) Where the plaintiff seeks interest, the plaint shall contain a
    statement to that effect along with the details set out under sub-rules (2) and (3).
    (2) Where the plaintiff seeks interest, the plaint shall state whether the plaintiff is seeking interest in relation
    to a commercial transaction within the meaning of section 34 of the Code of Civil Procedure,
    1908 (5 of 1908) and, furthermore, if the plaintiff is doing so under the terms of a contract or under an Act, in
    which case the Act is to be specified in the plaint; or on some other basis and shall state the basis of that.
    (3) Pleadings shall also state—
    (a) the rate at which interest is claimed;
    (b) the date from which it is claimed;
    (c) the date to which it is calculated;
    (d) the total amount of interest claimed to the date of calculation; and
  3. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 57, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    *. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Sch. (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    93
    (e) the daily rate at which interest accrues after that date.]STATE AMENDMENT
    Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (UTs)―
    In Order VII, after Rule, insert the following Rule, namely:-
    2A. Where interest is sought in the suit.—(1) Where the plaintiff seeks interests, the plaint shall
    contain a statement to that effect along with the details set out under sub-rules (2) and (3).
    (2) Where the plaintiff seeks interest, the plaint shall state whether the plaintiff is seeking interest in
    relation to a commercial transaction within the meaning of section 34 of the Code of Civil Procedure,
    1908 and, furthermore, if the plaintiff is doing so under the terms of a contract or under an Act, in which
    case the Act is to be specified in the plaint; or on some other basis and shall state the basis of that.
    (3) Pleadings shall also state—
    (a) the rate at which interest is claimed;
    (b) the date from which it is claimed;
    (c) the date to which it is calculated;
    (d) the total amount of interest claimed to the date calculation; and
    (e) the daily rate at which interest accrues after the date.
    [Vide the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Adaptation of Central Laws) Order, 2020, notification
    No. S.O. 1123(E) dated (18-3-2020).]
  4. Where the subject-matter of the suit is immovable property.—Where the subject-matter of the suit is
    immovable property, the plaint shall contain a description of the property sufficient to identify it, and, in case such
    property can be identified by boundaries or numbers in a record of settlement or survey, the plaint shall specify such
    boundaries or numbers.
  5. When plaintiff sues as representative.—Where the plaintiff sues in a representative character the plaint
    shall show not only that he has an actual existing interest in the subject-matter, but that he has taken the steps (if
    any) necessary to enable him to institute a suit concerning it.
  6. Defendant’s interest and liability to be shown.—The plaint shall show that the defendant is or claims to be
    interested in the subject-matter, and that he is liable to be called upon to answer the plaintiff’s demand.
  7. Grounds of exemption from limitation law.—Where the suit is instituted after the expiration of the period
    prescribed by the law of limitation, the plaint shall show the ground upon which exemption from such law is
    claimed :
    1
    [Provided that the Court may permit the plaintiff to claim exemption from the law of limitation on any ground
    not set out in the plaint, if such ground is not inconsistent with the grounds set out in the plaint.]
  8. Relief to be specifically stated.—Every plaint shall state specifically the relief which the plaintiff claims
    either simply or in the alternative, and it shall not be necessary to ask for general or other relief which may always
    be given as the Court may think just to the same extent as if it had been asked for. And the same rule shall apply to
    any relief claimed by the defendant in his written statement.
  9. Relief founded on separate grounds.—Where the plaintiff seeks relief in respect of several distinct claims
    or causes of action founded upon separate and distinct grounds, they shall be stated as far as may be separately and
    distinctly.
    2
    [9. Procedure on admitting plaint.—Where the Court orders that the summons be served on the defendants in
    the manner provided in rule 9 of Order V, it will direct the plaintiff to present as many copies of the plaint on
    plain paper as there are defendants within seven days from the date of such order along with requisite fee for
    service of summons on the defendants.]
  10. The proviso added by Act 104 of 1976, s. 57, (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  11. Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 8, for rule 9 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    94
    1
  12. Return of plaint.—(1)
    2
    [ Subject to the provisions of rule 10A, the plaint shall] at any stage
    of the suit be returned to be presented to the Court in which the suit should have been instituted.
    3
    [Explanation.— For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that a Court of appeal or
    revision may direct after setting aside the decree passed in a suit, the return of the plaint under this
    sub-rule.](2) Procedure on returning plaint. —On returning a plaint, the Judge shall endorse thereon the
    date of its presentation and return, the name of the party presenting it, and a brief statement of the
    reasons for returning it.
    3
    [10A. Power of Court to fix a date of appearance in the Court where plaint is to be filed
    after its return.—(1) Where, in any suit, after the defendant has appeared, the Court is of opinion
    that the plaint should be returned, it shall, before doing so, intimate its decision to the plaintiff.](2) Where an intimation is given to the plaintiff under sub-rule (1), the plaintiff may make an
    application to thc Court—
    (a) specifying the Court in which he proposes to present the plaint after its return,
    (b) praying that the Court may fix a date for the appearance of the parties in the said Court, and
    (c) requesting that the notice of the date so fixed may be given to him and to the defendant.
    (3) Where an application is made by the plaintiff under sub-rule (2), the Court shall, before
    returning the plaint and notwithstanding that the order for return of plaint was made by it on the
    ground that it has no jurisdiction to try the suit,—
    (a) fix a date for the appearance of the parties in the Court in which the plaint is proposed to be
    presented, and
    (b) give to the plaintiff and to the defendant notice of such date for appearance.
    (4) Where the notice of the date for appearance is given under sub-rule (3),—
    (a) it shall not be necessary for the Court in which the plaint is presented after its return, to
    serve the defendant with a summons for appearance in the suit, unless that Court, for reasons to be
    recorded, otherwise directs, and
    (b) the said notice shall be deemed to be a summons for the appearance of the defendant in the
    Court in which the plaint is presented on the date so fixed by the Court by which the plaint was
    returned.
    (5) Where the application made by the plaintiff under sub-rule (2) is allowed by the Court, the
    plaintiff shall not be entitled to appeal against the order returning the plaint.
    10B. Power of appellate Court to transfer suit to the proper Court.— (1) Where, on an appeal
    against an order for the return of plaint, the Court hearing the appeal confirms such order, the Court of
    appeal may, if the plaintiff by an application so desires, while returning the plaint, direct plaintiff to
    file the plaint, subject to the provisions of the Limitation Act, 1963 (36 of 1963), in the Court in which
    the suit should have been instituted, (whether such Court is within or without the State in which the
    Court hearing the appeal is situated), and fix a date for the appearance of the parties in the Court in
    which the plaint is directed to be filed and when the date is so fixed it shall not be necessary for the
    Court in which the plaint is filed to serve the defendant with the summons for appearance in the suit,
    unless that Court in which the plaint is filed, for reasons to be recorded, otherwise directs.
  13. This rule has been applied to suits for the recovery of rent under the Chota Nagpur Tenancy Act, 1908 (Ben. 6 of 1908) s. 265.
  14. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 57, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  15. Ins. by s. 57, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    95
    (2) The direction made by the Court under sub-rule (1) shall be without any prejudice to the rights of
    the parties to question the jurisdiction of the Court, in which the plaint is filed, to try the suit.]
  16. Rejection of plaint.— The plaint shall be rejected in the following cases:—
    (a) where it does not disclose a cause of action;
    (b) where the relief claimed is undervalued, and the plaintiff, on being required by the Court to
    correct the valuation within a time to be fixed by the Court, fails to do so;
    (c) where the relief claimed is properly valued, but the plaint is returned upon paper insufficiently
    stamped, and the plaintiff, on being required by the Court to supply the requisite stamp-paper within a
    time to be fixed by the Court, fails to do so;
    (d) where the suit appears from the statement in the plaint to be barred by any law;
    1
    [(e) where it is not filed in duplicate;]2
    [(f) where the plaintiff fails to comply with the provisions of rule 9:]3
    [Provided that the time fixed by the Court for the correction of the valuation or supplying of the
    requisite stamp-paper shall not be extended unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded, is satisfied that
    the plaintiff was prevented by any cause of an exceptional nature from correcting the valuation or
    supplying the requisite stamp-paper, as the case may be, within the time fixed by the Court and that
    refusal to extend such time would cause grave injustice to the plaintiff.]
  17. Procedure on rejecting plaint.—Where a plaint is rejected the Judge shall record an order to that
    effect with the reasons for such order.
  18. Where rejection of plaint does not preclude presentation of fresh plaint.—The rejection of the
    plaint on any of the grounds hereinbefore mentioned shall not of its own force preclude the plaintiff from
    presenting a fresh plaint in respect of the same cause of action.
    Documents relied on in plaint
    4
    [14. Production of document on which plaintiff sues or relies.—(1) Where a plaintiff sues upon a
    document or relies upon document in his possession or power in support of his claim, he shall enter such
    documents in a list, and shall produce it in Court when the plaint is presented by him and shall, at the
    same time deliver the document and a copy thereof, to be filed with the plaint.
    (2) Where any such document is not in the possession or power of the plaintiff, he shall, wherever
    possible, state in whose possession or power it is.
    5
    [(3) A document which ought to be produced in Court by the plaintiff when the plaint is presented, or
    to be entered in the list to be added or annexed to the plaint but is not produced or entered accordingly,
    shall not, without the leave of the Court, be received in evidence on his behalf at the hearing of the suit.](4) Nothing in this rule shall apply to document produced for the cross-examination of the plaintiffs
    witnesses, or handed over to a witness merely to refresh his memory.]
  19. [Statement in case of documents not in plaintiff possession or powers.] omitted by Act 46 of 1999
    s. 17 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  20. Suits on lost negotiable instruments.—Where the suit is founded upon a negotiable instrument,
    and it is proved that the instrument is lost, and an indemnity is given by the plaintiff, to the satisfaction of
    the Court, against the claims of any other person upon such instrument, the Court may pass such decree as
    it would have passed if the plaintiff had produced the instrument in Court when the plaint was presented,
    and had at the same time delivered a copy of the instrument to be filed with the plaint.
  21. Ins. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 17 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  22. Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 8, for sub-clauses (f) and (g) (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  23. Added by Act 104 of 1976, s. 57 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  24. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 17, for rule 14 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  25. Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 8, for sub-rule (3) (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    96
  26. Production of shop-book.—(1) Save in so far as is otherwise provided by the Bankers’ Books Evidence
    Act, 1891 (XVIII of 1891), where the document on which the plaintiff sues is an entry in a shop-book or other
    account in his possession or power, the plaintiff shall produce the book or account at the time of filing the plaint,
    together with a copy of the entry on which he relies.
    (2) Original entry to be marked and returned.—The Court or such officer as it appoints in this behalf, shall
    forthwith mark the document for the purpose of identification; and, after examining and comparing the copy with the
    original, shall, if it is found correct, certify it to be so and return the book to the plaintiff and cause the copy to be
    filed.
  27. [Inadmissibility of document not produced when plaint filed.] omitted by Act 22 of 2002, s. 8 (w. e. f. 1-7-
    2002).

ORDER VIII
1
[Written statement, set-off and counter-claim]2
[1. Written Statement.—The Defendant shall, within thirty days from the date of service of
summons on him, present a written statement of his defence:
Provided that where the defendant fails to file the written statement within the said period of thirty
days, he shall be allowed to file the same on such other day, as may be specified by the Court, for reasons
to be recorded in writing, but which shall not be later than ninety days from the date of service of
summons.]*[Provided that where the defendant fails to file the written statement within the said period of thirty
days, he shall be allowed to file the written statement on such other day, as may be specified by the Court,
for reasons to be recorded in writing and on payment of such costs as the Court deems fit, but which shall
not be later than one hundred twenty days from the date of service of summons and on expiry of one
hundred twenty days from the date of service of summons, the defendant shall forfeit the right to file the
written statement and the Court shall not allow the written statement to be taken on record.]STATE AMENDMENTS
Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (UTs). —
In Rule 1, for the proviso thereto, substitute the following proviso, namely,-
Provided that where the defendant fails to file the written statement with the said period of thirty days,
he shall be allowed to file the written statement on such other day, as may be specified by the court, for
reasons to be recorded in writing and on payment of such costs as the court deems fit, but which shall not
be later than one hundred twenty days from the date of service of summons and on expiry of one hundred
twenty days from the date of service of summons, the defendant shall forfeit the right to file the written
statement and the court shall not allow the written statement to be taken on record.
[Vide the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Adaptation of Central Laws) Order, 2020,
notification No. S.O. 1123(E) dated (18-3-2020)].
3
[1A. Duty of defendant to produce documents upon which relief is claimed or relied upon by
him.—(1) Where the defendant bases his defence upon a document or relies upon any document in his
possession or power, in support of his defence or claim for set-off or counter-claim, he shall enter such
document in a list, and shall produce it in Court when the written statement is presented by him and shall, at
the same time, deliver the document and a copy thereof, to be filed with the written statement.
(2) Where any such document is not in the possession or power of the defendant, he shall, wherever
possible, state in whose possession or power it is.

  1. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 58, for the former heading (w.e.f. 1 -2-1977).
  2. Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 9, for rule 1 (w.e.f 1-7-2002).
  3. Ins. by Act 46 of 1999, s.18 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    97
    1
    [(3) A document which ought to be produced in Court by the defendant under this rule, but, is not so
    produced shall not, without the leave of the Court, be received in evidence on his behalf at the hearing of
    the suit.](4) Nothing in this rule shall apply to documents—
    (a) produced for the cross-examination of the plaintiff’s witnesses, or
    (b) handed over to a witness merely to refresh his memory.]
  4. New facts must be specially pleaded.—The defendant must raise by his pleading all matters which
    show the suit not be maintainable, or that the transaction is either void or voidable in point of law, and all
    such grounds of defence as, if not raised, would be likely to take the opposite party by surprise, or would
    raise issues of fact not arising out of the plaint, as, for instance, fraud, limitation, release, payment,
    performance, or facts showing illegality.
  5. Denial to be specific.—It shall not be sufficient for a defendant in his written statement to deny
    generally the grounds alleged by the plaintiff, but the defendant must deal specifically with each
    allegation of fact of which he does not admit the truth, except damages.
    *[3A. Denial by the defendant in suits before the Commercial Division of the High Court or the
    Commercial Court.— (1) Denial shall be in the manner provided in sub-rules (2), (3), (4) and (5) of this
    Rule.
    (2) The defendant in his written statement shall state which of the allegations in the particulars of
    plaint he denies, which allegations he is unable to admit or deny, but which he requires the plaintiff to
    prove, and which allegations he admits.
    (3) Where the defendant denies an allegation of fact in a plaint, he must state his reasons for doing so
    and if he intends to put forward a different version of events from that given by the plaintiff, he must state
    his own version.
    (4) If the defendant disputes the jurisdiction of the Court he must state the reasons for doing so, and if
    he is able, give his own statement as to which Court ought to have jurisdiction.
    (5) If the defendant disputes the plaintiff’s valuation of the suit, he must state his reasons for doing so,
    and if he is able, give his own statement of the value of the suit.]STATE AMENDMENT
    Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (UTs).―
    After Rue 3, insert the following Rule, namely,-
    3A. Denial by the defendant in suits.—(1) Denial shall be in the manner provided in sub-rules (2),
    (3), (4) and (5) of this rule.
    (2) The defendant in his written statement shall state which of the allegations in the particulars of
    plaint he denies, which allegations he is unable to admit or deny, but which he requires the plaintiff to
    prove, and which allegations he admits.
    (3) Where the defendant denies an allegation of fact in a plaint, he must state his reasons for doing so
    and if he intends to put forward a different version of events from that given by the plaintiff, he must state
    his own version.
    (4) If the defendant disputes the jurisdiction of the court he must state the reasons for doing so, and if
    he is able, give his own statement as to which court ought to have jurisdiction.
    (5) If the defendant disputes the plaintiff valuation of the suit, he must state his reasons for doing so,
    and if he is able, give his own statement of the value of the suit.
    [Vide the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Adaptation of Central Laws) Order, 2020, notification
    No. S.O. 1123(E) dated (18-3-2020).]
  6. Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 9, for sub-rule (3) (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    *. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Sch. (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    98
  7. Evasive-denial.—Where a defendant denies an allegation of fact in the plaint, he must not do so
    evasively, but answer the point of substance. Thus, if it is alleged that he received a certain sum of money,
    it shall not be sufficient to deny that he received that particular amount, but he must deny that he received
    that sum or any part thereof, or else set out how much he received. And if an allegation is made with
    diverse circumstances, it shall not be sufficient to deny it along with those circumstances.
  8. Specific denial.—1
    [(1)] Every allegation of fact in the plaint, if not denied specifically or by
    necessary implication, or stated to be not admitted in the pleading of the defendant, shall be taken to be
    admitted except as against a person under disability:
    Provided that the Court may in its discretion require any fact so admitted to be proved otherwise than
    by such admission:
    *[Provided further that every allegation of fact in the plaint, if not denied in the manner provided
    under Rule 3A of this Order, shall be taken to be admitted except as against a person under disability.]2
    [(2) Where the defendant has not filed a pleading, it shall be lawful for the court to pronounce
    judgment on the basis of the facts contained in the plaint, except as against a person under a disability, but
    the Court may, in its discretion, require any such fact to be proved.
    (3) In exercising its discretion under the proviso to sub-rule (1) or under sub-rule (2), the Court shall
    have due regard to the fact whether the defendant could have, or has, engaged a pleader.
    (4) Whenever a judgment is pronounced under this rule, a decree shall be drawn up in accordance
    with such judgment and such decree shall bear the date on which the judgment was pronounced.]STATE AMENDMENT
    Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (UTs).—
    In Rule 5, in sub-rule (1) after first proviso thereto, insert the following proviso, namely:-
    Provided further, that every allegation of fact in the plaint, if not denied in the manner provided under
    Rue 3-A of this order, shall be taken to be admitted except as against a person under disability.
    [Vide the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Adaptation of Central Laws) Order, 2020, notification
    No. S.O. 1123(E) dated (18-3-2020).]
  9. Particulars of set-off to be given in written statement.—(1) Where in a suit for the recovery of
    money the defendant claims to set-off against the plaintiff’s demand any ascertained sum of money legally
    recoverable by him from the plaintiff, not exceeding the pecuniary limits of the jurisdiction of the Court, and
    both parties fill the same character as they fill in the plaintiff’s suit, the defendant may, at the first hearing of the
    suit, but not afterwards unless permitted by the Court, presents a written statement containing the particulars of
    the debt sought to be set-off.
    (2) Effect of set-off.—The written statement shall have the same effect as a plaint in a cross-suit so as
    to enable the court to pronounce a final judgment in respect both of the original claim and of the set-off:
    but this shall not affect the lien, upon the amount decreed, of any pleader in respect of the costs payable to
    him under the decree.
    (3) The rules relating to a written statement by a defendant apply to a written statement in answer to a
    claim of set-off.
    Illustrations
    (a) A bequeaths Rs. 2,000 to B and appoints C his executor and residuary legatee. B dies and D takes out administration
    to B’s effects, C pays Rs, 1,000 as surety for D; then D sues C for the legacy. C cannot set-off the debt of Rs. 1,000
    against the legacy, for neither C nor D fills the same character with respect to the legacy as they fill with respect to
    the payment of the Rs. 1,000.
    (b) A dies intestate and in debt to B. C takes out administration to A’s effects and B buys part of the effects from C.
    In a suit for the purchase-money by C against B, the latter cannot set-off the debt against the price, for C fills
    two different characters, one as the vendor to B, in which he sues B, and the other as representative to A.
    (c) A sues B on a bill of exchange. B alleges that A has wrongfully neglected to insure B’s goods and is liable to him in
    compensation which he claims to set-off. The amount not being ascertained cannot be set-off.
    (d) A sues B on a bill of exchange for Rs. 500. B holds a judgment against A for Rs. 1,000. The two claims being both definite
    pecuniary demands may be set-off.
  10. Rule 5 renumbered as sub-rule (I) by Act 104 of 1976, s. 58 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  11. Ins. by s. 58, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    *. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Schedule (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    99
    (e) A sues B for compensation on account of trespass. B hold a promissory note for Rs. 1,000 from A and claims to set-off that
    amount against any sum that A may recover in the suit. B may do so, for, as soon as A recovers, both sums are definite
    pecuniary demands.
    (f) A and B sue C for Rs. 1,000. C cannot set-off a debt due to him by A alone.
    (g) A sues B and C for Rs. 1,000. B cannot set-off a debt due to him alone by A.
    (h) A owes the partnership firm of B and C Rs. 1,000. B dies, leaving C surviving. A sues C for a debt for Rs. 1,500 due in his
    separate character. C may set-off the debt of Rs. 1,000.
    1
    [6A. Counter-claim by defendant.—(1) A defendant in a suit may, in addition to his right of
    pleading a set-off under rule 6, set up, by way of counter-claim against the claim of the plaintiff, any
    right or claim in respect of a cause of action accruing to the defendant against the plaintiff either before
    or after the filing of the suit but before the defendant has delivered his defence or before the time limited
    for delivering his defence has expired, whether such counter-claim is in the nature of a claim for
    damages or not:
    Provided that such counter-claim shall not exceed the pecuniary limits of the jurisdiction of the
    court.
    (2) Such counter-claim shall have the same effect as a cross-suit so as to enable the Court to pronounce a final judgment in the same suit, both on the original claim and on the counter-claim.
    (3) The plaintiff shall be at liberty to file a written statement in answer to the counter-claim of the
    defendant within such period as may be fixed by the court.
    (4) The counter-claim shall be treated as a plaint and governed by the rules applicable to plaints.
    6B. Counter-claim to be stated.— Where any defendant seeks to rely upon any ground as supporting a right of counter-claim, he shall, in his written statement, state specifically that he does so by way of
    counter-claim.
    6C. Exclusion of counter-claim.—Where a defendant sets up a counter-claim and the plaintiff contends that the claim thereby raised ought not to be disposed of by way of counter-claim but in an independent suit, the plaintiff may, at any time before issues are settled in relation to the counter-claim, apply to
    the Court for an order that such counter-claim may be excluded, and the Court may, on the hearing of
    such application make such order as it thinks fit.
    6D. Effect of discontinuance of suit.— If in any case in which the defendant sets up a counterclaim,
    the suit of the plaintiff is stayed, discontinued or dismissed, the counter-claim may nevertheless be
    proceeded with.
    6E. Default of plaintiff to reply to counter-claim.—If the plaintiff makes default in putting in a
    reply to the counter-claim made by the defendant, the Court may pronounce judgment against the plaintiff
    in relation to the counter-claim made against him, or make such order in relation to the counter-claim as it
    thinks fit.
    6F. Relief to defendant where counter-claim succeeds.—Where in any suit a set-off or counterclaim is established as a defence against the plaintiff’s claim and any balance is found due to the
    plaintiff or the defendant, as the case may be. the Court may give judgment to the party entitled to
    such balance.
    6G. Rules relating to written statement to apply.—The rules relating to a written statement by a
    defendant shall apply to a written statement filed in answer to a counter-claim.]
  12. Defence or set-off founded upon separate grounds.—Where the defendant relies upon several
    distinct grounds of defence or set-off 1
    [or counter-claim] founded upon separate and distinct facts, they
    shall be stated, as far as may be, separately and distinctly.
  13. New ground of defence.—Any ground of defence which has arisen after the institution of the suit
    or the presentation of a written statement claiming a set-off 1
    [or counter-claim] may be raised by the
    defendant or plaintiff, as the case may be, in his written statement.
  14. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 58 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    100
    8A. [Duty of defendant to produce documents upon which relief is claimed by him.] omitted by Act
    46 of 1999, s. 18 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    1
    [9. Subsequent pleadings.—No pleading subsequent to the written statement of a defendant other
    than by way of defence to set-off or counter-claim shall be presented except by the leave of the Court
    and upon such terms as the Court thinks fit; but the Court may at any time require a written statement or
    additional written statement from any of the parties and fix a time of not more than thirty days for
    presenting the same.
  15. Procedure when party fails to present written statement called for by Court.—Where any
    party from whom a written statement is required under rule 1 or rule 9 fails to present the same within the
    time permitted or fixed by the Court, as the case may be, the Court shall pronounce judgment against him,
    or make such order in relation to the suit as it thinks fit and on the pronouncement of such judgment a
    decree shall be drawn up:]*[Provided further that no Court shall make an order to extend the time provided under Rule 1 of this
    Order for filing of the written statement.]STATE AMENDMENT
    Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (UTs).―
    In Rule 10, insert the following proviso, namely:-
    Provided that no court shall make an order to extend the time provided under Rule 1 of this order for filing of
    the written statement.
    [Vide the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Adaptation of Central Laws) Order, 2020, notification
    No. S.O. 1123(E) dated (18-3-2020).]

ORDER IX
Appearance of parties and consequence of non-appearance

  1. Parties to appear on day fixed in summons for defendant to appear and answer.—On the day
    fixed in the summons for the defendant to appear and answer, the parties shall be in attendance at the
    Court-house in person or by their respective pleaders, and the suit shall then be heard unless the hearing is
    adjourned to a future day fixed by the Court.
    2
    [2. Dismissal of suit where summons not served in consequence of plaintiff’s failure to pay
    costs.—Where on the day so fixed it is found that summons has not been served upon the defendant in
    consequence of the failure of the plaintiff to pay the court-fee or postal charges, if any, chargeable for
    such service, or failure to present copies of the plaint as required by rule 9 of Order VII, the Court may
    make an order that the suit be dismissed:
    Provided that no such order shall be made, if notwithstanding such failure, the defendant attends in
    person or by agent when he is allowed to appear by agent on the day fixed for him to appear and answer.]
  2. Where neither party appears suit to be dismissed.—Where neither party appears when the suit is
    called on for hearing, the court may make an order that the suit be dismissed.
  3. Plaintiff may bring fresh suit or Court may restore suit to file.—Where a suit is dismissed
    under rule 2 or rule 3, the plaintiff may (subject to the law of limitation) bring a fresh suit; or he may
    apply for an order to set the dismissal aside, and if he satisfies the Court that there was sufficient cause for
    3
    [such failure as is referred to in rule 2], or for his non-appearance, as the case may be, the Court shall
    make an order setting aside the dismissal and shall appoint a day for proceeding with the suit.
  4. Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 9, for rules 9 and 10 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  5. Subs. by s. 10, ibid., for rule 2 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  6. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976 s. 59, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    *. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Sch. (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    101
  7. Dismissal of suit where plaintiff after summons returned unserved, fails for 1
    [seven days] to
    apply for fresh summons. —2
    [(1) Where after a summons has been issued to the defendant, or to one of
    several defendants, and returned unserved, the plaintiff fails, for a period of 1
    [seven days] from the date of the
    return made to the Court by the officer ordinarily certifying to the Court returns made by the serving officers,
    to apply for the issue of a fresh summons the Court shall make an order that the suit be dismissed as against
    such defendant, unless the plaintiff has within the said period satisfied the Court that—
    (a) he has failed after using his best endeavours to discover the residence of the defendant, who
    has not been served, or
    (b) such defendant is avoiding service of process, or
    (c) there is any other sufficient cause for extending the time,
    in which case the Court may extend the time for making such application for such period as it thinks fit.](2) In such case the plaintiff may (subject to the law of limitation) bring a fresh suit.
  8. Procedure when only plaintiff appears.—(1) Where the plaintiff appears and the defendant does
    not appear when the suit is called on for hearing, then—
    3
    [(a) When summons duly served.—if it is proved that the summons was duly served, the Court
    may make an order that the suit shall be heard ex parte;](b) When summons not duly served.—if it is not proved that the summons was duly served, the
    Court shall direct a second summons to be issued and served on the defendant;
    (c) When summons served but not in due time.—if it is proved that the summons was served
    on the defendant, but not in sufficient time to enable him to appear and answer on the day fixed in the
    summons,
    the Court shall postpone the hearing of the suit to a future day to be fixed by the Court, and shall direct
    notice of such day to be given to the defendant.
    (2) Where it is owing to the plaintiff’s default that the summons was not duly served or was not served
    in sufficient time, the Court shall order the plaintiff to pay the costs occasioned by the postponement.
  9. Procedure where defendant appears on day of adjourned hearing and assigns good cause for
    previous non-appearance.—Where the Court has adjourned the hearing of the suit, ex parte, and the
    defendant, at or before such hearing appears and assigns good cause for his previous non-appearance, he may,
    upon such terms as the Court directs as to costs or otherwise, be heard in answer to the suit as if he had
    appeared on the day fixed for his appearance.
  10. Procedure where defendant only appears.—Where the defendant appears and the plaintiff does
    not appear when the suit is called on for hearing, the Court shall make an order that the suit be dismissed,
    unless the defendant admits the claim, or part thereof, in which case the Court shall pass a decree against
    the defendant upon such admission, and where part only of the claim has been admitted, shall dismiss the
    suit so far as it relates to the remainder.
  11. Decree against plaintiff by default bars fresh suit.—(1) Where a suit is wholly or partly dismissed under rule 8, the plaintiff shall be precluded from bringing a fresh suit in respect of the same cause
    of action. But he may apply for an order to set the dismissal aside, and if he satisfies the Court that there
    was sufficient cause for his non-appearance when the suit was called on for hearing, the Court shall make
    an order setting aside the dismissal upon such terms as to costs or otherwise as it thinks fit, and shall
    appoint a day for proceeding with the suit.
    (2) No order shall be made under this rule unless notice of the application has been served on the
    opposite party.
  12. Procedure in case of non-attendance of one or more of several plaintiff’s.—Where there are
    more plaintiffs than one, and one or more of them appear, and the others do not appear, the Court may, at
    the instance of the plaintiff or plaintiff’s appearing, permit the suit to proceed in the same way as if all the
    plaintiff’s had appeared, or make such order as it thinks fit.
  13. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 19, for “one month” (w.e.f 1-7-2002).
  14. Subs. by Act 24 of 1920 s. 2, for sub-rule (1).
  15. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 59, for cl. (a) (w.e.f 1-2-1977).
    102
  16. Procedure in case of non-attendance of one or more of several defendants.—Where there are
    more defendants than one, and one or more of them appear, and the others do not appear, the suit shall
    proceed, and the Court shall, at the time of pronouncing judgment, make such order as it thinks fit with
    respect to the defendants who do not appear.
  17. Consequence of non-attendance, without sufficient cause shown, of party ordered to appear
    in person.—Where a plaintiff or defendant, who has been ordered to appear in person, does not appear in
    person, or show sufficient cause to the satisfaction of the court for failing so to appear, he shall be subject
    to all provisions of the foregoing rules applicable to plaintiffs and defendants, respectively who do not
    appear.
    Setting aside Decrees ex parte
  18. Setting aside decree ex parte against defendant.—In any case in which a decree is passed
    ex parte against a defendant, he may apply to the Court by which the decree was passed for an order to set
    it aside; and if he satisfies the Court that the summons was not duly served, or that he was prevented by
    any sufficient cause from appearing when the suit was called on for hearing, the Court shall make an order
    setting aside the decree as against him upon such terms as to costs, payment into Court or otherwise as it
    thinks fit, and shall appoint a day for proceeding with the suit:
    Provided that where the decree is of such a nature that it cannot be set aside as against such defendant
    only it may be set aside as against all or any of the other defendants also:
    1
    [Provided further than no Court shall set aside a decree passed ex parte merely on the ground that
    there has been an irregularity in the service of summons, if it is satisfied that the defendant had notice of
    the date of hearing and had sufficient time to appear and answer the plaintiff’s claim.]2
    [Explanation.—Where there has been an appeal against a decree passed ex parte under this rule, and
    the appeal has been disposed of an any ground other than the ground that the appellant has withdrawn the
    appeal, no application shall lie under this rule for setting aside that ex parte decree.]
  19. No decree to be set aside without notice to opposite party.—No decree shall be set aside on any
    such application as aforesaid unless notice thereof has been served on the opposite party.
    ORDER X
    Examination of parties by the court
  20. Ascertainment whether allegations in pleadings are admitted or denied.—At the first hearing
    of the suit the Court shall ascertain from each party or his pleader whether he admits or denies such
    allegations of fact as are made in the plaint or written statement (if any) of the opposite party, and as are
    not expressly or by necessary implication admitted or denied by the party against whom they are made.
    The Court shall record such admissions and denials.
    3
    [1A. Direction of the court to opt for any one mode of alternative dispute resolution.—After
    recording the admissions and denials, the court shall direct the parties to the suit to opt either mode of the
    settlement outside the court as specified in sub-section (1) of section 89. On the option of the parties, the
    court shall fix the date of appearance before such forum or authority as may be opted by the parties.
    1B. Appearance before the conciliatory forum or authority.—Where a suit is referred under rule
    1A, the parties shall appear before such forum or authority for conciliation of the suit.
    1C. Appearance before the court consequent to the failure of efforts of conciliation.—Where a suit is
    referred under rule 1A, and the presiding officer of conciliation forum or authority is satisfied that it
    would not be proper in the interest of justice to proceed with the matter further, then, it shall refer the
    matter again to the court and direct the parties to appear before the court on the date fixed by it.]4
    [2. Oral examination of party, or companion of party.—(1) At the first hearing of the suit, the Court—
    (a) shall, with a view to elucidating matters in controversy in the suit examine orally such of the
    parties to the suit appearing in person or present in Court, as it deems fit; and
    (b) may orally examine any person, able to answer any material question relating to the suit, by
    whom any party appearing in person or present in Court or his pleader is accompanied.
  21. The proviso added by Act 104 of 1976, s. 59 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  22. Explanation ins. by s. 59, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  23. Ins. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 20 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  24. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 60, for rule 2 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    103
    (2) At any subsequent hearing, the Court may orally examine any party appearing in person or
    present in Court, or any person, able to answer any material question relating to the suit, by whom such
    party or his pleader is accompanied.
    (3) The Court may, if it thinks fit, put in the course of an examination under this rule questions
    suggested by either party.]1
  25. Substance of examination to be written.—The substance of the examination shall be reduced
    to writing by the Judge, and shall form part of the record.
  26. Consequence of refusal or inability of pleader to answer.—(1) Where the pleader of any party
    who appears by a pleader or any such person accompanying a pleader as is referred to in rule 2, refuses
    or is unable to answer any material question relating to the suit which the Court is of opinion that the
    party whom he represents ought to answer, and is likely to be able to answer if interrogated in person,
    the Court 2
    [may postpone the hearing of the suit to a day not later than seven days from the date of first
    hearing] and direct that such party shall appear in person on such day.
    (2) If such party fails without lawful excuse to appear in person on the day so appointed, the Court
    may pronounce judgment against him, or make such order in relation to the suit as it thinks fit.

ORDER XI
Discovery and Inspection

  1. Discovery by interrogatories.—In any suit the plaintiff or defendant by leave of the Court may deliver
    interrogatories in writing for the examination of the opposite parties or any one or more of such parties and
    such interrogatories when delivered shall have a note at the foot thereof stating which of such interrogatories
    each of such person is required to answer: Provided that no party shall deliver more than one set of
    interrogatories to the same party without an order for that purpose: Provided also that interrogatories which do
    not relate to any matters in question in the suit shall be deemed irrelevant, notwithstanding that they might be
    admissible on the oral cross-examination of a witness.
  2. Particular interrogatories to be submitted.—On an application for leave to deliver interrogatories,
    the particular interrogatories proposed to be delivered shall be submitted to the Court 3
    [and that court shall
    decide within seven days from the day of filing of the said application]. In deciding upon such application,
    the Court shall take into account any offer, which may be made by the party sought to be interrogated to
    deliver particulars, or to make admissions, or to produce documents relating to the matters in question, or
    any of them, and leave shall be given as to such only of the interrogatories submitted as the Court shall
    consider necessary either for disposing fairly of the suit or for saving costs.
  3. Costs of interrogatories.—In adjusting the costs of the suit inquiry shall at the instance of any
    party be made into the propriety of exhibiting such interrogatories, and if it is the opinion of the taxing
    officer or of the Court, either with or without an application for inquiry, that such interrogatories have
    been exhibited unreasonably, vexatiously, or at improper length, the cost occasioned by the
    interrogatories and the answers thereto shall be paid in any even by the party in fault.
  4. Form of interrogatories.—Interrogatories shall be in Form No. 2 in Appendix C, with such
    variations as circumstances may require.
  5. Corporations.—Where any party to a suit is a corporation or a body of persons, whether
    incorporated or not, empowered by law to sue or be sued, whether in its own name or in the name of any
    officer or other person, any opposite party may apply for an order allowing him to deliver interrogatories
    to any member or officer of such corporation or body, and an order may be made accordingly.
  6. Objections to interrogatories by answer.—Any objection to answering any interrogatory on the
    ground that it is scandalous or irrelevant or not exhibited bona fide for the purpose of the suit, or that the
    matters inquired into are not sufficiently material at that stage, 4
    [or on the ground of privilege or any
    other ground], may be taken in the affidavit in answer.
  7. This rule is not applicable to the Chief Court of Oudh, see the Oudh Court Act, 1925 (U.P. 4 of 19.
    25), s. 16(2).
  8. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 20, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  9. Ins. by s. 21, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  10. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 61, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    104
  11. Setting aside and striking out interrogatories.—Any interrogatories may be set aside on the
    ground that they have been exhibited unreasonably or vexatiously, or struck out on the ground that they
    are prolix, oppressive, unnecessary or scandalous; and any application for this purpose may be made
    within seven days after service of the interrogatories.
  12. Affidavit in answer, filing.—Interrogatories shall be answered by affidavit to be filed within ten
    days or within such other time as the Court may allow.
  13. Form of affidavit in answer.—An affidavit in answer to interrogatories shall be in Form No. 3 in
    Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
  14. No exception to be taken.—No exceptions shall be taken to any affidavit in answer, but the
    sufficiency or otherwise of any such affidavit objected to as insufficient shall be determined by the Court.
  15. Order to answer or answer further.—Where any person interrogated omits to answer, or
    answer insufficiently, the party interrogating may apply to the Court for an order requiring him to
    answer, or to answer further, as the case may be. And an order may be made requiring him to answer or
    answer further, either by affidavit or by viva voce examination, as the Court may direct.
  16. Application for discovery of documents.—Any party may, without filing any affidavit, apply to
    the Court for an order directing any other party to any suit to make discovery on oaths, of the documents
    which are or have been in his possession or power, relating to any matter in question therein. On the
    hearing of such application the Court may either refuse or adjourn the same, if satisfied that such
    discovery is not necessary, or not necessary at that stage of the suit, or make such order, either generally
    or limited to certain classes of documents, as may, in its discretion be thought fit: Provided that discovery
    shall not be ordered when and so far as the Court shall be of opinion that it is not necessary either for
    disposing fairly of the suit or for saving costs.
  17. Affidavit of documents.—The affidavit to be made by a party against whom such order as is
    mentioned in the last preceding rule has been made, shall specify which (if any) of the documents therein
    mentioned he objects to produce, and it shall be in Form No. 5 in Appendix C, with such variations as
    circumstances may require.
  18. Production of documents.—It shall be lawful for the Court, at any time during the pendency of
    any suit, to order the production by any party thereto, upon oath, of such of the documents in his
    possession or power, relating to any matter in question in such suit, as the Court shall think right; and the
    Court may deal with such documents, when produced, in such manner as shall appear just.
  19. Inspection of documents referred to in pleadings or affidavits.—Every party to a suit shall be
    entitled 1
    [at or before the settlement of issues] to give notice to any other party, in whose pleadings or
    affidavits reference is made to any document,
    2
    [or who has entered any document in any list annexed to
    his pleadings,] to produce such document for the inspection of the party giving such notice, or of his
    pleader, and to permit him or them to take copies thereof; and any party not complying with such notice
    shall not afterwards be at liberty to put any such document in evidence on his behalf in such suit unless
    he shall satisfy the Court that such document relates only to his own title, he being a defendant to the
    suit, or that he had some other cause or excuse which the Court shall deem sufficient for not complying
    with such notice, in which case the Court may allow the same to be put in evidence on such terms as to
    costs and otherwise as the Court shall think fit.
  20. Notice to produce.—Notice to any party to produce any documents referred to in his pleading or
    affidavits shall be in Form No. 7 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
  21. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 21, for “at any time” (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  22. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 61 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    105
  23. Time for inspection when notice given.—The party to whom such notice is given shall, within
    ten days from the receipt of such notice, deliver to the party giving the same a notice stating a time within
    three days from the delivery thereof at which the documents, or such of them as he does not object to
    produce, may be inspected at the office of his pleader, or in the case of bankers’ books or other books of
    account or books in constant use for the purposes of any trade or business, at their usual place of custody,
    and stating which (if any) of the documents he objects to produce, and on what ground. Such notice shall
    be in Form No. 8 in Appendix C; with such variations as circumstances may require.
  24. Order for inspection.—(1) Where the party served with notice rule 15 omits to give such notice
    of a time for inspection or objects to give inspection, or offers inspection elsewhere than at the office of
    his pleader, the Court may, on the application of the party desiring it, make an order for inspection in such
    place and in such manner as it may think fit: Provided that the order shall not be made when and so far as
    the Court shall be of opinion that it is not necessary either for disposing fairly of the suit or for saving
    costs.
    (2) Any application to inspect documents, except such as are referred to in the pleadings, particulars
    or affidavit of the party against whom the application is made or disclosed in his affidavit of documents,
    shall be founded upon an affidavit showing of what documents inspection is sought, that the party
    applying is entitled to inspect them, and that they are in the possession or power of the other party. The
    Court shall not make such order for inspection of such documents when and so far as the Court shall be of
    opinion that it is not necessary either for disposing fairly of the suit or for saving costs.
  25. Verified copies.—(1) Where inspection of any business books is applied for, the Court may, if it
    thinks fit, instead of ordering inspection of the original books, order a copy of any entries therein to be
    furnished and verified by the affidavit of some person who has examined the copy with the original
    entries, and such affidavit shall state whether or not there are in the original book any and what erasures,
    interlineations or alterations: Provided that, notwithstanding that such copy has been supplied, the Court
    may order inspection of the book from which the copy was made.
    (2) Where on an application for an order for inspection privilege is claimed for any document, it shall
    be lawful for the Court to inspect the document for the purpose of deciding as to the validity of the claim
    of privilege 1
    [unless the document relates to matters of State.](3) The Court may, on the application of any party to suit at any time, and whether an affidavit of
    documents shall or shall not have already been ordered or made, make an order requiring any other
    party to state by affidavit whether any one or more specific documents, to be specified in the
    application, is or are, or has or have at any time been, in his possession or power; and, if not then in
    his possession, when he parted with the same and what has become thereof. Such application shall be
    made on an affidavit stating that in the belief of the deponent the party against whom the application
    is made has, or has at some time had in his possession or power the document or documents specified
    in the application, and that they relate to the matters in question in the suit, or to some of them.
  26. Premature discovery.—Where the party from whom discovery of any kind or inspection is
    sought objects to the same, or any part thereof, the Court may, if satisfied that the right to the discovery or
    inspection sought depends on the determination of any issue or question in dispute in the suit, or that for
    any other reason it is desirable that any issue or question in dispute in the suit should be determined before
    deciding upon the right to the discovery or inspection, order that such issue or question be determined
    first, and reserve the question as to the discovery or inspection.
  27. Non-compliance with order for discovery.—2
    [(1)] Where any party fails to comply with any order to
    answer interrogatories, or for discovery or inspection of documents, he shall, if a plaintiff, be liable to have his
    suit dismissed for want of prosecution, and, if a defendant, to have his defence, if any struck out, and to be
  28. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 61 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  29. Rule 21 renumbered as sub-rule (1) by s. 61, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-19.77).
    106
    placed in the same position as if he had not defended, and the party interrogating or seeking discovery or
    inspection may apply to the Court for an order to that effect and 1
    [an order may be made on such
    application accordingly, after notice to the parties and after giving them a reasonable opportunity of being
    heard.]2
    [(2) Where an order is made under sub-rule (1) dismissing any suit, the plaintiff shall be precluded
    from bringing a fresh suit on the same cause of action.]
  30. Using answer to interrogatories at trial.—Any party may, at the trial of a suit, use in evidence
    any one or more of the answers or any part of an answer of the opposite party to interrogatories without
    putting in the others or the whole of such answer : Provided always that in such case the Court may look
    at the whole of the answers, and if it shall be of opinion that any others of them are so connected with
    those put in that the last-mentioned answer ought not to be used without them, it may direct them to be put
    in.
  31. Order to apply to minors.—This Order shall apply to minor plaintiffs and defendants, and to the
    next friends and guardians for the suit of persons under disability.

*[ORDER XI
Disclosure, Discovery and inspection of documents in suits before the commercial division of a high
court or a commercial court

  1. Disclosure and discovery of documents.—(1) Plaintiff shall file a list of all documents and
    photocopies of all documents, in its power, possession, control or custody, pertaining to the suit, along
    with the plaint, including:—
    (a) documents referred to and relied on by the plaintiff in the plaint;
    (b) documents relating to any matter in question in the proceedings, in the power, possession,
    control or custody of the plaintiff, as on the date of filing the plaint, irrespective of whether the same
    is in support of or adverse to the plaintiff’s case;
    (c) nothing in this Rule shall apply to documents produced by plaintiffs and relevant only––
    (i) for the cross-examination of the defendant’s witnesses, or
    (ii) in answer to any case set up by the defendant subsequent to the filing of the plaint, or
    (iii) handed over to a witness merely to refresh his memory.
    (2) The list of documents filed with the plaint shall specify whether the documents in the power,
    possession, control or custody of the plaintiff are originals, office copies or photocopies and the list shall
    also set out in brief, details of parties to each document, mode of execution, issuance or receipt and line of
    custody of each document.
    (3) The plaint shall contain a declaration on oath from the plaintiff that all documents in the power,
    possession, control or custody of the plaintiff, pertaining to the facts and circumstances of the proceedings
    initiated by him have been disclosed and copies thereof annexed with the plaint, and that the plaintiff does
    not have any other documents in its power, possession, control or custody.
    Explanation.––A declaration on oath under this sub-rule shall be contained in the Statement of Truth
    as set out in the Appendix.
  2. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 61, for “an order may be made accordingly” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  3. Ins. by s. 61, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    *. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Sch. (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    107
    (4) In case of urgent filings, the plaintiff may seek leave to rely on additional documents, as part of the
    above declaration on oath and subject to grant of such leave by Court, the plaintiff shall file such
    additional documents in Court, within thirty days of filing the suit, along with a declaration on oath that
    the plaintiff has produced all documents in its power, possession, control or custody, pertaining to the
    facts and circumstances of the proceedings initiated by the plaintiff and that the plaintiff does not have
    any other documents, in its power, possession, control or custody.
    (5) The plaintiff shall not be allowed to rely on documents, which were in the plaintiff’s power,
    possession, control or custody and not disclosed along with plaint or within the extended period set out
    above, save and except by leave of Court and such leave shall be granted only upon the plaintiff
    establishing reasonable cause for non-disclosure along with the plaint.
    (6) The plaint shall set out details of documents, which the plaintiff believes to be in the power,
    possession, control or custody of the defendant and which the plaintiff wishes to rely upon and seek leave
    for production thereof by the said defendant.
    (7) The defendant shall file a list of all documents and photocopies of all documents, in its power,
    possession, control or custody, pertaining to the suit, along with the written statement or with its counterclaim if any, including—
    (a) the documents referred to and relied on by the defendant in the written statement;
    (b) the documents relating to any matter in question in the proceeding in the power, possession,
    control or custody of the defendant, irrespective of whether the same is in support of or adverse to the
    defendant’s defence;
    (c) nothing in this Rule shall apply to documents produced by the defendants and relevant only––
    (i) for the cross-examination of the plaintiff’s witnesses,
    (ii) in answer to any case set up by the plaintiff subsequent to the filing of the plaint, or
    (iii) handed over to a witness merely to refresh his memory.
    (8) The list of documents filed with the written statement or counterclaim shall specify whether the
    documents, in the power, possession, control or custody of the defendant, are originals, office copies or
    photocopies and the list shall also set out in brief, details of parties to each document being produced by
    the defendant, mode of execution, issuance or receipt and line of custody of each document.
    (9) The written statement or counterclaim shall contain a declaration on oath made by the deponent
    that all documents in the power, possession, control or custody of the defendant, save and except for those
    set out in sub-rule (7) (c) (iii) pertaining to the facts and circumstances of the proceedings initiated by the
    plaintiff or in the counterclaim, have been disclosed and copies thereof annexed with the written statement
    or counterclaim and that the defendant does not have in its power, possession, control or custody, any
    other documents.
    (10) Save and except for sub-rule (7) (c) (iii), defendant shall not be allowed to rely on documents,
    which were in the defendant’s power, possession, control or custody and not disclosed along with the
    written statement or counterclaim, save and except by leave of Court and such leave shall be granted only
    upon the defendant establishing reasonable cause for non-disclosure along with the written statement or
    counterclaim.
    (11) The written statement or counterclaim shall set out details of documents in the power,
    possession, control or custody of the plaintiff, which the defendant wishes to rely upon and which have
    not been disclosed with the plaint, and call upon the plaintiff to produce the same.
    (12) Duty to disclose documents, which have come to the notice of a party, shall continue till disposal
    of the suit.
    108
  4. Discovery by interrogatories. — (1) In any suit the plaintiff or defendant by leave of the court
    may deliver interrogatories in writing for the examination of the opposite parties or any one or more of
    such parties, and such interrogatories when delivered shall have a note at the foot thereof stating which of
    such interrogatories each of such persons is required to answer:
    Provided that no party shall deliver more than one set of interrogatories to the same party without an
    order for that purpose:
    Provided further that interrogatories which do not relate to any matters in question in the suit shall be
    deemed irrelevant, notwithstanding that they might be admissible on the oral cross-examination of a
    witness.
    (2) On an application for leave to deliver interrogatories, the particular interrogatories proposed to be
    delivered shall be submitted to the court, and that court shall decide within seven days from the day of
    filing of the said application, in deciding upon such application, the court shall take into account any
    offer, which may be made by the party sought to be interrogated to deliver particulars, or to make
    admissions, or to produce documents relating to the matters in question, or any of them, and leave shall be
    given as to such only of the interrogatories submitted as the court shall consider necessary either for
    disposing fairly of the suit or for saving costs.
    (3) In adjusting the costs of the suit inquiry shall at the instance of any party be made into the
    propriety of exhibiting such interrogatories, and if it is the opinion of the taxing officer or of the court,
    either with or without an application for inquiry, that such interrogatories have been exhibited
    unreasonably, vexatiously, or at improper length, the costs occasioned by the said interrogatories and the
    answers thereto shall be paid in any event by the party in fault.
    (4) Interrogatories shall be in the form provided in Form No. 2 in Appendix C to the Code of Civil
    Procedure, 1908, (5 of 1908) with such variations as circumstances may require.
    (5) Where any party to a suit is a corporation or a body of persons, whether incorporated or not,
    empowered by law to sue or be sued, whether in its own name or in the name of any officer of other
    person, any opposite party may apply for an order allowing him to deliver interrogatories to any member
    or officer of such corporation or body, and an order may be made accordingly.
    (6) Any objection to answering any interrogatory on the ground that it is scandalous or irrelevant or
    not exhibited bona fide for the purpose of the suit, or that the matters inquired into are not sufficiently
    material at that stage, or on the ground of privilege or any other ground may be taken in the affidavit in
    answer.
    (7) Any interrogatories may be set aside on the ground that they have been exhibited unreasonably or
    vexatiously, or struck out on the ground that they are prolix, oppressive, unnecessary or scandalous and
    any application for this purpose may be made within seven days after service of the interrogatories.
    (8) Interrogatories shall be answered by affidavit to be filed within ten days, or within such other time
    as the court may allow.
    (9) An affidavit in answer to interrogatories shall be in the form provided in Form No. 3 in
    Appendix C to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, (5 of 1908), with such variations as circumstances may
    require.
    (10) No exceptions shall be taken to any affidavit in answer, but the sufficiency or otherwise of any
    such affidavit objected to as insufficient shall be determined by the court.
    (11) Where any person interrogated omits to answer, or answers insufficiently, the party interrogating
    may apply to the court for an order requiring him to answer, or to answer further, as the case may be, and
    an order may be made requiring him to answer, or to answer further, either affidavit or by viva voce
    examination, as the court may direct.
  5. Inspection. — (1) All parties shall complete inspection of all documents disclosed within thirty
    days of the date of filing of the written statement or written statement to the counterclaim, whichever is
    later. The Court may extend this time limit upon application at its discretion, but not beyond thirty days in
    any event.
    109
    (2) Any party to the proceedings may seek directions from the Court, at any stage of the proceedings,
    for inspection or production of documents by the other party, of which inspection has been refused by
    such party or documents have not been produced despite issuance of a notice to produce.
    (3) Order in such application shall be disposed of within thirty days of filing such application,
    including filing replies and rejoinders (if permitted by Court) and hearing.
    (4) If the above application is allowed, inspection and copies thereof shall be furnished to the party
    seeking it, within five days of such order.
    (5) No party shall be permitted to rely on a document, which it had failed to disclose or of which
    inspection has not been given, save and except with leave of Court.
    (6) The Court may impose exemplary costs against a defaulting party, who wilfully or negligently
    failed to disclose all documents pertaining to a suit or essential for a decision therein and which are in
    their power, possession, control or custody or where a Court holds that inspection or copies of any
    documents had been wrongfully or unreasonably withheld or refused.
  6. Admission and denial of documents. — (1) Each party shall submit a statement of admissions or
    denials of all documents disclosed and of which inspection has been completed, within fifteen days of the
    completion of inspection or any later date as fixed by the Court.
    (2) The statement of admissions and denials shall set out explicitly, whether such party was admitting
    or denying:—
    (a) correctness of contents of a document;
    (b) existence of a document;
    (c) execution of a document;
    (d) issuance or receipt of a document;
    (e) custody of a document.
    Explanation.––A statement of admission or denial of the existence of a document made in accordance
    with sub-rule (2) (b) shall include the admission or denial of the contents of a document.
    (3) Each party shall set out reasons for denying a document under any of the above grounds and bare
    and unsupported denials shall not be deemed to be denials of a document and proof of such documents
    may then be dispensed with at the discretion of the Court.
    (4) Any party may however submit bare denials for third party documents of which the party denying
    does not have any personal knowledge of, and to which the party denying is not a party to in any manner
    whatsoever.
    (5) An Affidavit in support of the statement of admissions and denials shall be filed confirming the
    correctness of the contents of the statement.
    (6) In the event that the Court holds that any party has unduly refused to admit a document under any
    of the above criteria, – costs (including exemplary costs) for deciding on admissibility of a document may
    be imposed by the Court on such party.
    (7) The Court may pass orders with respect to admitted documents including for waiver of further
    proof thereon or rejection of any documents.
  7. Production of documents. — (1) Any party to a proceeding may seek or the Court may order, at
    any time during the pendency of any suit, production by any party or person, of such documents in the
    possession or power of such party or person, relating to any matter in question in such suit.
    (2) Notice to produce such document shall be issued in the Form provided in Form No. 7 in
    Appendix C to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908).
    110
    (3) Any party or person to whom such notice to produce is issued shall be given not less than seven
    days and not more than fifteen days to produce such document or to answer to their inability to produce
    such document.
    (4) The Court may draw an adverse inference against a party refusing to produce such document after
    issuance of a notice to produce and where sufficient reasons for such non-production are not given and
    order costs.
  8. Electronic records. — (1) In case of disclosures and inspection of Electronic Records (as defined
    in the Information Technology Act, 2000 (21 of 2000)), furnishing of printouts shall be sufficient
    compliance of the above provisions.
    (2) At the discretion of the parties or where required (when parties wish to rely on audio or video
    content), copies of electronic records may be furnished in electronic form either in addition to or in lieu of
    printouts.
    (3) Where Electronic Records form part of documents disclosed, the declaration on oath to be filed by
    a party shall specify––
    (a) the parties to such Electronic Record;
    (b) the manner in which such electronic record was produced and by whom;
    (c) the dates and time of preparation or storage or issuance or receipt of each such electronic
    record;
    (d) the source of such electronic record and date and time when the electronic record was printed;
    (e) in case of email ids, details of ownership, custody and access to such email ids;
    (f) in case of documents stored on a computer or computer resource (including on external servers
    or cloud), details of ownership, custody and access to such data on the computer or computer
    resource;
    (g) deponent’s knowledge of contents and correctness of contents;
    (h) whether the computer or computer resource used for preparing or receiving or storing such
    document or data was functioning properly or in case of malfunction that such malfunction did not
    affect the contents of the document stored;
    (i) that the printout or copy furnished was taken from the original computer or computer resource.
    (4) The parties relying on printouts or copy in electronic form, of any electronic records, shall not be
    required to give inspection of electronic records, provided a declaration is made by such party that each
    such copy, which has been produced, has been made from the original electronic record.
    (5) The Court may give directions for admissibility of Electronic Records at any stage of the
    proceedings.
    (6) Any party may seek directions from the Court and the Court may of its motion issue directions for
    submission of further proof of any electronic record including metadata or logs before admission of such
    electronic record.
  9. Certain provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 not to apply.—For avoidance of doubt,
    it is hereby clarified that Order XIII Rule 1, Order VII Rule 14 and Order VIII Rule 1A of the Code of
    Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall not apply to suits or applications before the Commercial Divisions
    of High Court or Commercial Courts.]STATE AMENDMENT
    Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (UTs).―
    For Order XI of the Code, substitute the following Order, namely.–
    ORDER XI
    DISCLOSURE, DISCOVERY AND INSPECTION OF DOCUMENTS
  10. Disclosure and discovery of documents.—(1) Plaintiff shall file a list of all documents and
    photocopies of all documents, in its power, possession, control or custody, pertaining to the suit, along
    with the plaint, including:–
    (a) documents referred and relied on by the plaintiff in the plaint;
    (b) documents relating to any matter in question in the proceedings, in the power, possession, control
    or custody of the plaintiff, as on the date of filing the plaint, irrespective of whether the same is in support
    111
    of or adverse to the plaintiffs case; and
    (c) nothing in this rule shall apply to documents produced by plaintiffs and relevant only–
    (i) for the cross-examination of the defendant‘s witnesses, or
    (ii) in answer to any case setup by the defendant subsequent to the filing of the plaint, or
    (iii) handed over to a witness merely to refresh his memory.
    (2) The list of documents filed with the plaint shall specify whether the documents in the power,
    possession, control or custody of the plaintiff are originals, office copies or photocopies and the list
    shall also set out in brief, details of parties to each document, mode or execution, issuance or receipt
    and line of custody of each document.
    (3) The plaint shall contain a declaration on oath from the plaintiff that all documents in the power,
    possession, control, or custody of the plaintiff, pertaining to the facts and circumstances of the
    proceedings initiated by him have been disclosed and copies thereof annexed with the plaint, and that
    the plaintiff does not have any other documents in its power, possession, control or custody.
    Explanation.— A declaration on oath under this sub-rule shall be contained in the Statement of Truth
    as set out in the Appendix I.
    (4) In case of urgent filings, the plaintiff may seek leave to rely on additional documents, as part of
    the above declaration on oath and subject to grant of such leave by court, the plaintiff shall file such
    additional documents in court, within thirty days of filing the suit, along with a declaration on oath that
    the plaintiff has produced all documents in its power, possession, control or custody, pertaining to the
    facts and circumstances of the proceedings initiated by the plaintiff and that the plaintiff does not have
    any other documents, in its power, possession, control or custody.
    (5) The plaintiff shall not be allowed to rely on documents, which were in the plaintiff’s power,
    possession, control or custody and not disclosed along with plaint or within the extended period set out
    above, save and except by leave of court and such leave shall be granted only upon the plaintiff
    establishing reasonable cause for non-disclosure along with the plaint.
    (6) The plaint shall set out details of documents, which the plaintiff believes to be in the power,
    possession, control or custody or the defendant and which the plaintiff wishes to rely upon and seek
    leave for production thereof by the said defendant.
    (7) The defendant shall file a list of all documents and photocopies of all documents, in its power,
    possession, control or custody, pertaining to the suit, along with the written statement or with its
    counter-claim if any, including–
    (a) the documents referred to and relied on by the defendant in the written statement;
    (b) the documents relating to any matter in question in the proceeding in the power, possession,
    control or custody of the defendant, irrespective of whether the same is in support of or adverse to
    the defendant’s defense;
    (c) nothing in this rule shall apply to documents produced by the defendants and relevant only–
    (i) for the cross-examination of the plaintiff‘s witnesses;
    (ii) in answer to any case setup by the plaintiff subsequent to the filing of the plaint; or
    (iii) handed over to a witness merely to refresh his memory.
    (8) The list of documents filed with the written statement or counter-claim shall specify whether the
    documents, in the power, possession, control or custody of the defendant, are originals, office copies or
    photocopies and the list shall also set out in brief, details of parties to each document being produced
    by the defendant, mode of execution, issuance or receipt and line of custody of each document.
    (9) the written statement or counter-claim shall contain a declaration on oath made by the deponent
    that all documents in the power, possession, control or custody of the defendant, save and except for
    those set out in sub-rule (7) (c) (iii), pertaining to the facts and circumstances of the proceedings
    initiated by the plaintiff or in the counter-claim, have been disclosed and copies thereof annexed with
    the written statement or counter-claim and that the defendant does not have in its power, possession,
    control or custody, any other documents.
    (10) Save and except for sub-rule (7) (c) (iii), defendant shall not be allowed to rely on documents,
    which were in the defendant‘s power, possession, control or custody and not disclosed along with the
    112
    written statement or counter-claim, save and except by leave of court and such leave shall be granted
    only upon the defendant establishing reasonable cause for non-disclosure along with the written
    statement or counter-claim.
    (11) The written statement or counter-claim shall set out details of documents in the power,
    possession, control or custody of the plaintiff, which the defendant wishes to rely upon and which have
    not been disclosed with the plaint, and call upon the plaintiff to produce the same.
    (12) Duty to disclose documents, which have come to the notice of a party, shall continue till
    disposal of the suit.
  11. Discovery by interrogatories.—(1) In any suit the plaintiff or defendant by leave of the court may
    deliver interrogatories in writing for the examination of the opposite parties or anyone or more of such
    parties, and such interrogatories when delivered shall have a note at the foot thereof stating which of such
    interrogatories each of such persons is required to answer:
    Provided that no party shall deliver more than one set of interrogatories to the same party without an
    order for that purpose:
    Provided further that interrogatories which do not relate to any matters in question in the suit shall be
    deemed irrelevant, notwithstanding that they might be admissible on the oral cross-examination of a
    witness.
    (2) On an application for leave to deliver interrogatories, the particular interrogatories proposed to
    be delivered shall be submitted to the court, and that court shall decide within seven days from the day
    of filing of the said application, in deciding upon such application, the court shall take into account any
    offer, which may be made by the party sought to be interrogated to deliver particulars, or to make
    admissions, or to produce documents relating to the matters in question, or any of them, and leave shall
    be given as to such only of the interrogatories submitted as the court shall consider necessary either for
    disposing fairly of the suit or for saving costs.
    (3) In adjusting the costs of the suit inquiry shall at the instance of any party be made into the
    propriety
    of exhibiting such interrogatories, and if it is the opinion of the taxing officer or of the court, either
    with or without an application for inquiry, that such interrogatories have been exhibited unreasonably,
    vexatiously, or at improper length, the costs occasioned by the said interrogatories and the answers
    thereto shall be paid in any event by the party in fault.
    (4) Interrogatories shall be in the form provided in Form No. 2 in Appendix C to the Code of Civil
    Procedure, 1908, with such variations as circumstances may require.
    (5) Where any party to a suit is a corporation or a body of persons, whether incorporated or not,
    empowered by law to sue or be sued, whether in its own name or in the name of any officer of other
    person, any opposite party may apply for any order allowing him to deliver interrogatories to any
    member or officer of such corporation or body, and an order may be made accordingly.
    (6) Any objection to answering any interrogatory on the ground that it is scandalous or irrelevant or
    not exhibited bona fide for the purpose of the suit, or that the matters required into are not sufficiently
    material at that stage, or on the ground of privilege or any other ground may be taken in the affidavit in
    answer.
    (7) Any interrogatories may be set aside on the ground that they have been exhibited unreasonably
    or vexatiously, or struck out on the ground that they are prolix, oppressive, unnecessary or scandalous
    and any application for this purpose may be made within seven days after service of the
    interrogatories.
    (8) Interrogatories shall be answered by affidavit to be filed within ten days, or within such other
    time as the court may allow.
    (9) An affidavit in answer to interrogatories shall be in the form provided in Form No. 3 in
    Appendix C to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, with such variations as circumstances may require.
    (10) No exceptions shall be taken to any affidavit in answer, but the sufficiency or otherwise of any
    such affidavit objected to as insufficient shall be determined by the court.
    (11) Where any person interrogated omits to answer, or answers insufficiently, the party
    interrogating may apply to the court for an order requiring him to answer, or to answer further, as the
    113
    case may be, and an order may be made requiring him to answer, or to answer further, either affidavit
    or by viva voce examination, as the court may direct.
  12. Inspection.–(1) All parties shall complete inspection of all documents disclosed within thirty days
    of the date of filing of the written statement or written statement to the counter-claim, whichever is later,
    the court may extend this time limit upon application at its discretion, but not beyond thirty days in any
    event.
    (2) Any party to the proceedings may seek directions from the court, at any stage of the proceedings,
    for inspection or production of documents by the other party, of which inspection has been refused by
    such party or documents have not been produced despite issuance of a notice to produce.
    (3) Order in such application shall be disposed of within thirty days of filing such application,
    including filing replies and rejoinders (if permitted by court) and hearing.
    (4) If the above application is allowed, inspection and copies thereof shall be furnished to the party
    seeking it, within five days of such order.
    (5) No party shall be permitted to rely on a document, which it had failed to disclose or of which
    inspection has not been given, save and except with leave of court.
    (6) The Court may impose exemplary costs against a defaulting party, who willfully or negligently
    failed to disclose all documents pertaining to a suit or essential for a decision therein and which are in
    their power, possession, control or custody or where a court holds that inspection or copies of any
    documents had been wrongfully or unreasonably withheld or refused.
  13. Admission and denial of documents.—(1) Each party shall submit a statement of admissions or
    denials of all documents disclosed and of which inspection has been completed, within fifteen days of the
    completion of inspection or any later date as fixed by the court.
    (2) The statement of admissions and denials shall set out explicitly, whether such party was
    admitting or denying:
    (a) correctness of contents of a document;
    (b) existence of a document;
    (c) execution of a document;
    (d) issuance or receipt of a document;
    (e) custody of a document.
    Explanation.—A statement of admission or denial of the existence of a document made in
    accordance with clause (b) of sub-rule (2) shall include the admission or denial of the contents of a
    document.
    (3) Each party shall set out reasons for denying a document under any of the above grounds and
    bare and unsupported denials shall not be deemed to be denials of a document and proof of such
    documents may then be dispensed with at the direction of the court.
    (4) Any party may however submit bare denials for third party documents of which the party
    denying does not have any personal knowledge of, and to which the party denying is not a party to in
    any manner whatsoever.
    (5) An affidavit in support of the statement of admissions and denials shall be filed confirming the
    correctness of the contents of the statement.
    (6) In the event that the court holds that any party has unduly refused to admit a document under
    any of the above criteria, costs (including exemplary costs) for deciding on admissibility of a
    document may be imposed by the court on such party.
    (7) The court may pass orders with respect to admitted documents including for waiver of further
    proof thereon or rejection of any documents.
  14. Production of documents.—(1) Any party to a proceeding may seek or the court may order, at any
    time during the pendency of any suit, production by any party or person, of such documents in the
    possession or power of such party or person, relating to any matter in question in such suit.
    (2) Notice to produce such document shall be issued in the form provided in Form No. 7 in
    Appendix C to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908).
    114
    (3) Any party or person to whom such notice to produce is issued shall be given not less than seven
    days and not more than fifteen days to produce such document or to answer to their inability to
    produce such document.
    (4) The court may draw an adverse inference against a party refusing to produce such document
    after issuance of a notice to produce and where sufficient reasons for such non-production are not
    given and order costs.
  15. Electronic Records.—(1) In case of disclosures and inspection of electronic records as defined in
    the Information Technology Act, 2000 (21 of 2000), furnishing of printouts shall be sufficient compliance
    of the above provisions.
    (2) At the discretion of the parties or where required (when parties wish to rely on audio or video
    content), copies of electronic records may be furnished in electronic form either in addition to or in
    lieu of printouts.
    (3) Where electronic records form part of documents disclosed, the declaration on oath to be filed
    by a party shall specify –
    (a) the parties to such electronic record;
    (b) the manner in which such electronic record was produced and by whom;
    (c) the dates and time of preparation or storage or issuance or receipt of each such electronic
    record;
    (d) the source of such electronic record and date and time when the electronic record was
    printed;
    (e) in case of e-mail ids, details of ownership, custody and access to such e-mail ids;
    (f) in case of documents stored on a computer or computer resource (including on external
    servers or cloud), details of ownership, custody and access to such data on the computer or
    computer resource;
    (g) deponent‘s knowledge of contents and correctness of contents;
    (h) whether the computer or computer resource used for preparing or receiving or storing such
    document or data was functioning properly or in case of malfunction that such malfunction did not
    affect the contents of the document stored;
    (i) that the printout or copy furnished was taken from the original computer or computer
    resource.
    (4) The parties relying on printouts or copy in electronic form, of any electronic records, shall not
    be required to give inspection of electronic records, provided a declaration is made by such party that
    each such copy, which has been produced, has been made from the original Electronic Records.
    (5) The court may give directions for admissibility of electronic records at any stage of the
    proceedings.
    (6) Any party may seek directions from the court and the court may of its motion issue directions
    for submission of further proof of any electronic record including metadata or logs before admission of
    such electronic record.
    [Vide the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Adaptation of Central Laws) Order, 2020, notification
    No. S.O. 1123(E) dated (18-3-2020).]

ORDER XII
Admissions

  1. Notice of admission of case.—Any party to a suit may give notice, by his pleading, or otherwise in
    writing, that he admits the truth of the whole or any part of the case of any other party.
  2. Notice to admit documents.—Either party may call upon the other party 1
    [to admit, within
    2
    [seven] days from the date of service of the notice any document,] saving all exceptions; and in case of
    refusal or neglect to admit, after such notice, the costs of proving any such document shall be paid by the
  3. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 62, for “to admit any document” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  4. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 22, for “fifteen” (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    115
    party so neglecting or refusing, whatever the result of the suit may be, unless the Court otherwise
    directs; and no costs of proving any document shall be allowed unless such notice is given, except where
    the omission to give the notice is, in the opinion of the Court, a saving of expense.
    1
    [2A. Document to be deemed to be admitted if not denied after service of notice to admit
    documents.—(1) Every document which a party is called upon to admit, if not denied specifically or by
    necessary implication, or stated to be not admitted in the pleading of that party or in his reply to the notice
    to admit documents, shall be deemed to be admitted except as against a person under a disability:
    Provided that the Court may, in its discretion and for reasons to be recorded, require any document so
    admitted to be proved otherwise than by such admission.
    (2) Where a party unreasonably neglects or refuses to admit a document after the service on him of the
    notice to admit documents, the Court may direct him to pay costs to the other party by way of
    compensation.]
  5. Form of notice.—A notice to admit documents shall be in Form No. 9 in Appendix C, with such
    variations as circumstances may require.
    2
    [3A. Power of Court to record admission.—Notwithstanding that no notice to admit documents
    has been given under rule 2, the Court may, at any stage of the proceeding before it, of its own motion,
    call upon any party to admit any document and shall, in such a case, record whether the party admits or
    refuses or neglects to admit such document.]
  6. Notice to admit acts.—Any party, may, by notice in writing, at any time not later than nine days
    before the day fixed for the hearing, call on any other party to admit, for the purposes of the suit only, any
    specific fact or facts, mentioned in such notice. And in case of refusal or neglect to admit the same within
    six days after service of such notice, or within such further time as may be allowed by the Court, the costs
    of proving such fact or facts shall be paid by the party so neglecting or refusing, whatever the result of the
    suit may be, unless the Court otherwise directs:
    Provided that any admission made in pursuance of such notice is to be deemed to be made only for
    the purposes of the particular suit, and not as an admission to be used against the party on any other
    occasion or in favour of any person other than the party giving the notice:
    3

  1. Form of admissions.—A notice to admit facts shall be in Form No. 10 in Appendix C, and admission of
    facts shall be in Form No. 11 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
    4
    [6. Judgment on admissions.—(1) Where admissions of fact have been made either in the pleading
    or otherwise; whether orally or in writing, the Court may at any stage of the suit, either on the application
    of any party or of its own motion and without waiting for the determination of any other questionbetween
    the parties, make such order or give such judgment as it may think fit, having regard to such admissions.
    (2) Whenever a judgment is pronounced under sub-rule (1) a decree shall be drawn up in accordance
    with the judgment and the decree shall bear the date on which the judgment was pronounced.]
  2. Affidavit of signature.—An affidavit of the pleader or his clerk, of the due signature of any
    admissions made in pursuance of any notice to admit documents or facts, shall be sufficient evidenced of
    such admissions, if evidence thereof is required.
  3. Notice to produce documents.—Notice to produce documents shall be in Form No. 12 in
    Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require. An affidavit of the pleader, or his clerk, of
    the Service of any notice to produce, and of the time when it was served, with a copy of the notice to produce,
    shall in all cases be sufficient evidence of the service of the notice, and of the time when it was served.
  4. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 62 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  5. Ins. by Act 66 of 1956, s. 14 (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  6. Second proviso omitted by Act 46 of 1999, s. 22 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  7. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 62, for rule 6 (w.e.f 1-2-1977).
    116
  8. Costs.—If a notice to admit or produce specifies documents which are not necessary, the costs
    occasioned thereby shall be borne by the party giving such notice.

ORDER XIII
Production, Impounding and Return of Documents
1
[1. Original documents to be produced at or before the settlement of issues.—(1) The parties or
their pleader shall produce on or before the settlement of issues, all the documentary evidence in original
where the copies thereof have been filed along with plaint or written statement.
(2) The Court shall receive the documents so produced:
Provided that they are accompanied by an accurate list thereof prepared in such form as the High
Court directs.
(3) Nothing in sub-rule (1) shall apply to documents—
(a) produced for the cross-examination of the witnesses of the other party; or
(b) handed over to a witness merely to refresh his memory.]

  1. [Effect of non-production of documents.] Rep. by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1999
    (46 of 1999) s. 23 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  2. Rejection of irrelevant or inadmissible documents.—The Court may at any stage of the suit reject
    any document which it considers irrelevant or otherwise inadmissible, recording the grounds of such
    rejection.
  3. Endorsements on documents admitted in evidence.—(1) Subject to the provisions of the next
    following sub-rule, there shall be endorsed on every document which has been admitted in evidence in the
    suit the following particulars, namely:—
    (a) the number and title of the suit,
    (b) the name of the person producing the document,
    (c) the date on which it was produced, and
    (d) a statement of its having been so admitted,
    and the endorsement shall be signed or initialled by the Judge.
    (2) Where a document so admitted is an entry in a book, account or record, and a copy thereof has
    been substituted for the original under the next following rule, the particulars aforesaid shall be endorsed
    on the copy and the endorsement thereon shall be signed or initialled by the Judge.
  4. Endorsements on copies of admitted entries in books, accounts and records.—(1) Save in so
    far as is otherwise provided by the Bankers’ Books Evidence Act, 1891 (XVIII of 1891) where a
    document admitted in evidence in the suit is an entry in a letter-book or a shop-book or other account in
    current use, the party on whose behalf the book or account is produced may furnish a copy of the entry.
    (2) Where such a document is an entry in a public record produced from a public office or by a public
    officer, or an entry in a book or account belonging to a person other than a party on whose behalf the book
    or account is produced, the Court may require a copy of the entry to be furnished—
    (a) where the record, book or account is produced on behalf of a party, then by that party, or
    (b) where the record, book or account is produced in obedience to an order of the Court acting of
    its own motion, then by either or any party.
    (3) Where a copy of an entry is furnished under the foregoing provisions of this rule, the Court shall, after
    causing the copy to be examined, compared and certified in manner mentioned in rule 17 of Order VII, mark
    the entry and cause the book, account or record in which it occurs to be returned to the person producing it.
  5. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 23, for rules 1 and 2 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    117
  6. Endorsements on documents rejected an inadmissible in evidence.—Where a document relied
    on as evidence by either party is considered by the Court to be inadmissible in evidence, there shall be
    endorsed thereon the particulars mentioned in clauses (a), (b) and (c) of rule 4, sub-rule (1) together with
    a statement of its having been rejected, and the endorsement shall be signed or initialled by the Judge.
  7. Recording of admitted and return of rejected documents.—(1) Every documents which has
    been admitted in evidence, or a copy thereof where a copy has been substituted for the original under rule
    5, shall form part of the record of the suit.
    (2) Documents not admitted in evidence shall not form part of the record and shall be returned to the
    persons respectively producing them.
  8. Court may order any document to be impounded.—Notwithstanding anything contained in rule
    5 or rule 7 of this Order or in rule 17 of Order VII, the Court may, if it sees sufficient cause, direct any
    document or book produced before it in any suit to be impounded and kept in the custody of an officer of
    the Court, for such period and subject to such conditions as the Court thinks fit.
  9. Return of admitted documents.—(1) Any person, whether a party to the suit or not, desirous of
    receiving back any documents produced by him in the suit and placed on the record shall, unless the
    document is impounded under rule 8, be entitled to receive back the same,—
    (a) where the suit is one in which an appeal is not allowed, when the suit has been disposed of, and
    (b) where the suit is one in which an appeal is allowed, when the Court is satisfied that the time
    for preferring an appeal has elapsed and that no appeal has been preferred or, if an appeal has been
    preferred, when the appeal has been disposed of:
    1
    [Provided that a document may be returned at any time earlier then that prescribed by this rule if the
    person applying therefor—
    (a) delivers to the proper officer for being substituted for the original,—
    (i) in the case of a party to the suit, a certified copy, and
    (ii) in the case of any other person, an ordinary copy which has been examined, compared and
    certified in the manner mentioned in sub-rule (2) of rule 17 of Order VII, and
    (b) undertakes to produce the original, if required to do so:]Provided also, that no document shall be returned with, by force of the decree, has become wholly
    void or useless.
    (2) On the return of a document admitted in evidence, a receipt shall be given by the person
    receiving it.
  10. Court may send for papers from its own records or from other Courts.—(1) The Court may
    of its own motion, and may in its discretion upon the application of any of the parties to a suit, send for,
    either from its own records or from any other Court, the record of any other suit or proceeding, and
    inspect the same.
    (2) Every application made under this rule shall (unless the Court otherwise directs) be support ed
    by an affidavit showing how the record is material to the suit in which the application is made, and
    that the applicant cannot without unreasonable delay or expense obtain a duly authenticated copy of
    the record or of such portion thereof as the applicant requires, or that the production of the original is
    necessary for the purposes of justice.
    (3) Nothing contained in this rule shall be deemed to enable the Court to use in evidence any
    document which under the law of evidence would be inadmissible in the suit.
  11. Provisions as to documents applied to material objects.—The provisions therein contained as
    to documents shall, so far as may be, apply to all other material objects producible as evidence.

*[ORDER XIII-A
Summary Judgment

  1. Scope of and classes of suits to which this Order applies. —(1) This Order sets out the procedure
    by which Courts may decide a claim pertaining to any Commercial Dispute without recording oral
    evidence.
  2. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 63, for the First proviso (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    *. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Sch. (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    118
    (2) For the purposes of this Order, the word “claim” shall include—
    (a) part of a claim;
    (b) any particular question on which the claim (whether in whole or in part) depends; or
    (c) a counterclaim, as the case may be.
    (3) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary, an application for summary judgment under this Order
    shall not be made in a suit in respect of any Commercial Dispute that is originally filed as a summary suit
    under Order XXXVII.
  3. Stage for application for summary judgment.—An applicant may apply for summary judgment
    at any time after summons has been served on the defendant:
    Provided that, no application for summary judgment may be made by such applicant after the Court
    has framed the issues in respect of the suit.
  4. Grounds for summary judgment.—The Court may give a summary judgment against a plaintiff
    or defendant on a claim if it considers that––
    (a) the plaintiff has no real prospect of succeeding on the claim or the defendant has no real
    prospect of successfully defending the claim, as the case may be; and
    (b) there is no other compelling reason why the claim should not be disposed of before recording
    of oral evidence.
  5. Procedure.—(1) An application for summary judgment to a Court shall, in addition to any other
    matters the applicant may deem relevant, include the matters set forth in sub-clauses (a) to (f) mentioned
    hereunder:—
    (a) the application must contain a statement that it is an application for summary judgment made
    under this Order;
    (b) the application must precisely disclose all material facts and identify the point of law, if any;
    (c) in the event the applicant seeks to rely upon any documentary evidence, the applicant must,––
    (i) include such documentary evidence in its application, and
    (ii) identify the relevant content of such documentary evidence on which the applicant relies;
    (d) the application must state the reason why there are no real prospects of succeeding on the
    claim or defending the claim, as the case may be;
    (e) the application must state what relief the applicant is seeking and briefly state the grounds for
    seeking such relief.
    (2) Where a hearing for summary judgment is fixed, the respondent must be given at least thirty days’
    notice of:—
    (a) the date fixed for the hearing; and
    (b) the claim that is proposed to be decided by the Court at such hearing.
    (3) The respondent may, within thirty days of the receipt of notice of application of summary
    judgment or notice of hearing (whichever is earlier), file a reply addressing the matters set forth in clauses
    (a) to (f) mentioned hereunder in addition to any other matters that the respondent may deem relevant:—
    (a) the reply must precisely––
    (i) disclose all material facts;
    (ii) identify the point of law, if any; and
    (iii) state the reasons why the relief sought by the applicant should not be granted;
    (b) in the event the respondent seeks to rely upon any documentary evidence in its reply, the
    respondent must—
    (i) include such documentary evidence in its reply; and
    (ii) identify the relevant content of such documentary evidence on which the respondent
    relies;
    (c) the reply must state the reason why there are real prospects of succeeding on the claim or
    defending the claim, as the case may be;
    119
    (d) the reply must concisely state the issues that should be framed for trial;
    (e) the reply must identify what further evidence shall be brought on record at trial that could not
    be brought on record at the stage of summary judgment; and
    (f) the reply must state why, in light of the evidence or material on record if any, the Court should
    not proceed to summary judgment.
  6. Evidence for hearing of summary judgment.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Order, if the
    respondent in an application for summary judgment wishes to rely on additional documentary evidence
    during the hearing, the respondent must:—
    (a) file such documentary evidence; and
    (b) serve copies of such documentary evidence on every other party to the application at least
    fifteen days prior to the date of the hearing.
    (2) Notwithstanding anything in this Order, if the applicant for summary judgment wishes to rely on
    documentary evidence in reply to the defendant’s documentary evidence, the applicant must:—
    (a) file such documentary evidence in reply; and
    (b) serve a copy of such documentary evidence on the respondent at least five days prior to the
    date of the hearing.
    (3) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary, sub-rules (1) and (2) shall not require documentary
    evidence to be:—
    (a) filed if such documentary evidence has already been filed; or
    (b) served on a party on whom it has already been served.
  7. Orders that may be made by Court.—(1) On an application made under this Order, the Court
    may make such orders that it may deem fit in its discretion including the following:—
    (a) judgment on the claim;
    (b) conditional order in accordance with Rule 7 mentioned hereunder;
    (c) dismissing the application;
    (d) dismissing part of the claim and a judgment on part of the claim that is not dismissed;
    (e) striking out the pleadings (whether in whole or in part); or
    (f) further directions to proceed for case management under Order XV-A.
    (2) Where the Court makes any of the orders as set forth in sub-rule (1) (a) to (f), the Court shall
    record its reasons for making such order.
  8. Conditional order.—(1) Where it appears to the Court that it is possible that a claim or defence
    may succeed but it is improbable that it shall do so, the Court may make a conditional order as set forth in
    Rule 6 (1) (b).
    (2) Where the Court makes a conditional order, it may:—
    (a) make it subject to all or any of the following conditions:—
    (i) require a party to deposit a sum of money in the Court;
    (ii) require a party to take a specified step in relation to the claim or defence, as the case may
    be;
    (iii) require a party, as the case may be, to give such security or provide such surety for
    restitution of costs as the Court deems fit and proper;
    (iv) impose such other conditions, including providing security for restitution of losses that
    any party is likely to suffer during the pendency of the suit, as the Court may deem fit in its
    discretion; and
    (b) specify the consequences of the failure to comply with the conditional order, including passing
    a judgment against the party that have not complied with the conditional order.
  9. Power to impose costs.—The Court may make an order for payment of costs in an application for
    summary judgment in accordance with the provisions of sections 35 and 35A of the Code.]120

ORDER XIV
Settlement of Issues and Determination of Suit on
Issues of Law or on Issues agreed upon

  1. Framing of issues.—(1) Issues arise when a material proposition of fact or law is affirmed by the
    one party and denied by the other.
    (2) Material propositions arc those propositions of law or fact which a plaintiff must allege in order to
    show a right to sue or a defendant must allege in order to constitute his defence.
    (3) Each material proposition affirmed by one party and denied by the other shall form the subject of
    distinct issue.
    (4) Issues are of two kinds:
    (a) issues of fact,
    (b) issues of law.
    (5) At the first hearing of the suit the Court shall, after reading the plaint and the written statements if
    any, and 1
    [after examination under rule 2 of Order X and after hearing the parties or their pleaders],
    ascertain upon what material propositions of fact or of law the parties are at variance, and shall thereupon
    proceed to frame and record the issues on which the right decision of the case appears to depend.
    (6) Nothing is this rule requires the Court to frame and record issued where the defendant at the first
    hearing of the suit makes no defence.
    2
    [2. Court to pronounce judgment on all issues.—(1) Notwithstanding that a case may be disposed
    of on a preliminary issue, the Court shall, subject to the provisions of sub-rule (2), pronounce judgment on
    all issues.
    (2) Where issues both of law and of fact arise in the same suit, and the Court is of opinion that the case or
    any part thereof may be disposed of on an issue of law only, it may try that issue first if the issue relates to—
    (a) the jurisdiction of the Court, or
    (b) a bar to the suit created by any law for the time being in force,
    and for that purpose may, if it thinks fit, postpone the settlement of the other issues until after that issue
    has been determined, and may deal with the suit in accordance with the decision on that issue.]
  2. Materials from which issues may be framed.—The Court may frame the issues from all or any of
    the following materials:—
    (a) allegations made on oath by the parties, or by any persons present on their behalf, or made by
    the pleaders of such parties;
    (b) allegations made in the pleadings or in answers to interrogatories delivered in the suit;
    (c) the contents of documents produced by either party.
  3. Court may examine witnesses or documents before framing issues.—Where the Court is of
    opinion that the issues cannot be correctly framed without the examination of some person not before the
    Court or without the inspection of some document not,
    produced in the suit, it 3
    [may adjourn the framing
    of issues to a day not later than seven days] and may (subject to any law for the time being in force)
    compel the attendance of any person or the production of any document by the person in whose
    possession or power it is by summons or other process.
    4
    [5. Power to amend and strike out, issues.—(1) The Court may at any time before passing a decree
    amend the issues or frame additional issues on such terms as it thinks fit, and all such amendments or
    additional issues as may be necessary for determining the matters in controversy between the parties shall
    be so made or framed.
  4. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 64, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  5. Subs. by s. 64, ibid., for rule 2 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  6. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 24, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  7. Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 11, for rule 5 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    121
    (2) The Court may also, at any time before passing a decree, strike out any issues that appear to it to
    be wrongly framed or introduced.]
  8. Questions of fact or law may by agreement be stated in form of issues.—(1) Where the parties
    to a suit are agreed as to the question of fact or of law to be decided between them, they may state the
    same in the form of an issue, and enter into an agreement in writing that, upon the finding of the Court in
    the affirmative or the negative or such issue,—
    (a) a sum of money specified in the agreement or to be ascertained by the Court, or in such
    manner as the Court may direct, shall be paid by one of the parties to the other of them, or that one of
    them be declared entitled to some right or subject some liability specified in the agreement;
    (b) some property specified in the agreement and in dispute in the suit shall be delivered by one of
    the parties to the other of them, or as that other may direct; or
    (c) one or more of the parties shall do or abstain from doing some particular act specified in the
    agreement and relating to the matter in dispute.
  9. Court, if satisfied that agreement was executed in good faith, may pronounce judgment.—
    Where the Court is satisfied, after making such inquiry as it deems proper,—
    (a) that the agreement was duly executed by the parties,
    (b) that they have a substantial interest in the decision of such question as aforesaid, and
    (c) that the same is fit to be tried and decided,
    it shall proceed to record and try the issue and state its finding or decision thereon in the same manner as
    if the issue had been framed by the Court;
    and shall, upon the finding or decision on such issue, pronounce judgment according to the terms of
    the agreement; and, upon the judgment so pronounced, a decree shall follow.

*[ORDER XV
Disposal of the Suit at the first hearing

  1. Parties not at issue.—(1) Where at the first hearing of a suit it appears that the parties are not at
    issue on any question of law or of fact, the Court may at once pronounce judgment.
  2. One of several defendants not at issue.—1
    [(1) Where there are more defendants than one, and any one
    of the defendants is not at issue with the plaintiff on any question of law or of fact, the Court may at once
    pronounce judgment for or against such defendant and the suit shall proceed only against the other
    defendants.]2
    [(2) Whenever a judgment is pronounced under this rule, decree shall be drawn up in accordance with
    such judgment and the decree shall bear the date on which the judgment was pronounced.]
  3. Parties at issue.—(1) Where the parties are at issue on some question of law or of fact, and issues
    have been framed by the Court as hereinbefore provided, if the Court is satisfied that no further argument
    or evidence that the parties can at once adduce is required upon such of the issues as may be sufficient for
    the decision of the suit, and that no injustice will result from proceeding with the suit forthwith, the Court
    may proceed to determine such issues, and, if the finding thereon is sufficient for the decision, may
    pronounce judgment accordingly, whether the summons has been issued for the settlement of issues only
    or for the final disposal of the suit:
    Provided that, where the summons has been issued for the settlement of issues only, the parties or their
    pleaders are present and none of them objects.
  4. Rule 2 renumbered as sub-rule (1) by Act 104 of 1976, s. 65 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  5. Ins. by s. 65, ibid. (w.e.f 1-2-1977).
    *. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Sch. (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    122
    (2) Where the finding is not sufficient for the decision, the Court shall postpone the further hearing of
    the suit, and shall fix a day for the production of such further evidence, or for such further argument as the
    case requires.
  6. Failure to produce evidence.—Where the summons has been issued for the final disposal of the
    suit and either party fails without sufficient cause to produce the evidence on which he relies, the Court
    may at once pronounce judgment, or may, if it thinks fit, after framing and recording issues, adjourn the
    suit for the production of such evidence as may be necessary for its decision upon such issues.]

*[ORDER XV-A
Case Management Hearing

  1. First Case Management Hearing.—The Court shall hold the first Case Management Hearing, not
    later than four weeks from the date of filing of affidavit of admission or denial of documents by all parties
    to the suit.
  2. Orders to be passed in a Case Management Hearing.—In a Case Management Hearing, after
    hearing the parties, and once it finds that there are issues of fact and law which require to be tried, the
    Court may pass an order––
    (a) framing the issues between the parties in accordance with Order XIV of the Code of Civil
    Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), after examining pleadings, documents and documents produced before
    it, and on examination conducted by the Court under Rule 2 of Order X, if required;
    (b) listing witnesses to be examined by the parties;
    (c) fixing the date by which affidavit of evidence to be filed by parties;
    (d) fixing the date on which evidence of the witnesses of the parties to be recorded;
    (e) fixing the date by which written arguments are to be filed before the Court by the parties;
    (f) fixing the date on which oral arguments are to be heard by the Court; and
    (g) setting time limits for parties and their advocates to address oral arguments.
  3. Time limit for the completion of a trial.—In fixing dates or setting time limits for the purposes of
    Rule 2 of this Order, the Court shall ensure that the arguments are closed not later than six months from
    the date of the first Case Management Hearing.
  4. Recording of oral evidence on a day-to-day basis.—The Court shall, as far as possible, ensure
    that the recording of evidence shall be carried on, on a day-to-day basis until the cross-examination of all
    the witnesses is complete.
  5. Case Management Hearings during a trial.—The Court may, if necessary, also hold Case
    Management Hearings anytime during the trial to issue appropriate orders so as to ensure adherence by
    the parties to the dates fixed under Rule 2 and facilitate speedy disposal of the suit.
  6. Powers of the Court in a Case Management Hearing.—(1) In any Case Management Hearing
    held under this Order, the Court shall have the power to—
    (a) prior to the framing of issues, hear and decide any pending application filed by the parties
    under Order XIII-A;
    (b) direct parties to file compilations of documents or pleadings relevant and necessary for
    framing issues;
    (c) extend or shorten the time for compliance with any practice, direction or Court order if it finds
    sufficient reason to do so;
    (d) adjourn or bring forward a hearing if it finds sufficient reason to do so;
    (e) direct a party to attend the Court for the purposes of examination under Rule 2 of Order X;
    (f) consolidate proceedings;

*. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Sch. (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
123
(g) strike off the name of any witness or evidence that it deems irrelevant to the issues framed;
(h) direct a separate trial of any issue;
(i) decide the order in which issues are to be tried;
(j) exclude an issue from consideration;
(k) dismiss or give judgment on a claim after a decision on a preliminary issue;
(l) direct that evidence be recorded by a Commission where necessary in accordance with Order
XXVI;
(m) reject any affidavit of evidence filed by the parties for containing irrelevant, inadmissible or
argumentative material;
(n) strike off any parts of the affidavit of evidence filed by the parties containing irrelevant,
inadmissible or argumentative material;
(o) delegate the recording of evidence to such authority appointed by the Court for this purpose;
(p) pass any order relating to the monitoring of recording the evidence by a commission or any
other authority;
(q) order any party to file and exchange a costs budget;
(r) issue directions or pass any order for the purpose of managing the case and furthering the
overriding objective of ensuring the efficient disposal of the suit.
(2) When the Court passes an order in exercise of its powers under this Order, it may—
(a) make it subject to conditions, including a condition to pay a sum of money into Court; and
(b) specify the consequence of failure to comply with the order or a condition.
(3) While fixing the date for a Case Management Hearing, the Court may direct that the parties also
be present for such Case Management Hearing, if it is of the view that there is a possibility of settlement
between the parties.

  1. Adjournment of Case Management Hearing.—(1) The Court shall not adjourn the Case
    Management Hearing for the sole reason that the advocate appearing on behalf of a party is not present:
    Provided that an adjournment of the hearing is sought in advance by moving an application, the Court
    may adjourn the hearing to another date upon the payment of such costs as the Court deems fit, by the
    party moving such application.
    (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Rule, if the Court is satisfied that there is a justified
    reason for the absence of the advocate, it may adjourn the hearing to another date upon such terms and
    conditions it deems fit.
  2. Consequences of non-compliance with orders.— Where any party fails to comply with the order
    of the Court passed in a Case Management Hearing, the Court shall have the power to—
    (a) condone such non-compliance by payment of costs to the Court;
    (b) foreclose the non-compliant party’s right to file affidavits, conduct cross-examination of
    witnesses, file written submissions, address oral arguments or make further arguments in the trial, as
    the case may be, or
    (c) dismiss the plaint or allow the suit where such non-compliance is wilful, repeated and the
    imposition of costs is not adequate to ensure compliance.]STATE AMENDMENT
    Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (UTs).―
    Insertion of Order XV-A.—After Order XV of the Code, insert the following Order, namely,-
    ORDER XV-A
  3. First Case Management Hearing.—The court shall hold the first Case Management Hearing, not
    later than four week‘s from the date of filing of affidavit of admission or denial of documents by all
    parties to the suit.
  4. Orders to be passed in a Case Management Hearing.—In a Case Management Hearing, after
    hearing the parties, and once it finds that there are issues of fact and law which require to be tried, the
    court may pass an order—
    124
    (a) framing the issues between the parties in accordance with Order XIV of the Code of Civil
    Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) after examining pleadings, documents and documents produced before it,
    and on examination conducted by the court under Rule 2 of Order X, if required;
    (b) listing witnesses to be examined by the parties;
    (c) fixing the date by which affidavit of evidence to be filed by parties;
    (d) fixing the date on which evidence of the witnesses of the parties to be recorded;
    (e) fixing the date by which written arguments are to be filed before the court by the parties;
    (f) fixing the date on which oral arguments are to be heard by the court; and
    (g) setting time limits for parties and their advocates to address oral arguments.
  5. Time limit for the completion of a trial.—In fixing dates or setting time limits for the purposes of
    Rule 2 of this order, the court shall ensure that the arguments are closed not later than six months from the
    date of the first Case Management Hearing.
  6. Recording of oral evidence on a day-to-day basis.—The court shall, as far as possible, ensure that
    the record of evidence shall be carried on, on a day-to-day basis until he cross examination of all the
    witnesses is complete.
  7. Case Management hearings during trial.— The court may, if necessary, also hold Case
    Management Hearings anytime during the trial to issue appropriate orders so as to ensure adherence by
    the parties to the dates fixed under Rule 2 and facilitate speedy disposal of the suit.
  8. Powers of the court in a Case Management Hearing.—(1) In any Case Management Hearing
    held under this order, the court shall have the power to –
    (a) prior to the framing of issues, hear and decide any pending application filed by the parties under
    Order XIII-A;
    (b) direct parties to file compilations of documents or pleadings relevant and necessary for framing
    issues;
    (c) extend or shorten the time for compliance with any practice, direction or court order if it finds
    sufficient reason to do so;
    (d) adjourn or bring forward a hearing if it finds sufficient reason to do so;
    (e) direct a party to attend the court for the purposes of examination under Rule 2 of Order X;
    (f) consolidate proceedings;
    (g) strike off the name of any witness or evidence that it deems irrelevant to the issues framed;
    (h) direct a separate trial of any issue;
    (i) decide the order in which issues are to be tried;
    (j) exclude an issue from consideration;
    (k) dismiss or give judgment on a claim after a decision on a preliminary issue;
    (l) direct that evidence be recorded by a Commission where necessary in accordance with Order
    XXVI;
    (m) reject any affidavit of evidence filed by the parties for containing irrelevant, inadmissible or
    argumentative material;
    (n) strike off any parts of the affidavit of evidence filed by the parties containing irrelevant,
    inadmissible or argumentative material;
    (o) delegate the recording of evidence to such authority appointed by the court for this purpose;
    (p) pass any order relating to the monitoring of recording the evidence by a commission or any
    other authority;
    125
    (q) order any party to file land exchange a costs budget;
    (r) issue directions or pass any order for the purpose of managing the case and furthering the
    overriding objective of ensuring the efficient disposal of the suit.
    (2) When the court passes an order in exercise of its powers under this order, it may–
    (a) make it subject to conditions, including a condition to pay a sum of money into court; and
    (b) specify the consequence of failure to comply with the order or a condition.
    (3) While fixing the date for a Case Management Hearing, the court may direct that the parties also be
    present for such Case Management Hearing, if it is of the view that there is a possibility of settlement
    between the parties.
  9. Adjournment of Case Management Hearing.—(1) The Court shall not adjourn the Case
    Management Hearing for the sole reason that the advocate appearing on behalf of a party is not present:
    Provided that an adjournment of the hearing is sought in advance by moving an application, the court
    may adjourn the hearing to another date upon the payment of such costs as the court deems fit, by the
    party moving such application.
    (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this rule, if the court is satisfied that there is a justified
    reason for the absence of the advocate, it may adjourn the hearing to another date upon such terms and
    conditions it deems fit.
  10. Consequences of non-compliance with orders.—Where any party fails to comply with the order
    of the court passed in a Case Management Hearing, the court shall have the power to–
    (a) condone such non-compliance by payment of costs to the court;
    (b) foreclose the non-compliant party’s right to file affidavits, conduct cross-examination of witnesses,
    file written submissions, address oral arguments or make further arguments in the trial, as the case may
    be; or
    (c) dismiss the plaint or allow the suit where such non-compliance is willful, repeated and the
    imposition of costs is not adequate to ensure compliance.
    [Vide the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Adaptation of Central Laws) Order, 2020, notification
    No. S.O. 1123(E) dated (18-3-2020).]

ORDER XVI
Summoning and Attendance of Witnesses
1
[1. List of witnesses and summons to witnesses.—(1) On or before such date as the Court may
appoint, and not later than fifteen days after the date on which the issues are settled, the parties shall
present in Court a list of witnesses whom they propose to call either to give evidence or to produce
documents and obtain summonses to such persons for their attendance in Court.
(2) A party desirous of obtaining any summons for the attendance of any person shall file in Court an
application stating therein the purpose for which the witness is proposed to be summoned.
(3) The Court may, for reasons to be recorded, permit a party to call, whether by summoning through
Court or otherwise, any witness, other than those whose names appear in the list referred to in sub-rule (1),
if such party shows sufficient cause for the omission to mention the name of such witness in the said list.

  1. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 66, for rule 1 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    126
    (4) Subject to the provisions of sub-rule (2), summonses referred to in this rule may be obtained by
    the parties on an application to the Court or to such officer as may be appointed by the 1
    [Court in this
    behalf within five days of presenting the list of witnesses under sub-rule (1).]2
    [1A. Production of witnesses without summons.—A Subject to the provisions of sub-rule (3) of
    rule 1, any party to the suit may, without applying for summons under rule 1, bring any witness to give
    evidence or to produce documents.]
  2. Expenses of witness to be paid into Court on applying for summons.—(1) The party applying for
    a summons shall, before the summons is granted and within a period to be fixed 3
    [which shall not be later
    than seven days from the date of making applications under sub-rule (4) of rule 1] pay into Court such a sum
    of money as appears to the Court to be sufficient to defray the travelling and other expenses of the person
    summoned in passing to and from the Court in which he is required to attend, and for one day’s attendance.
    (2) Experts.—In determining the amount payable under this rule, the Court may, in the case of any
    person summoned to give evidence as an expert, allow reasonable remuneration for the time occupied
    both in giving evidence and in performing any work of an expert character necessary for the case.
    (3) Scale of expenses.—Where the Court is subordinate to a High Court, regard shall be had, in
    fixing the scale of such expenses, to any rules made in that behalf.
    4
    [(4) Expenses to be directly paid to witnesses.—Where the summons is served directly by the party
    on a witness, the expenses referred to in sub-rule (1) shall be paid to the witness by the party or his agent.]
  3. Tender of expenses to witness.—The sum so paid into Court shall be tendered to the person summoned, at the time of serving the summons, if it can be served personally.
  4. Procedure where insufficient sum paid in.—(1) Where it appears to the Court or to such officer as
    it appoints in this behalf that the sum paid into Court is not sufficient to cover such expenses or reasonable
    remuneration, the Court may direct such further sum to be paid to the person summoned as appears to be
    necessary on that account, and, in case of default in payment, may order such sum to be levied by
    attachment and sale of the movable property of the party obtaining the summons, or the Court may
    discharge the person summoned without requiring him to give evidence; or may both order such levy and
    discharge such person as aforesaid.
    (2) Expenses of witnesses detained more than one day.—Where it is necessary to detain the person
    summoned for a longer period than one day, the Court may, from time to time, order the party at whose
    instance he was summoned to pay into Court such sum as is sufficient to defray the expenses of his detention
    for such further period, and, in default of such deposit being made, may order such sum to be levied by
    attachment and sale of the movable property of such party; or the Court may discharge the person summoned
    without requiring him to give evidence; or may both order such levy and discharge such person as aforesaid.
  5. Time, place and purpose of attendance to be specified in summons.—Every summons for the
    attendance of a person to give evidence or to produce a document shall specify the time and place at
    which he is required to attend, and also whether his attendance is required for the purpose of giving
    evidence or to produce a document or for both purposes; and any particular document, which the person
    summoned is called on to produce shall be described in the summons with reasonable accuracy.
  6. Summons to produce document.—Any person may be summoned to produce a document,
    without being summoned to give evidence; and any person summoned merely to produce a document
    shall be deemed to have complied with the summons if he causes such document to be produced instead
    of attending personally to produce the same.
  7. Power to require persons present in Court to give evidence or produce document.—Any
    person present in Court may be required by the Court to give evidence or to produce any document then
    and there in his possession or power.
  8. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 25, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  9. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 66, for rule 1A (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  10. Ins. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 25 (w.e.f. 7-2002).
  11. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 66 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    127
    1
    [7A. Summons given to the party for service.—(1) The Court may, on the application of any party
    for the issue of a summons for the attendance of any person, permit such party to effect service of such
    summons on such person and shall, in such a case, deliver the summons to such party for service.
    (2) The service of such summons shall be effected by or on behalf of such party by delivering or
    tendering to the witness personally a copy thereof signed by the Judge or such officer of the Court as he
    may appoint in this behalf and sealed with the seal of the Court.
    (3) The provisions of rules 16 and 18 of Order V shall apply to a summons personally served under
    this rule as if the person effecting service were a serving officer.
    (4) If such summons, when tendered, is refused or if the person served refuses to sign and
    acknowledgement of service or for any reason such summons cannot be served personally, the Court
    shall, on the application of the party, re-issue such summons to be served by the Court in the same manner
    as a summons to a defendant.
    (5) Where a summons is served by a party under this rule, the party shall not be required to pay the
    fees otherwise chargeable for the service of summons.]
  12. Summons how served.—Every summons 2
    [under this Order, not being a summons delivered to a
    party for service under rule 7A,] shall be served as nearly as may be in the same manner as a summons to
    a defendant and the rules in Order V as to proof of service shall apply in the case of all summonses served
    under this rule.
  13. Time for serving summons.—Service shall in all cases be made a sufficient time before the time
    specified in the summons for the attendance of the person summoned, to allow him a reasonable time for
    preparation and for travelling to the place .at which his attendance is required.
  14. Procedure where witness fails to comply with summons.—3
    [(1) Where a person has been
    issued either to attend to give evidence or to produce a document, fails to attend or to produce the
    document in compliance with such summons, the Court—
    (a) shall, if the certificate of the serving officer has not been verified by the affidavit, or if service
    of the summons has affected by a party or his agent, or
    (b) may, if the certificate of the serving officer has been so verified,
    examine on oath the serving officer or the party or his agent, as the case may be, who has effected service,
    or cause him to be so examined by any Court, touching the service or non-service of the summons.](2) Where the Court sees reason to believe that such evidence or production is material, and that such
    person has, without lawful excuse, failed to attend or to produce the document in compliance with such
    summons or has intentionally avoided service, it may issue a proclamation requiring him to attend to give
    evidence or to produce the document at a time and place to be named therein; and a copy of such
    proclamation shall be affixed on the outer door or other conspicuous part of the house in which he ordinarily
    resides.
    (3) In lieu of or at the time of issuing such proclamation, or at any time afterwards, the Court may, in
    its discretion, issue a warrant, either with or without bail, for the arrest of such person, and may make an
    order for the attachment of his property to such amount as it thinks fit, not exceeding the amount of the
    costs of attachment and of any fine which may be imposed under rule 12:
    Provided that no Court of Small Causes shall make an order for the attachment of immovable property.
  15. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 66 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  16. Subs. by s. 66, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  17. Subs. by s. 66. ibid., for sub-rule (1) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    128
  18. If witness appears attachment may be withdrawn.—Where, at any time after the attachment of
    his property, such person appears and satisfies the Court,—
    (a) that he did not, without lawful excuse, fail to comply with the summons or intentionally avoid
    service, and,
    (b) where he has failed to attend at the time and place named in a proclamation issued under the
    last preceding rule, that he had no notice of such proclamation in time to attend,
    the Court shall direct that the property be released from attachment, and shall make such order as to the
    costs of the attachment as it thinks fit.
  19. Procedure if witness fails to appear.—1
    [(1)] The Court may, where such person does not appear,
    or appears but fails so to satisfy the Court, impose upon him such fine not exceeding five hundred rupees as
    it thinks fit, having regard to his condition in life and all the circumstances of the case, and may order his
    property, or any part thereof, to be attached and sold or, if already attached under rule 10, to be sold for the
    purpose of satisfying all costs of such attachment, together with the amount of the said fine, if any:
    Provided that, if the person whose attendance is required pays into Court the costs and fine aforesaid,
    the Court shall order the property to be released from attachment.
    2
    [(2) Notwithstanding that the Court has not issued a proclamation under sub-rule (2) of rule 10, nor
    issued a warrant nor ordered attachment under sub-rule (3) of that rule, the Court may impose fine under
    sub-rule (1) of this rule after giving notice to such person to show cause why the fine should not be
    imposed.]
  20. Mode of attachment.—The provisions with regard to the attachment and sale of property in the
    execution of a decree shall, so far as they are applicable, be deemed to apply to any attachment and sale
    under this Order as if the person whose property is so attached were a judgment-debtor.
  21. Court may of its own accord summon as witnesses strangers to suit.—Subject to the
    provisions of this Code as to attendance and appearance and to any law for the time being in force, where
    the Court at any time thinks it necessary 3
    [to examine any person, including a party to the suit] and not
    called as a witness by a party to the suit, the Court may, of its own motion, cause such person to be
    summoned as a witness to give evidence, or to produce any document in his possession, on a day to be
    appointed, and may examine him as a witness or require him to produce such document.
  22. Duty of persons summoned to give evidence or produce document. —Subject as last aforesaid,
    whoever is summoned to appear and give evidence in a suit shall attend at the time and place named in the
    summons for that purpose, and whoever is summoned to produce a document shall either attend to
    produce it, or cause it to be produced, at such time and place.
  23. When they may depart.—(1) A person so summoned and attending shall, unless the Court
    otherwise directs, attend at each hearing until the suit has been disposed of.
    (2) On the application of either party and the payment through the Court of all necessary expenses
    (if any), the Court may require any person so summoned and attending to furnish security to attend at the
    next or any other hearing or until the suit is disposed of and, in default of his furnishing such security,
    may order him to be detained in the civil prison.
  24. Application of rules 10 to 13.—The provisions of rules 10 to 13 shall, so far as they are
    applicable, be deemed to apply to any person who having attended in compliance with a summons
    departs, without lawful excuse, in contravention of rule 16.
  25. Rule 12 renumbered as sub-rule (1) by Act 104 of 1976, s. 66 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  26. Ins. by s. 66, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  27. Subs. by s. 66, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    129
  28. Procedure where witness apprehended cannot give evidence or produce document.—Where
    any person arrested under a warrant is brought before the Court in custody and cannot, owing to the
    absence of the parties or any of them, give the evidence or produce the document which he has been
    summoned to give or produce, the court may require him to give reasonable bail or other security for his
    appearance at such time and place as it thinks fit, and, on such bail or security being given, may release
    him, and, in default of his giving such bail or security, may order him to be detained in the civil prison.
  29. No witness to be ordered to attend in person unless resident within certain limits.—No one
    shall be ordered to attend in person to give evidence unless he resides—
    (a) within the local limits of the Court’s ordinary jurisdiction, or
    (b) without such limits but at a place less then 1
    [one hundred] or (where there is railway or steamer
    communication or other established public conveyance for five-sixths of the distance between the place
    where he resides and the place where the Court is situate) less than 2
    [five hundred kilometres] distance
    from the court-house:
    3
    [Provided that where transport by air is available between the two places mentioned in this rule and
    the witness is paid the fare by air, he may be ordered to attend in person.]
  30. Consequence of refusal of party to give evidence when called on by Court.—Where any party
    to a suit present in Court refuses, without lawful excuse, when required by the Court, to give evidence or
    to produce any document then and there in his possession or power, the Court may pronounce judgment
    against him or make such order in relation to the suit as it thinks fit.
  31. Rules as to witnesses to apply to parties summoned.—Where any party to a suit is required to
    give evidence or to produce a document, the provisions as to witnesses shall apply to him so far as they
    are applicable.

4
[ORDER XVI-A
Attendance of witnesses confined or detained in prisons

  1. Definitions.—In this Order,—
    (a) “detained” includes detained under any law providing for preventive detention;
    (b) “prison” includes—
    (i) any place which has been declared by the State Government, by general or special order,
    to be a subsidiary jail; and
    (ii) any reformatory, borstal institution or other institution of a like nature.
  2. Power to require attendance of prisoners to give evidence.—Where it appears to a Court that the
    evidence of a person confined or detained in a prison within the State is material in a suit, the Court may
    make an order requiring the officer in charge of the prison to produce that person before the Court to give
    evidence:
    Provided that, if the distance from the prison to the Court-house is more than twenty-five kilometers,
    no such order shall be made unless the Court is satisfied that the examination of such person on
    commission will not be adequate.
  3. Expenses to be paid into Court.—(1) Before making any order under rule 2, the Court shall
    require the party at whose instance or for whose benefit the order is to be issued, to pay into Court such
    sum of money as appears to the Court to be sufficient to defray the expenses of the execution of the order,
    including the travelling and other expenses of the escort provided for the witness.
    (2) Where the Court is subordinate to a High Court, regard shall be had, in fixing the scale of such
    expenses, to any rules made by the High Court in that behalf.
  4. Power of State Government to exclude certain persons from the operation of rule 2.—(1) The State
    Government may, at any time, having regard to the matters specified in sub-rule (2), by general or special order,
  5. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 66, for “fifty” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  6. Subs. by s. 66, ibid., for “two hundred miles” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  7. The proviso added, by s. 66, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  8. Ins. by s. 67, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    130
    direct that any person or class of persons shall not be removed from the prison in which he or they may be
    confined or detained, and thereupon, so long as the order remains in force, no order made under rule 2,
    whether before or after the date of the order made by the State Government, shall have effect in respect of
    such person or class of persons.
    (2) Before making an order under sub-rule (1), the State Government shall have regard to the
    following matters, namely:—
    (a) the nature of the offence for which, or the grounds on which, the person or class of persons
    have been ordered to be confined or detained in prison;
    (b) the likelihood of the disturbance of public order if the person or class of persons is allowed to
    be removed from the prison; and
    (c) the public interest, generally.
  9. Officer in charge of prison to abstain from carrying out order in certain cases.—Where the
    person in respect of whom an order is made under rule 2—
    (a) is certified by the medical officer attached to the prison as unfit to be removed from the prison
    by reason of sickness or infirmity, or
    (b) is under committal for trial or under remand pending trial or pending a preliminary
    investigation; or
    (c) is in custody for a period which would expire before the expiration of the time required for
    complying with the order and for taking him back to the prison in which he is confined or detained; or
    (d) is a person to whom an order made by the State Government under rule 4 applies,
    the officer in charge of the prison shall abstain from carrying out the Court’s order and shall send to
    the Court a statement of reasons for so abstaining.
  10. Prisoner to be brought to Court in custody.—In any other case, the officer in charge of the
    prison shall, upon delivery of the Court’s order, cause the person named therein to be taken to the Court
    so as to be present at the time mentioned in such order, and shall cause him to be kept in custody in or
    near the Court until he has been examined or until the Court authorises him to be taken back to the prison
    in which he is confined or detained.
  11. Power to issue commission for examination of witness in prison.—(1) Where it appears to the
    Court that the evidence of a person confined or detained in a prison, whether within the State or elsewhere
    in India, is material in a suit but the attendance of such person cannot be secured under the preceding
    provisions of this Order, the Court may issue a commission for the examination of that person in the
    prison in which he is confined or detained.
    (2) The provisions of Order XXVI shall, so far may be, apply in relation to the examination on commission of
    such person in prison as they apply in relation to the examination on commission of any other person.]

ORDER XVII
Adjournment

  1. Court may grant time and adjourn hearing.—1
    [(1) The court may, if sufficient cause is shown,
    at any stage of the suit grant time to the parties or to any of them, and may from time to time adjourn the
    hearing of the suit for reasons to be recorded in writing:
    Provided that no such adjournment shall be granted more than three time to a party during hearing of
    the suit.](2) Costs of adjournment.—In every such case the Court shall fix a day for the further hearing of the
    suit, and 2
    [shall make such orders as to costs occasioned by the adjournment or such higher costs as the
    court deems fit:]3
    [Provided that,—
    (a) when the hearing of the suit has commenced, it shall be continued from day-to-day until all
    the witnesses in attendance have been examined, unless the Court finds that, for the exceptional
    reasons to be recorded by it, the adjournment of the hearing beyond the following day is necessary.
  2. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 26, for sub-rule (1) (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  3. Subs. by s. 26, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  4. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 68, for the previous proviso (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    131
    (b) no adjournment shall be granted at the request of a party, except where the circumstances are
    beyond the control of that party,
    (c) the fact that the pleader of a party is engaged in another Court, shall not be a ground for
    adjournment,
    (d) where the illness of a pleader or his inability to conduct the case for any reason, other than his
    being engaged in another Court, is put forward as a ground for adjournment, the Court shall not grant
    the. adjournment unless it is satisfied that the party applying for adjournment could not have engaged
    another pleader in time,
    (e) where a witness is present in Court but a party or his pleader is not present or the party or his
    pleader, though present in Court, is not ready to examine or cross-examine the witness, the Court
    may, if it thinks fit, record the statement of the witness and pass such orders as it thinks fit dispensing
    with the examination-in-chief or cross-examination of the witness, as the case may be, by the party or
    his pleader not present or not ready as aforesaid.]
  5. Procedure if parties fail to appear on day fixed.—Where, on any day to which the hearing of the
    suit is adjourned, the parties or any of them fail to appear, the Court may proceed to dispose of the suit in
    one of the modes directed in that behalf by Order IX or make such other order as it thinks fit.
    1
    [Explanation.—Where the evidence or a substantial portion of the evidence of any party has already
    been recorded and such party fails to appear on any day to which the hearing of the suit is adjourned, the
    Court may, in its discretion proceed with the case as if such party were present.]
  6. Court may proceed notwithstanding either party fails to produce evidence, etc.—Where any
    party to a suit to whom time has been granted fails to produce his evidence, or to cause the attendance of
    his witnesses, or to perform any other act necessary to the further progress of the suit, for which time has
    been allowed 2
    [the Court may, notwithstanding such default,
    (a) if the parties are present, proceed to decide the suit forthwith; or
    (b) if the parties are, or any of them is, absent, proceed under rule 2].

ORDER XVIII
Hearing of the suit and examination of witnesses

  1. Right to begin.—The plaintiff has the right to begin unless the defendant admits the facts alleged
    by the plaintiff and contents that either in point of law or on some additional facts alleged by the
    defendant the plaintiff is not entitled to any part of the relief which he seeks, in which case the defendant
    has the right to begin.
  2. Statement and production of evidence.—(1) On the day fixed for the hearing of the suit or on any
    other day to which the hearing is adjourned, the party having the right to begin shall state his case and
    produce his evidence in support of the issues which he is bound to prove.
    (2) The other party shall then state his case and produce his evidence (if any) and may then address
    the Court generally on the whole case.
    (3) The party beginning may then reply generally on the whole case.
    3
    [(3A) Any party may address oral arguments in a case, and shall, before he concludes the oral arguments, if any, submit if the Court so permits concisely and under distinct headings written arguments in
    support of his case to the Court and such written arguments shall form part of the record.
    (3B) A copy of such written arguments shall be simultaneously furnished to the opposite party.
    (3C) No adjournment shall be granted for the purpose of filing the written arguments unless the
    Court, for reasons to be recorded in writing, considers it necessary to grant such adjourment.
  3. The Explanation ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 68 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  4. Subs. by s. 68, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  5. Ins. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 12 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    132
    (3D) The Court shall fix such time-limits for the oral arguments by either of the parties in a case, as it
    thinks fit.][(3A) A party shall, within four weeks prior to commencing the oral arguments, submit concisely and under distinct headings written arguments in support of his case to the Court and such written arguments shall form part of the record. (3B) The written arguments shall clearly indicate the provisions of the laws being cited in support of the arguments and the citations of judgments being relied upon by the party and include copies of such judgments being relied upon by the party. (3C) A copy of such written arguments shall be furnished simultaneously to the opposite party. (3D) The Court may, if it deems fit, after the conclusion of arguments, permit the parties to file revised written arguments within a period of not more than one week after the date of conclusion of arguments. (3E) No adjournment shall be granted for the purpose of filing the written arguments unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded in writing, considers it necessary to grant such adjournment. (3F) It shall be open for the Court to limit the time for oral submissions having regard to the nature and complexity of the matter.] 1 [ * * * *]STATE AMENDMENT
    Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (UTs).—
    In Rule 2, after sub-rule (3), insert the following sub-rules, namely:-
    (3A) A party shall, within four weeks prior to commencing the oral arguments, submit concisely and
    under distinct headings written arguments in support of his case to the court and such written arguments
    shall form part of the record.
    (3B) The written arguments shall clearly indicate the provisions of the laws being cited in support of
    the arguments and the citations of judgments being relied upon by the party and include copies of such
    judgments being relied upon by the party.
    (3C) A copy of such written arguments shall be furnished simultaneously to the opposite party.
    (3D) The court may, if it deems fit, after the conclusion of arguments, permit the parties to file revised
    written arguments within a period of not more than one week after the date of conclusion of arguments.
    (3E) No adjournment shall be granted for the purpose of filing the written arguments unless the court,
    for reasons to be recorded in writing, considers it necessary to grant such adjournment.
    (3F) It shall be open for the court to limit the time for oral submissions having regard to the nature and
    complexity of the matter.
    [Ins. by the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Adaptation of Central Laws) Order, 2020, vide
    notification No. S.O. 1123(E) dated (18-3-2020).]
  6. Evidence where several issues.—Where there are several issues, the burden of proving some of
    which lies on the other party, the party beginning may, at his option, either produce his evidence on those
    issues or reserve it by way of answer to the evidence produced by the other party; and, in the latter case,
    the party beginning may produce evidence on those issues after the other party has produced all his
    evidence, and the other party may then reply specially on the evidence so produced by the party
    beginning; but the party beginning will then be entitled to reply generally on the whole case.
    2
    [3A. Party to appear before other witnesses.—Where a party himself wishes to appear as a
    witness, he shall so appear before any other witness on his behalf has been examined, unless the Court, for
    reasons to be recorded, permits him to appear as his own witness at a later stage.]
  7. Sub-rule (4) omitted by Act 46 of 1999, s. 27 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  8. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 69 (w.e.f. 1.2-1977).
    *. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Sch. (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    133
    1
    [4. Recording of evidence.—(1) In every case, the examination-in-chief of a witness shall be on
    affidavit and copies thereof shall be supplied to the opposite party by the party who calls him for
    evidence:
    Provided that where documents are filed and the parties rely upon the documents, the proof and admissibility of such documents which are filed along with affidavit shall be subject to the orders of the Court.
    *[(1A) The affidavits of evidence of all witnesses whose evidence is proposed to be led by a party
    shall be filed simultaneously by that party at the time directed in the first Case Management Hearing.
    (1B) A party shall not lead additional evidence by the affidavit of any witness (including of a witness
    who has already filed an affidavit) unless sufficient cause is made out in an application for that purpose
    and an order, giving reasons, permitting such additional affidavit is passed by the Court.
    (1C) A party shall however have the right to withdraw any of the affidavits so filed at any time prior
    to commencement of cross-examination of that witness, without any adverse inference being drawn based
    on such withdrawal:
    Provided that any other party shall be entitled to tender as evidence and rely upon any admission
    made in such withdrawn affidavit.](2) The evidence (cross-examination and re-examination) of the witness in attendance, whose
    evidence (examination-in-chief) by affidavit has been furnished to the Court, shall be taken either by the
    Court or by the Commissioner appointed by it:
    Provided that the Court may, while appointing a commission under this sub-rule, consider taking into
    account such relevant factors as it thinks fit.
    (3) The Court or the Commissioner, as the case may be, shall record evidence either in writing or
    mechanically in the presence of the Judge or of the Commissioner, as the case may be, and where such
    evidence is recorded by the Commissioner he shall return such evidence together with his report in writing
    signed by him to the Court appointing him and the evidence taken under it shall form part of the record of the
    suit.
    (4) The Commissioner may record such remarks as it thinks material respecting the demeanour of any
    witness while under examination:
    Provided that any objection raised during the recording of evidence before the Commissioner shall be
    recorded by him and decided by the Court at the stage of arguments.
    (5) The report of the Commissioner shall be submitted to the Court appointing the commission within
    sixty days from the date of issue of the commission unless the Court for reasons to be recorded in writing
    extends the time.
    (6) The High Court or the District Judge, as the case may be, shall prepare a panel of Commissioners
    to record the evidence under this rule.
    (7) The Court may by general or special order fix the amount to be paid as remuneration for the
    services of the Commissioner.
    (8) The provisions of rules 16, 16A, 17 and 18 of Order XXVI, in so far as they are applicable, shall
    apply to the issue, execution and return of such commission under this rule.]
  9. Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 12, for rule 4 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    *. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Sch. (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    134
    STATE AMENDMENT
    Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (UTs).—
    In Rule 4, after sub-rule (1), insert the following sub-rules, namely:-
    (1A) The affidavits of evidence of all witnesses whose evidence is proposed to be led by a party shall be filed
    simultaneously by that party at the time directed in the first Case Management Hearing.
    (1B) A party shall not lead additional evidence by the affidavit of any witness (including of a witness who has
    already filed an affidavit) unless sufficient cause is made out in an application for that purpose and an order, giving
    reasons, permitting such additional affidavit is passed by the court.
    (1C) A party shall however have the right to withdraw any of the affidavits so filed at any time prior to
    commencement of cross-examination of that witness, without any adverse inference being drawn based on such
    withdrawal:
    Provided that any other party shall be entitled to tender as evidence and rely upon any admission made in such
    withdrawn affidavit.
    [Vide the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Adaptation of Central Laws) Order, 2020, notification
    No. S.O. 1123(E) dated (18-3-2020).]1
    [
    2
  10. How evidence shall be taken in appealable cases.—In case in which an appeal is allowed, the
    evidence of each witness shall be,—
    (a) taken down in the language of the Court,—
    (i) in writing by, or in the presence and under the personal direction and superintendence of,
    the Judge, or
    (ii) from the dictation of the Judge directly on a typewriter; or
    (b) if the Judge, for reasons to be recorded, so directs, recorded mechanically in the language of
    the Court in the presence of the Judge.]3
  11. When deposition to be interpreted.—Where the evidence is taken down in a language different
    from that in which it is given, and the witness does not understand the language in which it is taken down,
    the evidence as taken down in writing shall be interpreted to him in the language in which it is given.
    3
  12. Evidence under section 138.—Evidence taken down under section 138 shall be in the form
    prescribed by rule 5 and shall be read over and signed and, as occasion may require, interpreted and corrected
    as if it were evidence taken down under that rule.
    3
  13. Memorandum when evidence not taken down by Judge.—Where the evidence is not taken down
    in writing by the Judge, 4
    [or from his dictation in the open Court, or recorded mechanically in his presence,]he shall be bound, as the examination of each witness proceeds, to make a memorandum of the substance of
    what each witness deposes, and such memorandum shall be written and signed by the Judge and shall form
    part of the record.
    5
    [
    3
  14. When evidence may be taken in English.—(1) Where English is not the language of the Court,
    but all the parties to the suit who appear in person, and the pleaders of such of the parties as appear by
    pleaders, do not object to having such evidence as is given in English, being taken down in English, the
    judge may so take it down or cause it to be taken down.
  15. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 69, for rule 5 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  16. The provisions of rule so far as they relate to the manner of taking evidence, are not applicable to the Chief Court of Oudh, see
    the Oudh Courts Act, 1925 (U. P. Act 4 of 1925), s. 16 (2).
  17. The provisions of rules 6, 7, 8, 9, so far as they relate to the manner of taking evidence, are not applicable to the Chief Court of
    Oudh, see, s. 16 (2), ibid.
  18. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 69 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  19. Subs. by s. 69, ibid., for rule 9 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    135
    (2) Where evidence is not given in English but all the parties who appear in person, and the pleaders of
    such of the parties as appear by pleaders, do not object to having such evidence being taken down in English,
    the Judge may take down, or cause to be taken down, such evidence in English.]
  20. Any particular question and answer may be taken down.—The Court may, of its own motion or on
    the application of any party or his pleader, take down any particular question and answer, or any objection to
    any question, if there appears to be any special reason for so doing.
    1
  21. Questions objected to and allowed by Court. —Where any question put to a witness is objected to by a
    party or his pleader, and the Court allows the same to be put, the Judge shall take down the question, the answer, the
    objection and the name of the person making it, together with the decision of the Court thereon.
  22. Remarks on demeanour of witnesses.—The Court may record such remarks as it thinks material
    respecting the demeanour of any witness while under examination.
    2
    [
    1
  23. Memorandum of evidence in unappealable cases.—In cases in which an appeal is not allowed it shall
    not be necessary to take down or dictate or record the evidence of the witnesses at length; but the Judge, as the
    examination of each witness proceeds shall make in writing, or dictate directly on the typewriter, or cause to be
    mechanically recorded, a memorandum of the substance of what the witness deposes, and such memorandum shall
    be signed by the Judge or otherwise authenticated, and shall form part of the record.]1
  24. [Judge unable to make such memorandum to record reasons of his inability] omitted by the Code of
    Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1976 (104 of 1976), s. 69 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).]1
  25. Power to deal with evidence taken before another Judge.—(1) Where a Judge is prevented by death,
    transfer or other cause from concluding the trial of a suit, his successor may deal with any evidence or
    memorandum taken down or made under the foregoing rules as if such evidence or memorandum had been taken
    down or made by him or under his direction under the said rules and may proceed with the suit from the stage at
    which his predecessor left it.
    (2) The provisions of sub-rule (1) shall, so far as they are applicable, be deemed to apply to evidence taken
    in a suit transferred under section 24.
    1
  26. Power to examine witness immediately—(1) Where a witness is about to leave the jurisdiction of
    the Court, or other sufficient cause is shown to the satisfaction of the Court why his evidence should be taken
    immediately, the Court may, upon the application of any party or of the witness, at any time after the institution
    of the suit, take the evidence of such witness in manner hereinbefore provided.
    (2) Where such evidence is not taken forthwith and in the presence of the parties, such notice as the Court
    thinks sufficient, of the day fixed for the examination, shall be given to the parties.
    (3) The evidence so taken shall be read over to the witness, and, if he admits it to be correct, shall be
    signed by him, and the Judge shall, if necessary, correct the same, and shall sign it, and it may then be read at
    any hearing of the suit.
  27. Court may recall and examine witness.—The Court may at any stage of a suit recall any witness who
    has been examined and may (subject to the law of evidence for the time being in force) put such questions to
    him as the Court thinks fit.
    17A. [Production of evidence not previously known or which could not be produced despite due diligence.]omitted by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1999 (46 of 1999), s. 27 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  28. Power of Court to inspect.—The Court may at any stage of a suit inspect any property or thing
    concerning which any question may arise 3
    [and where the Court inspects any property or thing it shall, as soon
    as may be practicable, make a memorandum of any relevant facts observed at such inspection and such
    memorandum shall form a part of the record of the suit].
    4
    [19. Power to get statements recorded on commission.—Notwithstanding anything contained in
    these rules, the court may, instead of examining witnesses in open court, direct their statements to be
    recorded on commission under rule 4A of Order XXVI.]
  29. The provisions of rules 11, 13, 14, 15, so far as they relate to the manner of taking evidence, are not applicable to the Chief
    Court of Oudh, see the Oudh Courts Act, 1925 (U. P. Act 4 of 1925), s. 16 (2).
  30. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 69, for the rule, (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  31. Ins. by s. 69, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  32. Ins. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 27 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    136
    ORDER XIX
    Affidavits
  33. Power to order any point to be proved by affidavit.—Any Court may at any time for sufficient
    reason order that any particular fact or facts may be proved by affidavit, or that the affidavit of any
    witness may be read at the hearing, on such conditions as the Court thinks reasonable:
    Provided that where it appears to the Court that either party bona fide desires the production of a
    witness for cross-examination, and that such witness can be produced, an order shall not be made
    authorising the evidence of such witness to be given by affidavit.
  34. Power to order attendance of deponent for cross-examination.—(1) Upon any application
    evidence may be given by affidavit, but the Court may, at the instance of either party, order the
    attendance for cross-examination of the deponent.
    (2) Such attendance shall be in Court, unless the deponent is exempted from personal appearance in
    Court or the Court otherwise directs.
  35. Matters to which affidavits shall be confined.—(1) Affidavits shall be confined to such facts as
    the deponent is able of his own knowledge to prove, except on interlocutory applications, on which
    statements of his belief may be admitted: provided that the grounds thereof are stated.
    (2) The costs of every affidavit which shall unnecessarily set forth matters of hearsay or argumentative
    matter, or copies of or extracts from documents, shall (unless the Court otherwise directs) be paid by the
    party filing the same.
    STATE AMENDMENT
    Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (UTs).—
    In Order XIX of the Code, after Rule 3, insert the following new rules, namely4. Court may control evidence.—(1) The court may, by directions regulate the evidence as to issues
    on which it requires evidence and the manner in which such evidence may be placed before the court.
    (2) The court may, in its discretion and for reasons to be recorded in writing, exclude evidence that
    would otherwise be produced by the parties.
  36. Redacting or rejecting evidence.—A court may, in its discretion, for reasons to be recorded in
    writing—
    (i) redact or order the redaction of such portions of the affidavit of examination-in-chief as do not,
    in its view, constitute evidence; or
    (ii) return or reject an affidavit of examination-in-chief as not constituting admissible evidence.
  37. Format and guidelines of affidavit of evidence.—An affidavit must comply with the form and
    requirements set forth below:—
    (a) such affidavit should be confined to, and should follow the chronological sequence of, the dates
    and events that are relevant for proving any fact or any other matter dealt with;
    (b) where the court is of the view that an affidavit is a mere reproduction of the pleadings, or
    contains the legal grounds of any party’s case, the court may, by order, strike out the affidavit or such
    parts of the affidavit, as it deems fit and proper;
    (c) each paragraph of an affidavit should, as far as possible, be confined to a distinct portion of the
    subject;
    (d) an affidavit shall state—
    (i) which of the statements in it are made from the deponent’s own knowledge and which are
    matters of information or belief; and
    137
    (ii) the source for any matters of information or belief.
    (e) an affidavit should—
    (i) have the pages numbered consecutively as a separate document (or as one of several
    documents contained in a file);
    (ii) be divided into numbered paragraphs;
    (iii) have all numbers, including dates, expressed in figures; and
    (iv) if any of the documents referred to in the body of the affidavit are annexed to the affidavit
    or any other pleadings, give the annexures and page numbers of such documents that are relied
    upon.
    [Vide the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Adaptation of Central Laws) Order, 2020, notification
    No. S.O. 1123(E) dated (18-3-2020).]*[4. Court may control evidence. —(1) The Court may, by directions, regulate the evidence as to
    issues on which it requires evidence and the manner in which such evidence may be placed before the
    Court.
    (2) The Court may, in its discretion and for reasons to be recorded in writing, exclude evidence that
    would otherwise be produced by the parties.
  38. Redacting or rejecting evidence. — A Court may, in its discretion, for reasons to be recorded in
    writing––
    (i) redact or order the redaction of such portions of the affidavit of examination-in-chief as do not,
    in its view, constitute evidence; or
    (ii) return or reject an affidavit of examination-in-chief as not constituting admissible evidence.
  39. Format and guidelines of affidavit of evidence.—An affidavit must comply with the form and
    requirements set forth below:—
    (a) such affidavit should be confined to, and should follow the chronological sequence of, the
    dates and events that are relevant for proving any fact or any other matter dealt with;
    (b) where the Court is of the view that an affidavit is a mere reproduction of the pleadings, or
    contains the legal grounds of any party’s case, the Court may, by order, strike out the affidavit or such
    parts of the affidavit, as it deems fit and proper;
    (c) each paragraph of an affidavit should, as far as possible, be confined to a distinct portion of
    the subject;
    (d) an affidavit shall state—
    (i) which of the statements in it are made from the deponent’s own knowledge and which are
    matters of information or belief; and
    (ii) the source for any matters of information or belief;
    (e) an affidavit should—
    (i) have the pages numbered consecutively as a separate document (or as one of several
    documents contained in a file);
    (ii) be divided into numbered paragraphs;
    (iii) have all numbers, including dates, expressed in figures; and
    (iv) if any of the documents referred to in the body of the affidavit are annexed to the
    affidavit or any other pleadings, give the annexures and page numbers of such documents that are
    relied upon.]

*. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Sch. (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
138


ORDER XX
Judgment and decree
1
[
2

  1. Judgment when pronounced.—3
    [(1) The Court, after the case has been heard, shall pronounce
    judgment in an open Court, either at once, or as soon thereafter as may be practicable and when the
    judgment is to be pronounced on some future day, the Court shall fix a day for that purpose, of which due
    notice shall be given to the parties or their pleaders:
    Provided that where the judgment is not pronounced at once, every endeavour shall be made by the
    Court to pronounce the judgment within thirty days from the date on which the hearing of the case was
    concluded but, where it is not practicable so to do on the ground of the exceptional and extraordinary
    circumstances of the case, the Court shall fix a future day for the pronouncement of the judgment, and
    such day shall not ordinarily be a day beyond sixty days from the date on which the hearing of the case
    was concluded, and due notice of the day so fixed shall be given to the parties or their pleaders.]*[(1) The Commercial Court, Commercial Division, or Commercial Appellate Division, as the case
    may be, shall, within ninety days of the conclusion of arguments, pronounce judgment and copies thereof
    shall be issued to all the parties to the dispute through electronic mail or otherwise.]4
    [(2) Where a written judgment is to be pronounced, it shall be sufficient if the findings of the Court
    on each issue and the final order passed in the case are read out and it shall not be necessary for the Court
    to read out the whole judgment 5
    ***.
    (3) The judgment may be pronounced by dictation in open Court to a shorthand writer if the Judge is
    specially empowered by the High Court in this behalf:
    Provided that, where the judgment is pronounced by dictation in open Court, the transcript of the
    judgment so pronounced shall, after making such correction therein as may be necessary, be signed by the
    judge, bear the date on which it was pronounced, and form a part of the record.]
  2. Power to pronounce judgment written by judge’s predecessor.—6
    [A Judge shall] pronounce a
    judgment written, but not pronounced, by his predecessor.
    2
  3. Judgment to be signed.—The judgment shall be dated and signed by the Judge in open Court at
    the time of pronouncing it and, when once signed, shall not afterwards be altered or added, to save as
    provided by section 152 or on review.
    2
  4. Judgments of Small Cause Courts.—(1) Judgments of a Court of Small Causes need not contain
    more than the points for determination and the decision thereon.
    (2) Judgments of other Courts.—Judgments of other Courts shall contain a concise statement of the
    case, the points for determination, the decision thereon, and the reasons for such decision.
    2
  5. Court to state its decision on each issue.—In suits in which issues have been framed, the Court
    shall state its finding or decision, with the reasons therefor, upon each separate issue, unless the finding
    upon any one or more of the issue is sufficient for the decision of the suit.
    4
    [5A. Court to inform parties as to where an appeal lies in cases where parties are not
    represented by pleaders.—Except where both the parties are represented by pleaders, the Court shall,
    when it pronounces its judgment in a case subject to appeal, inform the parties present in Court as to the
    Court to which an appeal lies and the period of limitation for the filing of such appeal and place on record
    the information so given to the parties.]
  6. Subs. by Act 66 of 1956, s. 14, for rule I (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  7. The provisions of rules 1, 3, 4 and 5 are not applicable to the Chief Court of Oudh , see the Oudh Courts Act, 1925
    (U. P. Act 4 of 1925), s. 16 (2).
  8. Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 13, for sub-rule (1) (w.e.f. 1-7-2002), Earlier rule 1 renumbered as sub-rule (1) of that rule
    by Act 104 of 1976, s. 70 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  9. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 70 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  10. Certain words omitted by Act 46 of 1999, s. 28 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  11. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 70 for “A Judge may” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    *. Shall be applicable to commercial disputes of a specified value by Act 4 of 2016, s. 16 and the Sch. (w.e.f. 23-10-2015).
    139
  12. Contents of decree.—(1) The decree shall agree with the judgment it shall contain the number of
    the suit, the 1
    [names and descriptions of the parties, their registered addresses,] and particulars of the
    claim, and shall specify clearly the relief granted or other determination of the suit.
    (2) The decree shall also state the amount of costs incurred in the suit, and by whom or out of what
    property and in what proportions such costs are to be paid.
    (3) The Court may direct that the costs payable to one party by the other shall be set off against any
    sum which is admitted or found to be due from the former to the latter.
    2
    [6A. Preparation of decree.—(1) Every endeavour shall be made to ensure that the decree is drawn
    up as expeditiously as possible and, in any case, within fifteen days from the date on which the judgment
    is pronounced.
    (2) An appeal may be preferred against the decree without filing a copy of the decree and in such a
    case the copy made available to the party by the court shall for the purposes of rule 1 of Order XLI be
    treated as the decree. But as soon as the decree is drawn, the judgment shall cease to have the effect of a
    decree for the purposes of execution or for any other purpose.
    6B. Copies of judgments when to be made available.—Where the judgment is pronounced, copies of
    the judgment shall be made available to the parties immediately after the pronouncement of the judgment
    for preferring an appeal on payment of such charges as may be specified in the rule made by the High
    Court.]
  13. Date of decree.—The decree shall bear the day on which the judgment was pronounced, and, when
    the judge has satisfied himself that the decree has been drawn up in accordance with the judgment, he
    shall sign the decree.
  14. Procedure where Judge has vacated office before signing decree.—Where a Judge has vacated
    office after pronouncing judgment but without signing the decree, a decree drawn up in accordance with
    such judgment may be signed by his successor or, if the Court has ceased to exist, by the Judge of any
    Court to which such Court was subordinate.
  15. Decree for recovery of immovable property.—Where the subject-matter of the suit is immovable
    property, the decree shall contain a description of such property sufficient to identify the same, and where
    such property can be identified by boundaries or by numbers in a record of settlement or survey, the
    decree shall specify such boundaries or numbers.
  16. Decree for delivery of movable property.—Where the suit is for movable property, and the
    decree is for the delivery of such property, the decree shall also state the amount of money to be paid as
    an alternative if delivery cannot be had.
  17. Decree may direct payment by instalments.—(1) Where and in so far as a decree is for the
    payment of money, the Court may for any sufficient reason 3
    [incorporate in the decree, after hearing such
    of the parties who had appeared personally or by pleader at the last hearing, before judgment, an order
    that] payment of the amount decreed shall be postponed or shall be made by instalments, with or without
    interest, notwithstanding anything contained in the contract under which the money is payable.
    (2) Order, after decree, for payment by instalments.—After the passing of any such decree the Court
    may, on the application of the judgment-debtor and with the consent of the decree-holder, order that payment
    of the amount decreed shall be postponed or shall be made by instalments on such terms as to the payment of
    interest, the attachment of the property of the judgment-debtor, or the taking of security from him, or
    otherwise, as it thinks fit.
  18. Decree for possession and mesne profits.—(1) Where a suit is for the recovery of possession of
    immovable property and for rent or mesne profits, the Court may pass a decree—
    (a) for the possession of the property;
    4
    [(b) for the rents which have accrued on the property during the period prior to the institution of
    the suit or directing an inquiry as to such rent.
  19. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 70, for “names and descriptions of the parties” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  20. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 28, for rules 6A and 6B (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  21. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 70, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  22. Subs. by s. 70, ibid., for cl. (b) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    140
    (ba) for the mesne profits or directing an inquiry as to such mesne profits;](c) directing an inquiry as to rent or mesne profits from the institution of the suit until—
    (i) the delivery of possession to the decree-holder,
    (ii) the relinquishment of possession by the judgment-debtor with notice to the decree-holder
    through the Court, or
    (iii) the expiration of three years from the date of the decree,
    whichever, event first occurs.
    (2) Where an inquiry is directed under clause (b) or clause (c), a final decree in respect of the rent or
    mesne profits shall be passed in accordance with the result of such inquiry.
    1
    [12A. Decree for specific performance of contract for the sale or lease of immovable property.—
    Where a decree for the specific performance of a contract for the sale or lease of immovable property orders
    that the purchase-money or other sum be paid by the purchaser or lessee, it shall specify the period within
    which the payment shall be made.]
  23. Decree in administration suit.—(1) Where a suit is for an account of any property and for its due
    administration under the decree of the Court, the Court shall, before passing the final decree, pass a
    preliminary decree ordering such accounts and inquiries to be taken and made, and giving such other
    directions as it thinks fit.
    (2) In the administration by the Court of the property of any deceased person, if such property proves
    to be insufficient for the payment in full of his debts and liabilities, the same rules shall be observed as to
    the respective rights of secured and unsecured creditors and as to debts and liabilities provable, and as to
    the valuation of annuities and future and contingent liabilities respectively, as may be in force for the time
    being, within the local limits of the Court in which the administration-suit is pending with respect to the
    estates of persons adjudged or declared insolvent; and all persons who in any such case would be entitled
    to be paid out of such property, may come in under the preliminary decree, and make such claims against
    the same as they may respectively be entitled to by virtue of this Code.
  24. Decree in pre-emption suit.—(1) Where the Court decrees a claim to pre-emption in respect of a
    particular sale of property and the purchase-money has not been paid into Court, the decree shall—
    (a) specify a day on or before which the purchase-money shall be so paid, and
    (b) direct that on payment into Court of such purchase-money, together with the costs (if any)
    decrees against the plaintiff, on or before the day referred to in clause (a), the defendant shall deliver
    possession of the property to the plaintiff, whose title thereto shall be deemed to have accrued from
    the date of such payment, but that, if the purchase-money and the costs (if any) are not so paid, the
    suit shall be dismissed with costs.
    (2) Where the Court has adjudicated upon rival claims to pre-emption, the decree shall direct,—
    (a) if and in so far as the claims decreed are equal in decree, that the claim of each pre-emptor
    complying with the provisions of sub-rule (1) shall take effect in respect of a proportionate share of
    the property including any proportionate share in respect of which the claim of any pre-emptor failing
    to comply with the said provisions would, but for such default, have taken effect; and
    (b) if and in so far as the claims decreed are different in degree, that the claim of the inferior preemptor shall not take effect unless and until the superior pre-emptor has failed to comply with the
    said provisions.
  25. Decree in suit for dissolution of partnership.—Where a suit is for the dissolution of a partnership,
    or the taking of partnership accounts, the Court, before passing a final decree, may pass a preliminary
    decree declaring the proportionate shares of the parties, fixing the day on which the partnership shall stand
    dissolved or be deemed to have been dissolved, and directing such accounts to be taken, and other acts to
    be done, as it thinks fit.
  26. Decree in suit for account between principal and agent.—In a suit for an account of pecuniary
    transactions between a principal and an agent, and in any other suit not hereinbefore provided for, where it is
    necessary, in order to ascertain the amount of money due to or from any party, that an account should be taken,
  27. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 70 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    141
    the Court shall, before passing its final decree, pass a preliminary decree directing such accounts to be
    taken as it thinks fit.
  28. Special directions as to accounts.—The Court may either by the decree directing an account to be
    taken or by any subsequent order give special direction with regard to the mode in which the account is to
    be taken or vouched and in particular may direct that in taking the account the books of account in which the
    accounts in question have been kept shall be taken as prima facie evidence of the truth of the matters therein
    contained with liberty to the parties interested to take such objection thereto as they may be advised.
  29. Decree in suit for partition of property or separate possession of a share therein.—Where the
    Court passes a decree for the partition of property or for the separate possession of a share therein, then,—
    (1) if and in so far as the decree relates to an estate assessed to the payment of revenue to the
    Government, the decree shall declare the rights of the several parties interested in the property, but
    shall direct such partition or separation to be made by the Collector, or any gazetted subordinate of
    the Collector deputed by him in this behalf, in accordance with such declaration and with the
    provisions of section 54;
    (2) if and in so far as such decree relates to any other immovable property or to movable property,
    the Court may, if the partition or separation cannot be conveniently made without further inquiry,
    pass a preliminary decree declaring the rights of the several parties interested in the property and
    giving such further directions as may be required.
  30. Decree when set-off or counter-claim is allowed.—(1) Where the defendant has been allowed a
    set-off 1
    [or counter-claim] against the claim of the plaintiff, the decree shall state what amount is due to
    the plaintiff and what amount is due to the defendant, and shall be for the recovery of any sum which
    appears to be due to either party.
    (2) Appeal from decree relating to set-off or counter-claim.—Any decree passed in a suit in which
    a set-off 1
    [or counter-claim] is claimed shall be subject to the same provisions in respect of appeal to
    which it would have been subject if no set-off 1
    [or counter-claim] had been claimed.
    (3) The provisions of this rule shall apply whether the set-off is admissible under rule 6 of Order VIII
    or otherwise.
  31. Certified copies of judgment and decree to be furnished.—Certified copies of the judgment
    and decree shall be furnished to the parties on application to the Court, and at their expense.

2
[ORDER XXA
Costs

  1. Provisions relating to certain items.—Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of this
    Code relating to costs, the Court may award costs in respect of,—
    (a) expenditure incurred for the giving of any notice required to be given by law before the
    institution of the suit;
    (b) expenditure incurred on any notice which, though not required to be given by law, has been
    given by any party to the suit to any other party before the institution of the suit;
    (c) expenditure incurred on the typing, writing or printing of pleadings filed by any party;
    (d) charges paid by a party for inspection of the records of the Court for the purposes of the suit;
    (e) expenditure incurred by a party for producing witnesses, even though not summoned through
    Court; and
    (f) in the case of appeals, charges incurred by a party for obtaining any copies of judgments and
    decrees which are required to be filed along with the memorandum of appeal.
  2. Costs to be awarded in accordance with the rules made by High Court.—The award of Costs
    under this rule shall be in accordance with such rules as the High Court may make in that behalf.]

  1. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 70 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  2. Ins. by s. 71, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    142
    ORDER XXI
    Execution of Decrees and Orders
    Payment under Decree
    1
    [1. Modes of paying money under decree.—(1) All money, payable under a decree shall be paid as
    follows, namely:—
    (a) by deposit into the court whose duty it is to execute the decree, or sent to that Court by postal
    money order or through a bank; or
    (b) out of Court, to the decree-holder by postal money order or through a bank or by any other
    mode wherein payment is evidenced in writing; or
    (c) otherwise, as the Court which made the decree, directs.
    (2) Where any payments is made under clause (a) or clause (c) of sub-rule (1), the judgment-debtor
    shall give notice thereof to the decree-holder either through the Court or directly to him by registered
    post, acknowledgment due.
    (3) Where money is paid by postal money order or through a bank under clause (a) or clause (b) of
    sub-rule (1), the money order or payment through bank, as the case may be, shall accurately state the
    following particulars, namely:—
    (a) the number of the original suit;
    (b) the names of the parties or where there are more than two plaintiffs or more than two
    defendants, as the case may be, the names of the first two plaintiffs and the first two defendants;
    (c) how the money remitted is to be adjusted, that is to say, whether it is towards the principal,
    interest or costs;
    (d) the number of the execution case of the Court, where such case is pending; and
    (e) the name and address of the payer.
    (4) On any amount paid under clause (a) or clause (c) of sub-rule (1), interest, if any, shall cease to
    run from the date of service of the notice referred to in sub-rule (2).
    (5) On any amount paid under clause (b) of sub-rule (1), interest, if any, shall cease to run from the
    date of such payment:
    Provided that, where the decree-holder refuses to accept the postal money order or payment through a
    bank, interest shall cease to run from the date on which the money was tendered to him, or where he
    avoids acceptance of the postal money order or payment through bank, interest shall cease to run from the
    date on which the money would have been tendered to him in the ordinary course of business of the postal
    authorities or the bank, as the case may be.]
  3. Payment out of Court to decree-holder.—(1) Where any money payable under a decree of any
    kind is paid out of Court, 2
    [or decree of any kind is otherwise adjusted] in whole or in part to the
    satisfaction of the decree-holder, the decree-holder shall certify such payment or adjustment to the Court
    whose duty it is to execute the decree, and the Court shall record the same accordingly.
    (2) The judgment-debtor 2
    [or any person who has become surety for the judgment-debtor] also may
    inform the Court of such payment or adjustment, and apply to the Court to issue a notice to the decreeholder to show cause, on a day to be fixed by the Court, why such payment or adjustment should not be
    recorded as certified; and if, after service of such notice, the decree-holder fails to show cause why the
    payment or adjustment should not be recorded as certified, the Court shall record the same accordingly.
    3
    [(2A) No payment or adjustment shall be recorded at the instance of the judgment-debtor unless—
    (a) the payment is made in the manner provided in rule 1; or
  4. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for rule 1 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  5. Subs. by s. 72, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  6. Ins. by s. 72, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    143
    (b) the payment or adjustment is proved by documentary evidence; or
    (c) the payment or adjustment is admitted by, or on behalf of, the decree-holder in his reply to the
    notice given under sub-rule (2) of rule 1, or before the Court.]1
    (3) A payment or adjustment, which has not been certified or recorded as aforesaid, shall not be
    recognized by any Court executing the decree.
    Courts executing decrees
  7. Lands situate in more than one jurisdiction.—Where immovable property forms one estate or
    tenure situate within the local limits of the jurisdiction of two or more Courts, any one of such Courts
    may attach and sell the entire estate or tenure.
  8. Transfer to Court of Small Causes. —Where a decree has been passed in a suit of which the value as
    set forth in the plaint did not exceed two thousand rupees and which, as regards its subject-matter, is not
    excepted by the law for the title being in force from the cognizance of either a Presidency or a Provincial Court
    of Small Causes, and the Court which passed it wishes it to be executed in Calcutta, Madras 2
    [or Bombay],
    such Court may send to the Court of Small Causes in Calcutta, Madras 2
    [or Bombay], as the case may be, the
    copies and certificates mentioned in rule 6; and such Court of Small Causes shall thereupon execute the decree
    as if it had been passed by itself.
    3
    [5. Mode of transfer.—Where a decree is to be sent for execution to another Court, the Court which
    passed such decree shall send the decree directly to such other Court whether or not such other Court is
    situated in the same State, but the Court to which the decree is sent for execution shall, if it has no
    jurisdiction to execute the decree, send it to the Court having such jurisdiction.]
  9. Procedure where Court desires that its own decree shall be executed by another Court.—The
    Court sending a decree for execution shall send—
    (a) a copy of the decree;
    (b) a certificate setting forth that satisfaction of the decree has not been obtained by execution within
    the jurisdiction of the Court by which it was passed, or, where the decree has been executed in part, the
    extent to which satisfaction has been obtained and what part of the decree remains unsatisfied; and
    (c) a copy of any order for the execution of the decree, or, if no such order has been made, a
    certificate to that effect.
  10. Court receiving copies of decree, etc., to file same without proof.—The Court to which a decree
    is so sent shall cause such copies and certificates to be filed, without any further proof of the decree or
    order for execution, or of the copies thereof, unless the Court, for any special reasons to be recorded
    under the hand of the Judge, requires such proof.
  11. Execution of decree or order by Court to which it is sent.—Where such copies are so filed, the
    decree or order may, if the Court to which it is sent is the District Court, be executed by such Court or be
    transferred for execution to any subordinate Court of competent jurisdiction.
  12. Execution by High Court of decree transferred by other Court.—Where the Court to which the
    decree is sent for execution is a High Court, the decree shall be executed by such Court in the same
    manner asif it had been passed by such Court in the exercise of its ordinary original civil jurisdiction.
    Application for execution
  13. Application for execution.—Where the holder of a decree desires to execute it, he shall apply to
    the Court which passed the decree or to the officer (if any) appointed in this behalf, or if the decree has
    been sent under the provisions hereinbefore contained to another Court then to such Court or to the proper
    officer thereof.
  14. In the application of the Act to Punjab, sub-rule (3) rep. by the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act, 1934 (Pun. Act 7 of 1934),
    s. 36.
  15. Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “Bombay or Rangoon”.
  16. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for rule 5 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    144
  17. Oral application.—(1) Where a decree is for the payment of money the Court may, on the oral
    application of the decree-holder at the time of the passing of the decree, order immediate execution
    thereof by the arrest of the judgment-debtor, prior to the preparation of a warrant if he is within the
    precincts of the Court.
    (2) Written application.—Save as otherwise provided by sub-rule (1), every application for the
    execution of a decree shall be in writing, signed and verified by the applicant or by some other person
    proved to the satisfaction of the Court to be acquainted with the facts of the case, and shall contain in a
    tabular form the following particulars, namely:—
    (a) the number of the suit;
    (b) the names of the parties;
    (c) the date of the decree;
    (d) whether any appeal has been preferred from the decree;
    (e) whether any, and (if any) what, payment or other adjustment of the matter in controversy has
    been made between the parties subsequently to the decree;
    (f) whether any, and (if any) what, previous applications have been made for the execution of the
    decree, the dates of such applications and their results;
    (g) the amount with interest (if any) due upon the decree, or other relief granted thereby, together
    with particulars of any cross-decree, whether passed before or after the date of the decree sought to be
    executed;
    (h) the amount of the costs (if any) awarded;
    (i) the name of the person against whom execution of the decree is sought; and
    (j) the mode in which the assistance of the Court is required whether,—
    (i) by the delivery of any property specifically decreed;
    1
    [(ii) by the attachment, or by the attachment and sale, or by the sale without attachment, of
    any property;](iii) by the arrest and detention in prison of any person;
    (iv) by the appointment of a receiver;
    (v) otherwise, as the nature of the relief granted may require.
    (3) The Court to which an application is made under sub-rule (2) may require the applicant to produce
    a certified copy of the decree.
    2
    [11A. Application for arrest to state grounds.—Where an application is made for the arrest and
    detention in prison of the judgment-debtor, it shall state, or be accompanied by an affidavit stating, the
    grounds on which arrest is applied for.]
  18. Application for attachment of movable property not in judgment-debtor’s
    possession.—Where an application is made for the attachment of any movable property belonging to a
    judgment-debtor but not in his possession, the decree-holder shall annex to the application an inventory of
    the property to be attached, containing a reasonably accurate description of the same.
  19. Application for attachment of immovable property to contain certain particulars.—Where
    an application is made for the attachment of any immovable property belonging to a judgment-debtor, it
    shall contain at the foot—
    (a) a description of such property sufficient to identify the same and, in case such property can be
    identified by boundaries or numbers in a record of settlement or survey, a specification of such
    boundaries or numbers; and
    (b) a specification of the judgment-debtor’s share or interest in such property to the best of the
    belief of the applicant, and so far as he has been able to ascertain the same.
  20. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for sub-clause (ii) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  21. Ins. by s. 72, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    145
  22. Power to require certified extract from Collector’s register in certain cases.—Where an
    application is made for the attachment of any land which is registered in the office of the Collector, the
    Court may require the applicant to produce a certified extract from the register of such office, specifying
    the persons registered as proprietors of, or as possessing any transferable interest in, the land or its
    revenue, or as liable to pay revenue for the land, and the shares of the registered proprietors.
  23. Application for execution by Joint decree-holders.—(1) Where a decree has been passed
    jointly in favour of more persons than one, any one or more of such persons may, unless the decree
    imposes any condition to the contrary, apply for the execution of the whole decree for the benefit of them
    all, or, where any of them has died, for the benefit of the survivors and the legal representatives of the
    deceased.
    (2) Where the Court sees sufficient cause for allowing the decree to be executed on an application
    made under this rule, it shall make such order as it deems necessary for protecting the interest of the
    persons who have not joined in the application.
  24. Application for execution by transferee of decree.—Where a decree or, if a decree has been
    passed jointly in favour of two or more persons, the interest of any decree-holder in the decree is
    transferred by assignment in writing or by operation of law, the transferee may apply for execution of the
    decree to the Court which passed it; and the decree may be executed in the same manner and subject to
    the same conditions as if the application were made by such decree-holder:
    Provided that, where the decree, or such interest as aforesaid, has been transferred by assignment,
    notice of such application shall be given to the transferor and the judgment-debtor, and the decree shall
    not be executed until the Court has heard their objections (if any) to its execution:
    Provided also that, where a decree for the payment of money against two or more persons has been
    transferred to one of them, it shall not be executed against the others.
    1
    [Explanation.—Nothing in this rule shall affect the provisions of section 146, and a transferee of
    rights in the property, which is the subject matter of the suit, may apply for execution of the decree
    without a separate assignment of the decree as required by this rule.]
  25. Procedure on receiving application for execution of decree.—(1) On receiving an application
    for the execution of a decree as provided by rule 11, sub-rule (2), the Court shall ascertain whether such
    of the requirements of rules 11 to 14 as may be applicable to the case have been complied with; and, if
    they have not been complied with, 2
    [the Court shall allow] the defect to be remedied then and there or
    within a time to be fixed by it.
    2
    [1A. If the defect is not so remedied, the Court shall reject the application:
    Provided that where, in the opinion of the Court, there is some inaccuracy as to the amount referred to
    in clauses (g) and (h) of sub-rule (2) of rule 11, the Court shall, instead of rejecting the application, decide
    provisionally (without prejudice to the right of the parties to have the amount finally decided in the course
    of the proceedings) the amount and make an order for the execution of the decree for the amount so
    provisionally decided.](2) Where an application is amended under the provisions of sub-rule (1), it shall be deemed to have
    been an application in accordance with law and presented on the date when it was first presented.
    (3) Every amendment made under this rule shall be signed or initialled by the Judge.
    (4) When the application is admitted, the Court shall enter in the proper register a note of the
    application and the date on which it was made, and shall, subject to the provisions hereinafter contained,
    order execution of the decree according to the nature of the application:
    Provided that, in the case of a decree for the payment of money, the value of the property attached
    shall, as nearly as may be, correspond with the amount due under the decree.
  26. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  27. Subs. by s. 72, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    146
  28. Execution in case of cross-decrees.—(1) Where applications are made to a Court for the
    execution of cross-decrees in separate suits for the payment of two sums of money passed between the
    same parties and capable of execution at the same time by such Court, then—
    (a) if the two sums are, equal, satisfaction shall be entered upon both decrees; and
    (b) if the two sums are unequal execution may be taken out only by the holder of the decree for
    the larger sum and for so much only as remains after deducting the smaller sum, and satisfaction for
    the smaller sum shall be entered on the decree for the larger sum as well as satisfaction on the decree
    for the smaller sum.
    (2) This rule shall be deemed to apply where either party is an assignee of one of the decrees and as
    well in respect of judgment-debts due by the original assignor as in respect of judgment-debts due by the
    assignee himself.
    (3) This rule shall not be deemed to apply unless—
    (a) the decree-holder in one of the suits in which the decrees have been made is the judgmentdebtor in the other and each party files the same character in both suits; and
    (b) the sums due under the decrees are definite.
    (4) The holder of a decree passed against several persons jointly and severally may treat it as a crossdecree in relation to a decree passed against him singly in favour of one or more of such persons.
    Illustrations
    (a) A holds a decree against B for Rs. 1,000. B holds a decree against A for payment of Rs. 1,000 in case A fails
    to deliver certain goods at a future day. B cannot treat his decree as a cross-decree under this rule.
    (b) A and B, co-plaintiffs, obtain a decree for Rs. 1,000. against C, and C obtains a decree for Rs. 1,000 against
    B. C cannot treat his decree as a cross-decree under this rule.
    A obtains a decree against B for Rs. 1,000. C, who is a trustee for B, obtains a decree on behalf of B against A
    for Rs. 1,000. B cannot treat C’s decree as a cross-decree under this rule.
    A, B, C, D and E are jointly and severally liable for Rs. 1,000 under a decree obtained by F. A obtains a decree
    for Rs. 1,000 against F singly and applies for execution to the Court in which the joint-decree is being executed. F
    may treat his joint-decree as cross-decree under this rule.
  29. Execution in case of cross-claims under same decree.—Where application is made to a Court
    for the execution of a decree under which two parties are entitled to recover sums of money from each
    other, then—
    (a) if the two sums are equal, satisfaction for both shall be entered upon the decree; and
    (b) if the two sums are unequal, execution may be taken out only by the party entitled to the larger
    sum and for so much only as remains after deducting the smaller sum, and satisfaction for the smaller
    sum shall be entered upon the decree.
  30. Cross-decrees and cross-claims in mortgage suits.—The provisions contained in rules 18 and
    19 shall apply to decrees for sale in enforcement of a mortgage or charge.
  31. Simultaneous execution.—The Court may, in its discretion, refuse execution at the same time
    against the person and property of the judgment-debtor.
  32. Notice to show cause against execution in certain cases.—(1) Where an application for
    execution is made—
    (a) more than 1
    [two years] after the date of the decree, or
    (b) against the legal representative of a party to the decree 2
    [or where an application is made for
    execution of a decree filed under the provisions of section 44A], 3
[or]

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for “one year” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by Act 8 of 1937, s. 3.

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
147
1
[(c) against the assignee or receiver in insolvency, where the party to the decree has been
adjudged to be an insolvent,]the Court executing the decree shall issue a notice to the person against whom execution is applied for
requiring him to show cause, on a date to be fixed, why the decree should not be executed against him :
Provided that no such notice shall be necessary in consequence of more than 2
[two years] having
elapsed between the date of the decree and the application for execution if the application is made within
2
[two years] from the date of the last order against the party against whom execution is applied for, made
on any previous application for execution, or in consequence of the application being made against the
legal representative of the judgment-debtor if upon a previous application for execution against the same
person the Court has ordered execution to issue against him.
(2) Nothing in the foregoing sub-rule shall be deemed to preclude the Court from issuing any process
in execution of a decree without issuing the notice thereby prescribed, if, for reasons to be recorded, it
considers that the issue of such notice would cause unreasonable delay or would defeat the ends of
justice.
1
[22A. Sale not be set aside on the death of the judgment-debtor before the sale but after the service
of the proclamation of sale.—Where any property is sold in execution of a decree, the sale shall not be set
aside merely by reason of the death of the judgment-debtor between the date of issue of the proclamation of
sale and the date of the sale notwithstanding the failure of the decree-holder to substitute the legal
representative of such deceased judgment-debtor, but, in case of such failure, the Court may set aside the sale
if it is satisfied that the legal representative of the deceased judgment-debtor has been prejudiced by the sale.]

Procedure after issue of notice.—(1) Where the person to whom notice is issued under 3
[rule 22]does not appear or does not show cause to the satisfaction of the Court why the decree should not be
executed, the Court shall order the decree to be executed.
(2) Where such person offers any objection to the execution of the decree, the Court shall consider
such objection and make such order as it thinks fit.
Process for execution

Process for execution.—(1) When the preliminary measures (if any) required by the foregoing
rules have been taken, the Court shall, unless it sees cause to the contrary, issue its process for the
execution of the decree.
(2) Every such process shall bear date the day on which it is issued, and shall be signed by the Judge
or such officer as the Court may appoint in this behalf, and shall be sealed with the seal of the Court and
delivered to the proper officer to be executed.
4
[(3) In every such process, a day shall be specified on or before which it shall be executed and a day
shall also be specified on or before which it shall be returned to the Court, but no process shall be deemed
to be void if no day for its return is specified therein.]

Endorsement on process.—(1) The officer entrusted with the execution of the process shall
endorse thereon the day on, and the manner in, which it was executed, and, if the latest day specified in
the process for the return thereof has been exceeded, the reason of the delay, or, if it was not executed, the
reason why it was not executed, and shall return the process with such endorsement to the Court.
(2) Where the endorsement is to the effect that such officer is unable to execute the process, the Court
shall examine him touching his alleged inability, and may, if it thinks fit, summon and examine witnesses
as to such inability, and shall record the result.

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 72, ibid., for “one year” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by Act 38 of 1978, s. 3 and the second Sch., for “the last preceding rule” (w.e.f. 26-11-1978).

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for sub-rule (3) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
148
Stay of execution

When Court may stay execution.—(1) The Court to which a decree has been sent for execution
shall, upon sufficient cause being shown, stay the execution of such decree for a reasonable time, to enable
the judgment-debtor to apply to the Court by which the decree was passed, or to any Court having
appellate jurisdiction in respect of the decree or the execution thereof, for an order to stay execution, or for
any other order relating to the decree or execution which might have been made by such Court of first
instance or Appellate Court if execution had been issued thereby, or if application for execution had been
made thereto.
(2) Where the property or person of the judgment-debtor has been seized under an execution, the
Court which issued the execution may order the restitution of such property or the discharge of such
person pending the result of the application.
(3) Power to require security from, or impose conditions upon, judgment-debtor.—Before
making an order to stay execution, or for the restitution of property or the discharge of the judgmentdebtor, 1
[the Court shall require] such security from, or impose such condition upon, the judgment-debtor
as it thinks fit.

Liability of judgment-debtor discharged.—No order of restitution or discharge under rule 26
shall prevent the property or person of a judgment-debtor from being retaken in execution of the decree
sent for execution.

Order of Court which passed decree or of Appellate Court to be binding upon Court applied
to.—Any order of the Court by which the decree was passed, or of such Court of appeal as aforesaid, in
relation to the execution of such decree, shall be binding upon the Court to which the decree was sent for
execution.

Stay of execution pending suit between decree-holder and judgment-debtors.—Where a suit is
pending in any Court against the holder of a decree of such Court 2
[or of a decree which is being executed
by such Court, on the part of the person against whom the decree was passed, the Court may, on such terms
as to security or otherwise, as it thinks fit, stay execution of the decree until the pending suit has been
decided:
2
[Provided that if the decree is one for payment of money, the Court shall, if it grants stay without
requiring security, record its reasons for so doing.]Mode of execution

Decree for payment of money.—Every decree for the payment of money, including a decree for
the payment of money as the alternative to some other relief, may be executed by the detention in the civil
prison of the judgment-debtor, or by the attachment and sale of his property, or by both.

Decree for specific movable property.—(1) Where the decree is for any specific movable, or for
any share in a specific movable, it may be executed by the seizure, if practicable, of the movable or share,
and by the delivery thereof to the party to whom it has been adjudged, or to such person as he appoints to
receive delivery on his behalf, or by the detention in the civil prison of the judgment-debtor, or by the
attachment of his property, or by both.
(2) Where any attachment under sub-rule (1) has remained in force for 3
[three months,] if the
judgment-debtor has not obeyed the decree and the decree-holder has applied to have the attached
property sold, such property may be sold, and out of the proceeds the Court may award to the decreeholder, in cases where any amount has been fixed by the decree to be paid as an alternative to delivery of
movable property, such amount, and in other cases, such compensation as it thinks fit, and shall pay the
balance (if any) to the judgment-debtor on his application.
(3) Where the judgment-debtor has obeyed the decree and paid all costs of executing the same which he
is bound to pay, or where, at the end of 3
[three months] from the date of the attachment, no application to
have the property sold has been made, or, if made, has been refused, the attachment shall cease.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for “the Court may require” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by s. 72, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 72, ibid, for “six months” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
149

Decree for specific performance for restitution of conjugal rights, or for an injunction.—
(1) Where the party against whom a decree for the specific performance of a contract, or for restitution of
conjugal rights, or for an injunction, has been passed, has had an opportunity of obeying the decree and
has wilfully failed to obey it, the decree may be enforced 1
[in the case of a decree for restitution of
conjugal rights by the attachment of his property or, in the case of a decree for the specific performance
of a contract or for an injunction] by his detention in the civil prison, or by the attachment of his property,
or by both.
(2) Where the party against whom a decree for specific performance or for an injunction has been
passed is a corporation, the decree may be enforced by the attachment of the property of the corporation
or, with the leave of the Court, by the detention in the civil prison of the directors or other principal
officers thereof, or by both attachment and detention.
(3) Where any attachment under sub-rule (1) or sub-rule (2) has remained in force for 2
[six months,]if the judgment-debtor has not obeyed the decree and the decree-holder has applied to have the attached
property sold, such property may be sold; and out of the proceeds the Court may award to the decreeholder such compensation as it thinks fit, and shall pay the balance (if any) to the judgment-debtor on his
application.
(4) Where the judgment-debtor has obeyed the decree and paid all costs of executing the same which
he is bound to pay, or where, at the end of 2
[six months] from the date of the attachment no application to
have the property sold has been made, or if made has been refused, the attachment shall cease.
(5) Where a decree for the specific performance of a contract or for an injunction has not been obeyed,
the Court may, in lieu of or in addition to all or any of the processes aforesaid, direct that the act required to
be done may be done so far as practicable by the decree-holder or some other person appointed by the
Court, at the cost of the judgment-debtor, and upon the act being done the expenses incurred may be
ascertained in such manner as the Court may direct and may be recovered as if they were included in the
decree.
3
[Explanation.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the expression “the act required
to be done” covers prohibitory as well as mandatory injunctions.]Illustration
A, a person of little substance, erects a building which renders uninhabitable a family mansion belonging to B.
A, in spite of his detention in prison and the attachment of his property, declines to obey a decree obtained against
him by B and directing him to remove the building. The Court is of opinion that no sum realizable by the sale of A’s
property would adequately compensate B for the depreciation in the value of his mansion. B may apply to the Court
to remove the building and may recover the cost of such removal from A in the execution-proceedings.

Discretion of Court in executing decrees for restitution of conjugal rights.—(1)
Notwithstanding anything in rule 32, the Court, either at the time of passing a decree 4
[against a husband]for the restitution of conjugal rights or at any time afterwards, may order that the decree 5
[shall be
executed in the manner provided in this rule.](2) Where the Court has made an order under sub-rule (1) 6
***, it may order that, in the event of the
decree not being obeyed within such period as may be fixed in this behalf, the judgment-debtor shall
make to the decree-holder such periodical payments as may be just, and, if it thinks fit, require that the
judgment-debtor shall, to its satisfaction, secure to the decree-holder such periodical payments.
(3) The Court may from time to time vary or modify any order made under sub-rule (2) for the periodical
payment of money, either by altering the times of payment or by increasing or diminishing the amount, or may

Ins. by Act 29 of 1923, s. 2.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for “one year (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 14 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).

Ins. by Act 29 of 1923, s. 3.

Subs. by s. 3, ibid., for “shall not be executed by detention in prison”.

The words “and the decree-holder is the wife” omitted by s. 3, ibid.
150
temporarily suspend the same as to the whole or any part of the money so ordered to be paid, and again
review the same, either wholly or in part as it may think just.
(4) Any money ordered to be paid under this rule may be recovered as though it were payable under a
decree for the payment of money.

Decree for execution of document, or endorsement of negotiable instrument.—(1) Where a
decree is for the execution of a document or for the endorsement of a negotiable instrument and the
judgment-debtor neglects or refuses to obey the decree, the decree-holder may prepare a draft of the
document or endorsement in accordance with the terms of the decree and deliver the same to the Court.
(2) The Court shall there upon cause the draft to be served on the judgment-debtor together with a
notice requiring his objections (if any) to be made within such time as the Court fixes in this behalf.
(3) Where the judgment-debtor objects to the draft, his objections shall be stated in writing within
such time, and the Court shall make such order approving or altering the draft, as it thinks fit.
(4) The decree-holder shall deliver to the Court a copy of the draft with such alterations (if any) as the
Court may have directed upon the proper stamp-paper if a stamp is required by the law for the time being
in force; and the Judge or such officer as may be appointed in this behalf shall execute the document so
delivered.
(5) The execution of a document or the endorsement of a negotiable instrument under this rule may
be in the following form, namely:—
“C. D., Judge of the Court of,
(or as the case may be), for A. B., in a suit by E. F against A. B.”,
and shall have the same effect as the execution of the document or the endorsement of the negotiable
instrument by the party ordered to execute or endorse the same.
1
[(6) (a) Where the registration of the document is required under any law for the time being in force,
the Court, or such officer of the Court as may be authorised in this behalf by the Court, shall cause the
document to be registered in accordance with such law.
(b) Where the registration of the document is not so required, but the decree-holder desires it to be
registered, the Court may make such order as it thinks fit.
(c) Where the Court makes any order for the registration of any document, it may make such order as
it thinks fit as to the expenses of registration.]

Decree for immovable property.—(1) Where a decree is for the delivery of any immovable
property, possession thereof shall be delivered to the party to whom it has been adjudged, or to such
person as he may appoint to receive delivery on his behalf, and, if necessary, by removing any person
bound by the decree who refuses to vacate the property.
(2) Where a decree is for the joint possession of immovable property, such possession shall be
delivered by affixing a copy of the warrant in some conspicuous place on the property and proclaiming by
beat of drum, or other customary mode, at some convenient place, the substance of the decree.
(3) Where possession of any building on enclosure is to be delivered and the person in possession,
being bound by the decree, does not afford free access, the Court, through its officers, may, after giving
reasonable warning and facility to any woman not appearing in public according to the customs of the
country to withdraw, remove or open any lock or bolt or break open any door or do any other act
necessary for putting the decree-holder in possession.

Decree for delivery of immovable property when in occupancy of tenant.—Where a decree is for
the delivery of any immovable property in the occupancy of a tenant or other person entitled to occupy the
same and not bound by the decree to relinquish such occupancy, the Court shall order delivery to be made by
affixing a copy of the warrant in some conspicuous place on the property, and proclaiming to the occupant by
beat of drum or other customary mode, at some convenient place, the substance of the decree in regard to the
property.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for sub-rule (6) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
151

Discretionary power to permit judgment-debtor to show cause against detention in
prison.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in these rules, where an application is for the execution of a
decree for the payment of money by the arrest and detention in the civil prison of a judgment-debtor who
is liable to be arrested in pursuance of the application, the Court 1
[shall], instead of issuing a warrant for
his arrest, issue a notice calling upon him to appear before the Court on a day to be specified in the notice
and show cause why he should not be committed to the civil prison:
2
[Provided that such notice shall not be necessary if the Court is satisfied, by affidavit, or otherwise,
that, with the object or effect of delaying the execution of the decree, the judgment-debtor is likely to
abscond or leave the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court.](2) Where appearance is not made in obedience to the notice, the Court shall, if the decree-holder so
requires, issue a warrant for the arrest of the judgment-debtor.

Warrant for arrest to direct judgment-debtor to be brought up.—Every warrant for the
arrest of a judgment-debtor shall direct the officer entrusted with its execution to bring him before the
Court with all convenient speed, unless the amount which he has been ordered to pay, together with the
interest thereon and the costs (if any) to which he is liable, be sooner paid.

Subsistence allowance.—(1) No judgment-debtor shall be arrested in execution of a decree
unless and until the decree-holder pays into Court such sum as the Judge thinks sufficient for the
subsistence of the judgment-debtor from the time of his arrest until he can be brought before the Court.
(2) Where a judgment-debtor is committed to the civil prison in execution of a decree, the Court
shall fix for his subsistence such monthly allowance as he may be entitled to according to the scales fixed
under section 57, or, where no such scales have been fixed, as it considers sufficient with reference to the
class to which he belongs.
(3) The monthly allowance fixed by the Court shall be supplied by the party on whose application the
judgement-debtor has been arrested by monthly payments in advance before the first day of each month.
(4) The first payment shall be made to the proper officer of the Court for such portion of the current
month as remains unexpired before the judgment-debtor is committed to the civil prison, and the
subsequent payments (if any) shall be made to the officer in charge of the civil prison.
(5) Sums disbursed by the decree-holder for the subsistence of the judgment-debtor in the civil
prison shall be deemed to be costs in the suit :
Provided that the judgment-debtor shall not be detained in the civil prison or arrested on account of
any sum so disbursed.
3
[40. Proceedings on appearance of judgment-debtor in obedience to notice or after arrest.—(1)
When a judgment-debtor appears before the Court in obedience to a notice issued under rule 37, or is brought
before the Court after being arrested in execution of a decree for the payment of money, the Court shall
proceed to hear the decree-holder and take all such evidence as may be produced by him in support of his
application for execution and shall then give the judgment-debtor an opportunity of showing cause why he
should not be committed to the civil prison.
(2) Pending the conclusion of the inquiry under sub-rule (1) the Court may, in its discretion, order the
judgment-debtor to be detained in the custody of an officer of the Court or release him on his furnishing
security to the satisfaction of the Court for his appearance when required.
(3) Upon the conclusion of the inquiry under sub-rule (1) the Court may, subject to the provisions of
section 51 and to the other provisions of this Code, make an order for the detention of the judgmentdebtor in the civil prison and shall in that event cause him to be arrested if he is not already under arrest:

Subs. by Act 21 of 1936, s. 3, for “may”.

Ins. by s. 3, ibid.

Subs. by s. 4, ibid., for rule 40.
152
Provided that in order to give the judgment-debtor an opportunity of satisfying the decree, the Court
may, before making the order of detention, leave the judgment-debtor in the custody of an officer of the
Court for a specified period not exceeding fifteen days or release him on his furnishing security to the
satisfaction of the Court for his appearance at the expiration of the specified period if the decree be not
sooner satisfied.
(4) A judgment-debtor released under this rule may be re-arrested.
(5) When the Court does not make an order of detention under sub-rule (3) it shall disallow the
application and, if the judgment-debtor is under arrest, direct his release.]Attachment of property

Examination of judgment-debtor as to his property.—1
[(1)] Where a decree is for the payment
of money the decree-holder may apply to the Court for an order that—
(a) the judgment-debtor, or
(b) 2
[where the judgment-debtor is a corporation], any officer thereof, or
(c) any other person,
be orally examined as to whether any or what debts are owing to the judgment-debtor and whether the
judgment-debtor has any and what other property or means of satisfying the decree; and the Court may
make an order for the attendance and examination of such judgment-debtor, or officer or other person,
and for the production of any books or documents.
3
[(2) Where a decree for the payment of money has remained unsatisfied for a period of thirty days,
the Court may, on the application of the decree-holder and without prejudice to its power under sub-rule
(1), by order require the judgment-debtor or where the judgment-debtor is a corporation, any officer
thereof, to make an affidavit stating the particulars of the assets of the judgment-debtor.
(3) In case of disobedience of any order made under sub-rule (2), the Court making the order, or any
Court to which the proceeding is transferred, may direct that the person disobeying the order be detained
in the civil prison for a term not exceeding three months unless before the expiry of such term the Court
directs his release.]

Attachment in case of decree for rent or mesne profits or other matter, amount of which to
be subsequently determined.—Where a decree directs an inquiry as to rent or mesne profits or any other
matter, the property of the judgment-debtor may, before the amount due from him has been ascertained,
be attached, as in the case of an ordinary decree for the payment of money.

Attachment of movable property, other than agricultural produce, in possession of
judgment-debtor.—Where the property to be attached is movable property other than agricultural
produce, in the possession of the judgement-debtor, the attachment shall be made by actual seizure, and
the attaching officer shall keep the property in his own custody or in the custody of one of his
subordinates, and shall be responsible for the due custody thereof :
Provided that, when the property seized is subject to speedy and natural decay, or when the expense
of keeping it in custody is likely to exceed its value, the attaching officer may sell it at once.
3
[43A. Custody of movable property.—(1) Where the property attached consists of live-stock, agricultural
implements or other articles which cannot conveniently be removed and the attaching officer does not act under
the proviso to rule 43, he may, at the instance of the judgment-debtor or of the decree holder or of any

Rule 41 renumbered as sub-rule (1) by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 72, ibid., for “in the case of a corporation” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by s. 72, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
153
other person claiming to be interested in such property, leave it in the village or place where it has been
attached, in the custody of any respectable person (hereinafter referred to as the “custodian”).
(2) If the custodian fails, after due notice, to produce such property at the place named by the Court
before the officer deputed for the purpose or to restore it to the person in whose favour restoration is
ordered by the Court, or if the property, though so produced or restored, is not in the same condition as it
was when it was entrusted to him,—
(a) the custodian shall be liable to pay compensation to the decree-holder, judgment-debtor or any
other person who is found to be entitled to the restoration thereof, for any loss or damage caused by
his default; and
(b) such liability may be enforced—
(i) at the instance of the decree-holder, as if the custodian were a surety under section 145;
(ii) at the instance of the judgement-debtor or such other person, on an application in
execution; and
(c) any order determining such liability shall be appealable as a decree.]

Attachment of agricultural produce.—Where the property to be attached is agricultural
produce, the attachment shall be made by affixing a copy of the warrant of attachment,—
(a) where such produce is a growing crop, on the land on which such crop has grown, or
(b) where such produce has been cut or gathered, on the threshing floor or place for treading out
grain or the like or fodder-stack on or in which it is deposited,
and another copy on the outer door or on some other conspicuous part of the house in which the
judgment-debtor ordinarily resides or, with the leave of the Court, on the outer door or on some other
conspicuous part of the house in which he carries on business or personally works for gain or in which he
is known to have last resided or carried on business or personally worked for gain; and the produce shall
thereupon be deemed to have passed into the possession of the Court.

Provisions as to agricultural produce under attachment.—(1) Where agricultural produce is
attached, the Court shall make such arrangements for the custody thereof as it may deem sufficient and,
for the purpose of enabling the Court to make such arrangements, every application for the attachment of
a growing crop shall specify the time at which it is likely to be fit to be cut or gathered.
(2) Subject to such conditions as may be imposed by the Court in this behalf either in the order of
attachment or in any subsequent order, the judgment-debtor may tend, cut, gather and store the produce and do
any other act necessary for maturing or preserving it; and if the judgment-debtor fails to do, all or any of such
acts, the decree-holder may, with the permission of the Court and subject to the like conditions, do all or any of
them either by himself or by any person appointed by him in this behalf and the costs incurred by the
decree-holder shall be recoverable from the judgment-debtor as if they were included in, or formed part of, the
decree.
(3) Agricultural produce attached as a growing crop shall not be deemed to have ceased to be under
attachment or to require re-attachment merely because it has been served from the soil.
(4) Where an order for the attachment of a growing crop has been made at a considerable time before
the crop is likely to be fit to be cut or gathered, the Court may suspend the execution of the order for such
time as it thinks fit, and may, in its discretion, make a further order prohibiting the removal of the crop
pending the execution of the order of attachment.
(5) A growing crop which from its nature does not admit of being stored shall not be attached under
this rule at any time less than twenty days before the time at which it is likely to be fit to be cut or gathered.

Attachment of debt, share and other property not in possession of judgment-debtor.—(1) In
the case of—
(a) a debt not secured by a negotiable instrument,
(b) a share in the capital of a corporation,
154
(c) other movable property not in the possession of the judgment-debtor, except property
deposited in, or in the custody of, any Court,
the attachment shall be made by a written order prohibiting,—
(i) in the case of the debt, the credit or from recovering the debt and the debtor from making
payment thereof until the further order of the Court;
(ii) in the case of the share, the person in whose name the share may be standing from transferring
the same or receiving any dividend thereon;
(iii) in the case of the other movable property except as aforesaid, the person in possession of the
same from giving it over to the judgement-debtor.
(2) A copy of such order shall be affixed on some conspicuous part of the court-house, and another
copy shall be sent in the case of the debt, to the debtor, in the case of the share, to the proper officer of the
corporation, and, in the case of the other movable property (except as aforesaid), to the person in
possession of the same.
(3) A debtor prohibited under clause (i) of sub-rule (1) may pay the amount of his debt into Court,
and such payment shall discharge him as effectually as payment to the party entitled to receive the same.
1
[46A. Notice to garnishee.—(1) The Court may in the case of a debt (other than a debt secured by a
mortgage or a charge) which has been attached under rule 46 upon the application of the attaching
creditor, issue notice to the garnishee liable to pay such debt, calling upon him either to pay into Court the
debt due from him to the judgment-debtor or so much thereof as may be sufficient to satisfy the decree
and costs of execution, or to appear and show cause why he should not do so.
(2) An application under sub-rule (1) shall be made on affidavit verifying the facts alleged and stating
that in the belief of the deponent, the garnishee is indebted to the judgment-debtor.
(3) Where the garnishee pays in the Court the amount due from him to the judgment-debtor or so
much thereof as is sufficient to satisfy the decree and the costs of the execution, the Court may direct that
the amount may be paid to the decree-holder towards satisfaction of the decree and costs of the execution.
46B. Order against garnishee.—Where the garnishee does not forthwith pay into Court the amount
due from him to the judgment-debtor or so much thereof as is sufficient to satisfy the decree and the costs
of execution, and does not appear and show cause in answer to the notice, the Court may order the
garnishee to comply with the terms of such notice, and on such order, execution may issue as though such
order were a decree against him.
46C. Trial of disputed questions.—Where the garnishee disputes liability, the Court may order that
any issue of question necessary for the determination of liability shall be tried as if it where an issue in a
suit, and upon the determination of such issue shall make such order or orders as it deems fit:
Provided that if the debt in respect of which the application under rule 46A is made is in respect of a
sum of money beyond the pecuniary jurisdiction of the Court, the Court shall send the execution case to
the Court of the District Judge to which the said Court is subordinate, and thereupon the Court of the
District Judge or any other competent Court to which it may be transferred by the District Judge shall deal
with it in the same manner as if the case had been originally instituted in that Court.
46D. Procedure where debt belongs to third person.—Where it is suggested or appears to be
probable that the debt belongs to some third person, or that any third person has a lien or charge on, or
other interest in such debt, the Court may order such third person to appear and state the nature and
particulars of his claim, if any, to such debt and prove the same.
46E. Order as regards third person.—After hearing such third person and any person or persons who
may subsequently be ordered to appear, or where such third or other person or persons do not appear when so
ordered, the Court may make such order as is hereinbefore provided, or such other order or orders upon such

Ss. 46A to 46-I ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72 (w.e.f 1-2-1977).
155
terms, if any, with respect to the lien, charge or interest, as the case may be, of such third or other person
or persons as it may deem fit and proper.
46F. Payment by garnishee to be valid discharge.—Payment made by the garnishee on notice
under rule 46A or under any such order as aforesaid shall be a valid discharge to him as against the
judgement-debtor and any other person ordered to appear as aforesaid for the amount paid or levied,
although the decree in execution of which the application under rule 46A was made, or the order passed
in the proceedings on such application may be set aside or reversed.
46G. Costs.—The costs of any application made under rule 46A and of any proceeding arising there
from or incidental thereto shall be in the discretion of the Court.
46H. Appeals.—An order made under rule 46B, rule 46C or rule 46E shall be applicable as a decree.
46-I.—Application to negotiable instruments.—The provisions of rules 46A to 46H (both
inclusive) shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to negotiable instruments attached under rule 51 as
they apply in relation to debts.]

Attachment of share in movables.—Where the property to be attached consists of the share or
interest of the judgment-debtor in movable property belonging to him and another as co-owners, the
attachment shall be made by a notice to the judgment-debtor prohibiting him from transferring the share
or interest or charging it in any way.

Attachment of salary or allowances of servant of the Government or railway company or
local authority.—(1) Where the property to be attached is the salary or allowances of a 1
[servant of the
Government] or of a servant of a railway company or local authority 2
[or of a servant of a corporation
engaged in any trade or industry which is established by a Central, Provincial or State Act, or a
Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956)] the Court,
whether the judgment-debtor or the disbursing officer is or is not within the local limits of the Court’s
jurisdiction, may order that the amount shall, subject to the provisions of section 60, be withheld from
such salary or allowances either in one payment or by monthly instalments as the Court may direct; and
upon notice of the order to such officer as 3
[the appropriate Government may by notification in the
Official Gazette] appoint 4
[in this behalf,—
(a) where such salary or allowances are to be disbursed within the local limits to which this Code for
the time being extends, the officer or other person whose duty it is to disburse the same shall withhold
and remit to the Court the amount due under the order, or the monthly instalments, as the case may be;
(b) where such salary or allowances are to be disbursed beyond the said limits, the officer or other
person within those limits whose duty it is to instruct the disbursing authority regarding the amount of the
salary or allowances to be disbursed shall remit to the Court the amount due under the order, or the
monthly instalments, as the case may be, and shall direct the disbursing authority to reduce the aggregate
of the amounts from time to time, to be disbursed by the aggregate of the amounts from time to time
remitted to the Court.](2) Where the attachable proportion of such salary or allowances is already being withheld and
remitted to a Court in pursuance of a previous and unsatisfied order of attachment, the officer appointed
by 5
[the appropriate Government] in this behalf shall forthwith return the subsequent order to the Court
issuing it with a full statement of all the particulars of the existing attachment.

Subs. by Act 5 of 1943, s. 3, for “public officer”.

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by Act 25 of 1942, s. 3 and the second Sch., for “the Central Government or the Provincial Government may by
notification in the Official Gazette”.

Subs. by Act 26 of 1939, s. 2, for certain words.

Subs. by Act 25 of 1942, s. 3, and the Schedule, for “the Central Government or the Provincial Government, as the may be”.
156
1
[(3) Every order made under this rule, unless it is returned in accordance with the provisions of
sub-rule (2) shall, without further notice or other process, bind the appropriate Government or the railway
company or local authority or corporation of Government company, as the case may be, while the judgementdebtor is within the local limits to which this Code for the time being extends and while he is beyond those
limits, if he is in receipt of any salary or allowances payable out of the Consolidated Fund of India or the
Consolidated Fund of the State or the funds of a railway company or local authority or corporation or
Government company in India; and the appropriate Government or the railway company or local authority or
corporation or Government company, as the case may be, shall be liable for any sum paid in contravention of
this rule.]2
[Explanation.—In this rule, “appropriate Government” means,—
(i) As respects any person in the service of the Central Government, or any servant of a railway
administration or of a cantonment authority or of the port authority of a major port, or any servant of a
corporation engaged in any trade or industry which is established by a Central Act, or any servant of a
Government company in which any part of the share capital is held by the Central Government or by
more than one State Governments or partly by the Central Government and partly by one or more State
Governments, the Central Government;
(ii) As respects any other servant of the Government, or a servant of any other local or other
authority, or any servant of a corporation engaged in any trade or industry which is established by a
Provincial or State act, or a servant of any other Government company, the State Government.]3
[48A. Attachment of salary or allowances of private employees.—(1)Where the property to be
attached is the salary or allowances of an employee other than an employee to whom rule 48 applies, the
Court, where the disbursing officer of the employee is within the local limits of the Court’s jurisdiction,
may order than the amount shall, subject to the provision of section 60, be withheld from such salary or
allowances either in one payment or by monthly instalments as the Court may direct; and upon notice of
the order to such disbursing officer, such disbursing officer shall remit to the court the amount due under
the order, or the monthly instalments, as the case may be.
(2) Where the attachable portion of such salary or allowances is already being withheld or remitted to
the Court in pursuance of a previous and unsatisfied order of attachment, the disbursing officer shall
forthwith return the subsequent order to the Court issuing it with a full statement of all the particulars of
the existing attachment.
(3) Every order made under this rule, unless it is returned in accordance with the provisions of
sub-rule (2), shall, without further notice or other process, hind the employer while the judgmentdebtors, is within the local limits to which this Code for the time being extends and while he is beyond
those-limits, if he is in receipt of salary or allowances payable out of the funds of an employer in any part
of India, and the employer shall be liable for any sum paid in contravention of this rule.]

Attachment of partnership property.—(1) Save as otherwise provided by this rule, property
belonging to a partnership shall not be attached or sold in execution of a decree other than a decree
passed against the firm or against the partners in the firm as such.
(2) The Court may, on the application of the holder of a decree against a partner, make an order
charging the interest of such partner in the partnership property, and profits with payment of the amount due
under the decree, and may, by the same or a subsequent order, appoint a receiver of the share of such partner
in the profits (whether already declared or accruing) and of any other money which may be coming to him in
respect of the partnership, and direct accounts and inquiries and make an order for the sale of such interest or
other orders as might have been directed or made if a charge had been made in favour of the decree holder
by such partner, or as the circumstances of the case may require.
(3) The other partner or partners shall be at liberty at any time to redeem the interest charged or, in
the case of a sale being directed, to purchase the same.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for sub-rule (3) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 72, ibid., for Explanation (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by s. 72, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
157
(4) Every application for an order under sub-rule (2) shall be served on the judgment-debtor and on
his partners or such of them as are within 1
[India].
(5) Every application made by any partner of the judgment-debtor under sub-rule (3) shall be served
on the decree-holder and on the judgment-debtor, and on such of the other partners as do not join in the
application and as are within1
[India].
(6) Service under sub-rule (4) or sub-rule (5) shall be deemed to be service on all the partners and all
orders made on such applications shall be similarly served.

Execution of decree against firm.—(1) Where a decree has been passed against a firm,
execution may be granted—
(a) against any property of the partnership;
(b) against any person who has appeared in his own name under rule 6 or rule 7 of Order XXX or
who has admitted on the pleadings that he is, or who has been adjudged to be, a partner;
(c) against any person who has been individually served as a partner with a summons and has
failed to appear:
Provided that nothing in this sub-rule shall be deemed to limit or otherwise affect the provisions of
2
[section 30 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932 (9 of 1932)].
(2) Where the decree-holder claims to be entitled to cause the decree to be executed against any
person other than such a person as is referred to in sub-rule (1), clauses (b) and (c), as being a partner in
the firm, he may, apply to the Court which passed the decree for leave, and where the liability is not
disputed, such court may grant such leave, or, where such liability is disputed, may order that the liability
of such person be tried and determined in any manner in which any issue in a suit may be tried and
determined.
(3) Where the liability of any person has been tried and determined under sub-rule (2), the order made
thereon shall have the same force and be subject to the same conditions as to appeal or otherwise as if it
were a decree.
(4) Save as against any property of the partnership, a decree against a firm shall not lease, render liable
or otherwise affect any partner therein unless he has been served with a summons to appear and answer.
3
[(5) Nothing in this rule shall apply to a decree passed against a Hindu Undivided Family by virtue
of the provisions of rule 10 of Order XXX.]

Attachment of negotiable instruments.—Where the property is a negotiable instrument not
deposited in a Court, not in the custody of a public officer, the attachment shall be made by actual seizure,
and the instrument shall be brought into Court and held subject to further orders of the Court.

Attachment of property in custody of Court or public officer.—Where the property to be
attached is in the custody of any Court or public officer, the attachment shall be made by a notice to such
Court or officer, requesting that such property, and any interest or dividend becoming payable thereon,
may be held subject to the further orders of the Court from which the notice is issued:
Provided that, where such property is in the custody of a Court, any question of title or priority
arising between the decree-holder and any other person, not being the judgment-debtor, claiming to be
interested in such property by virtue of any assignment, attachment or otherwise, shall be determined by
such Court.

Attachment of decrees.—(1) Where the property to be attached is a decree, either for the
payment of money or for sale in enforcement of a mortgage or charge, the attachment shall be made,—
(a) if the decrees were passed by the same Court, then by Order of such Court, and

Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States”.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by s. 72, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
158
(b) if the decree sought to be attached was passed by another Court, then by the issue to such
other Court of a notice by the Court which passed the decree sought to be executed, requesting such
other Court to stay the execution of its decree unless and until—
(i) the court which passed the decree sought to be executed cancels the notice, or
1
[(ii) (a) the holder of the decree sought to be executed, or
(b) his judgment-debtor with the previous consent in writing of such decree-holder, or with the
permission of the attaching Court,
applies to the Court receiving such notice to execute the attached decree.](2) Where a Court makes an order under clause (a) of sub-rule (1), or receives an application under
sub-head (ii) of clause (b) of the said sub-rule, it shall, on the application of the creditor who has attached
the decree or his judgment-debtor, proceeds to execute the attached decree and apply the net proceeds in
satisfaction of the decree sought to be executed.
(3) The holder of a decree sought to be executed by the attachment of another of decree the nature
specified in sub-rule (1) shall be deemed to be the representative of the holder of the attached decree and
to be entitled to execute such attached decree in any manner lawful for the holder thereof.
(4) Where the property to be attached in the execution of a decree is a decree other than a decree of
the nature referred to in sub-rule (1), the attachment shall be made, by a notice by the Court which passed
the decree sought to be executed, to the holder of the decree sought to be attached, prohibiting him from
transferring or charging the same in any way, and, where such decree has been passed by any other Court,
also by sending to such other Court a notice to abstain from executing the decree sought to be attached
until such notice is cancelled by the Court from which it was sent.
(5) The holder of a decree attached under this rule shall give the Court executing the decree such
information and aid as may reasonably be required.
(6) On the application of the holder of a decree sought to be executed by the attachment of another
decree, the Court making an order of attachment under this rule shall give notice of such order to the
judgment-debtor bound by the decree attached; and no payment or adjustment of the attached decree
made by the judgment-debtor in contravention of such order 2
[with knowledge thereof or] after receipt of
notice thereof, either through the Court or otherwise, shall be recognized by any Court so long as the
attachment remains in force.

Attachment of immovable property.—(1) Where the property is immovable, the attachment
shall be made by an order prohibiting the judgment-debtor from transferring or charging the property in
any way, and all persons from taking any benefit from such transfer of charge.
2
[(1A) The order shall also require the judgment-debtor to attend Court on a specified date to take
notice of the date to be fixed for settling the terms of the proclamation of sale.](2) The order shall be proclaimed at some place on or adjacent to such property by beat of drum or other
customary mode, and a copy of the order shall be affixed on a conspicuous part of the property and then
upon, a conspicuous part of the Court-house, and also, where the property is land paying revenue to the
Government, in the office of the Collector of the district in which the land is situate 2

[and, where the property
is land situate in a village, also in the office of the Gram Panchayat, if any, having jurisdiction over that
village.]

Removal of attachment after satisfaction of decree.—Where—
(a) the amount decreed with costs and all charges and expenses resulting from the attachment of any
property are paid into Court, or
(b) satisfaction of the decree is otherwise made through the Court or certified to the Court, or
(c) the decree is set aside or reversed,
the attachment shall be deemed to be withdrawn, and, in the case of immovable property, the withdrawal
shall, if the judgment-debtor so desires, be proclaimed at his expense, and a copy of the proclamation
shall be affixed in the manner prescribed by the last preceding rule.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1972, s. 72, for sub-clause (ii) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by s. 72, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
159

Order for payment of coin or currency notes to party entitled under decree.—Where the
property attached is current coin or currency notes, the Court may, at any time during the continuance of
the attachment, direct that such coin or notes, or a part thereof sufficient to satisfy the decree, be paid
over to the party entitled under the decree to receive the same.
1
[57. Determination of attachment.—(1) Where any property has been attached in execution of a
decree and the Court, for any reason, passes an order dismissing the application for the execution of the
decree, the Court shall direct whether the attachment shall continue or cease and shall also indicate the
period up to which such attachment shall continue or the date on which such attachment shall cease.
(2) If the Court omits to give such direction, the attachment shall be deemed to have ceased.]2
[Adjudication of claims and objections

Adjudication of claims to or objections to attachment of, property.—(1) Where any claim is
preferred to, or any objection is made to the attachment of, any property attached in execution of a decree
on the ground that such property is not liable to such attachment, the Court shall proceed to adjudicate
upon the claim or objection in accordance with the provisions herein contained:
Provided that no such, claim or objection shall be entertained—
(a) where, before the claim is preferred or objection is made, the property attached has already
been sold; or
(b) where the Court considers that the claim or objection was designedly or unnecessarily delayed.
(2) All questions (including questions relating to right, title or interest in the property attached) arising
between the parties to a proceeding or their representatives under this rule and relevant to the adjudication of
the claim or objection, shall be determined by the Court dealing with the claim or objection and not by a
separate suit.
(3) Upon the determination of the questions referred to in sub-rule (2), the Court shall, in accordance
with such determination,—
(a) allow the claim or objection and release the property from attachment either wholly or to such
extent as it thinks fit; or
(b) disallow the claim or objection; or
(c) continue the attachment subject to any mortgage, charge or other interest in favour of any
person; or
(d) pass such order as in the circumstances of the case it deems fit.
(4) Where any claim or objection has been adjudicated upon under this rule, order made thereon shall
have the same force and be subject to the same conditions as to appeal or otherwise as if it were a decree.
(5) Where a claim or an objection is preferred and the Court, under the proviso to sub-rule (I), refuses
to entertain it, the party against whom such order is made may institute a suit to establish the right which
he claims to the property in dispute; but, subject to the result of suchsuit, if any, an order so refusing to
entertain the claim or objection shall be conclusive.

Stay of sale.—Where before the claim was preferred or the objection was made, the property
attached had already been advertised for sale, the Court may—
(a) if the property is movable, make an order postponing the sale pending the adjudication of the
claim or objection, or
(b) if the property is immovable, make an order that, pending the adjudication of the claim or
objection, the property shall not be sold, or that pending such adjudication, the property may be sold
but the sale shall not be confirmed,
and any such order may be made subject to such terms and conditions as to security or otherwise as the
Court thinks fit.] [Release of property from attachment.] Omitted by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment)
Act, 1976 (104 of 1976), s. 72 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

[Disallowance of claim to property attached.] omitted by s. 72, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

[Continuance of attachment subject to claim of incumbrancer.] omitted by s. 72, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-
1977).

[Saving of suits to establish right to attached property.] omitted by s. 72, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).]

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for rule 57 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 72, ibid., for the sub heading “Investigation of claims and objections” and for rules 58 to 63 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
160

Power to order property attached to be sold and proceeds to be paid to person entitled.—Any
Court executing a decree may order that any property attached by it and liable to sale, or such portion
thereof as may see necessary to satisfy the decree, shall be sold, and that the proceeds of such sale, or a
sufficient portion thereof, shall be paid to the party entitled under the decree to receive the same.

Sales by whom conducted and how made.—save as otherwise prescribed, every sale in
execution of a decree shall be conducted by an officer of the Court or by such other person as the Court
may appoint in this behalf, and shall be made by public auction in manner prescribed.

Proclamation of sales by public auction.—(1) Where any property is ordered to be sold by
public auction in execution of a decree, the Court shall cause a proclamation of the intended sale to be
made in the language of such Court.
(2) Such proclamation shall be drawn up after notice to the decree-holder and the judgment-debtor
and shall state the time and place of sale, and specify as fairly and accurately as possible—
(a) the property to be sold 1
[or, where a part of the property would be sufficient to satisfy the
decree, such part];
(b) the revenue assessed upon the estate or past of the estate, where the property to be sold is an
interest in an estate or in part of an estate paying revenue to the Government;
(c) any incumbrance to which the property is liable;
(d) the amount for the recovery of which the sale is ordered; and
(e) every other thing which the Court considers material for a purchaser to know in order to judge
of the nature and value of the property:
1
[Provided that where notice of the date for settling the terms of the proclamation has been given to
the judgment-debtor by means of an order under rule 54, it shall not be necessary to give notice under this
rule to the judgment-debtor unless the Court otherwise directs:
Provided further that nothing in this rule shall be construed as requiring the Court to enter in the
proclamation of sale its own estimate of the value of the property, but the proclamation shall include the
estimate, if any, given, by either or both of the Parties.
(3) Every application for an order for sale under this rule shall be accompanied by a statement signed
and verified in the manner hereinbefore prescribed for the signing and verification of pleadings and
containing, so far as they are known to or can be ascertained by the person making the varification, the
matters required by sub-rule (2) to be specified in the proclamation.
(4) For the purpose of ascertaining the matters to be specified in the proclamation, the Court may
summon any person whom it thinks necessary to summon and may examine him in respect to any such
matters and require him to produce any document in his possession or power relating thereto.

Mode of making proclamation.—(1) Every proclamation shall be made and published, as nearly
as may be, in the manner prescribed by rule 54, sub-rule (2).
(2) Where the Court so directs, such proclamation shall also be published in the Official Gazette or in
a local newspaper, or in both, and the costs of such publication shall be deemed to be costs of the sale.
(3) Where property is divided into lots for the purpose of being sold separately, it shall not be necessary
to make a separate proclamation for each lot, unless proper notice of the sale cannot, in the opinion of the
Court, otherwise be given.

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
161

Time of sale.—Save in the case of property of the kind described in the proviso to rule 43, no sale
hereunder shall, without the consent in writing of the judgment-debtor, take place until after the
expiration of at least 1
[fifteen days] in the case of immovable property, and of at least 2
[seven days] in the
case of movable property, calculated from the date on which the copy of the proclamation has been
affixed on the court-house of the Judge ordering the sale.

Adjournment or stoppage of sale.—(1) The Court may, in its discretion, adjourn any sale
hereunder to a specified day and hour, and the officer conducting any such sale may in his discretion
adjourn the sale, recording his reasons for such adjournment :
Provided that, where the sale is made in, or within the precincts of, the court-house, no such
adjournment shall be made without the leave of the Court.
(2) Where a sale is adjourned under sub-rule (1) for a longer period than 3
[thirty] days afresh
proclamation under rule 67 shall be made, unless the judgment-debtor consents to waive it.
(3) Every sale shall be stopped if, before the lot is knocked down, the debt and costs (including the
costs of the sale) are tendered to the officer conducting the sale, or proof is given to his satisfaction that
the amount of such debt and costs has been paid into the Court which ordered the sale.

[Saving of certain sales.] Omitted by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1956 (66 of
1956), s. 14 (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).

Defaulting purchaser answerable for loss on re-sale.—Any deficiency of price which may
happen on a re-sale by reason of the purchaser’s default, and all expenses attending such re-sale, shall be
certified to the Court 4
*** by the officer or other person holding the sale, and shall, at the instance of
either the decree-holder or the judgment-debtor, be recoverable from the defaulting purchaser under the
provisions relating to the execution of a decree for the payment of money.

Decree holder not to bid for or buy property without permission.—(1) No holder of a decree
in execution of which property is sold shall, without the express permission of the Court, bid for or
purchase the property.
(2) Where decree-holder purchases, amount of decree may be taken as payment.—Where a
decree-holder purchases with such permission, the purchase-money and the amount due on the decree
may, subject to the provisions of section 73, be set off against one another, and the Court executing the
decree shall enter up satisfaction of the decree in whole or in part accordingly.
(3) Where a decree-holder purchases, by himself or through another person, without such permission,
the Court may, if it thinks fit, on the application of the judgment-debtor or any other person whose interests
are affected by the sale, by order set aside the sale; and the costs of such application and order, and any
deficiency of price which may happen on the re-sale and all expenses attending it, shall be paid by the decreeholder.
5
[72A. Mortgagee not to bid at sale without the leave of the Court.—(/) Notwithstanding anything
contained in rule 72, a mortgagee of immovable property shall not bid for or purchase property sold in
execution of a decree on the mortgage unless the Court grants him leave to bid for or purchase the property.
(2) If leave to bid is granted to such mortgagee, then the Court shall fix a reserve price as regards the
mortgagee, and unless the Court otherwise directs, the reserve price shall be—
(a) not less than the amount then due for principal, interest and costs in respect of the mortgage if
the property is sold in one lot; and
(b) in the case of any property sold in lots, not less than such sum as shall appear to the Court to
be properly attributable to each lot in relation to the amount then due for principal, interest and costs
on the mortgage.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for “thirty days” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 72, ibid., for “fifteen days” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 72, ibid., for “ seven days” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

The words “or to the Collector or subordinate of the Collector, as the case may,” omitted by Act 66 of 1956, s. 14 (w.e.f. 1-1-
1957).

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
162
(3) In other respects, the provisions of sub-rules (2) and (3) of rule 72 shall apply in relation to
purchase by the decree-holder under that rule.]

Restriction on bidding or purchase by officers.—No officer or other person having any duty to
perform in connection with any sale shall, either directly or indirectly, bid for, acquire or attempt to
acquire any interest in the property sold.
Sale of movable property

Sale of agricultural produce.—(1) Where the property to be sold is agricultural produce, the sale
shall be held,—
(a) if such produce is a growing crop, on or near the land on which such crop has grown, or
(b) if such produce has been cut or gathered, at or near-the threshing floor or place for trading out
grain or the like or fodder-stack on or in which it is deposited :
Provided that the Court may direct the sale to be held at the nearest place of public resort, if it is of
opinion that the Produce is thereby likely to sell to greater advantage.
(2) Where, on the produce being put up for sale,—
(a) a fair price, in the estimation of the person holding the sale, is not offered for it, and
(b) the owner of the produce or a person authorized to act in his behalf applies to have the sale
postponed till next day or, if a market is held at the place of sale, the next market-day,
the sale shall be postponed accordingly and shall be then completed, whatever price may be offered for
the produce.

Special provisions relating to growing crops.—(1) Where the property to be sold is a growing crop
and the crop from its nature admits of being stored but has not yet been stored, the day of the sale shall be so
fixed as to admit of its being made ready for storing before the arrival of such day, and the sale shall not be
held until the crop has been cut or gathered and is ready for storing.
(2) Where the crop from its nature does not admit of being stored, it may be sold before it is cut and
gathered, and the purchaser shall be entitled to enter on the land, and to do all that is necessary for the
purpose of tending and cutting or gathering it.

Negotiable instruments and shares in corporations.—Where the property to be sold is a
negotiable instrument or a share in a corporation, the Court may, instead of directing the sale to be made
by public auction, authorized the sale of such instrument or share through a broker.

Sale by public auction.—(1) Where movable property is sold by public auction the price of each
lot shall be paid at the time of sale or as soon after as the officer or other person holding the sale directs,
and in default of payment the property shall forthwith be re-sold.
(2) On payment of the purchase-money, the officer or other person holding the sale shall grant a
receipt for the same, and the sale shall become absolute.
(3) Where the movable property to be sold is a share in goods belonging to the judgment-debtor and a
co-owner, and two or more persons, of whom one is such co-owner, respectively bid the same sum for
such property or for any lot, the bidding shall be deemed to be the bidding of the co-owner.

Irregularity not to vitiate sale, but any person injured may sue.—No irregularity in publishing
or conducting the sale of movable property shall vitiate the sale; but any person sustaining any injury by
reason of such irregularity at the hand of any other person may institute a suit against him for compensation
or (if such other person is the purchaser) for the recovery of the specific property and for compensation in
default of such recovery).

Delivery of movable property, debts and shares.—(1) Where the property sold is movable
property of which actual seizure has been made, it shall be delivered to the purchaser.
163
(2) Where the property sold is movable property in the possession of some person other than the
judgment-debtor, the delivery thereof to the purchaser shall be made by giving notice to the person in
possession prohibiting him from delivering possession of the property to any person except the purchaser.
(3) Where the property sold is a debt not secured by a negotiable instrument, or is a share in a
corporation, the delivery thereof shall be made by a written order of the Court prohibiting the creditor
from receiving the debt or any interest thereon, and the debtor from making payment thereof to any
person except the purchaser, or prohibiting the person in whose name the share, may be standing from
making any transfer of the share to any person except the purchaser, or receiving payment of any
dividend or interest thereon, and the manager, secretary or other proper officer of the corporation from
permitting any such transfer or making any such payment to any person except the purchaser.

Transfer of negotiable instruments and shares.—(1) Where the execution of a document or the
endorsement of the party in whose name a negotiable instrument or a share in a corporation is standing is
required to transfer such negotiable instrument or, share the Judge or such officer as he may appoint in
this behalf may execute such document or make such endorsement as may be necessary, and such
execution or endorsement shall have the same effect as an execution or endorsement by the party.
(2) Such execution or endorsement may be in the following form, namely :—
A. B. by C.D. Judge of the Court of (or as the case may be) , in a suit by E. F. against A.B.
(3) Until the transfer of such negotiable instrument or share, the Court may, by order, appoint some
person to receive any interest or dividend due thereon and to sign a receipt for the same; and any receipt
so signed shall be as valid and effectual for all purposes as if the same had been signed by the party
himself.

Vesting order in case of other property.—In the case of any movable property not hereinbefore
provided for, the Court may make an order vesting such property in the purchaser or as he may direct; and
such property shall vest accordingly.
Sale of immovable property

What Court may order sales.—Sales of immovable property in execution of decrees may be
ordered by any Court other than a Court of Small Causes.

Postponement of sale to enable judgment-debtor to raise amount of decree.—(1) Where an
order for the sale of immovable property has been made, if the judgment-debtor can satisfy the Court that
there is reason to believe that the amount of the decree may be raised by the mortgage or lease or private
sale of such property, or some part thereof, or of any other immovable property of the judgment-debtor,
the Court may, on his application, postpone the sale of the property comprised in the order for sale on
such terms and for such period as it thinks proper, to enable him to raise the amount.
(2) In such case the Court shall grant a certificate to the judgment-debtor authorizing him within a
period to be mentioned therein, and notwithstanding anything contained in section 64, to make the
proposed mortgage, lease or sale:
Provided that all moneys payable under such mortgage, lease or sale shall be paid, not to the
judgment-debtor, but, save in so far as a decree-holder is entitled to set-off such money under the
provisions of rule 72, into Court:
Provided also that not mortgage, lease or sale under this rule shall become absolute until it has been
confirmed by the Court.
(3) Nothing in this rule shall be deemed to apply to a sale of property directed to be sole in execution
of a decree for sale in enforcement of a mortgage of, or charge on, such property.

Deposit by purchaser and re-sale on default.—(1) On every sale of immovable property the
person declared to be the purchaser shall pay immediately after such declaration a deposit of twenty-five
per cent. on the amount of his purchase-money to the officer or other person conducting the sale, and in
default of such deposit, the property shall forthwith be re-sold.
(2) Where the decree-holder is the purchaser and is entitled to set-off the purchase-money under rule
72, the Court may dispense with the requirements of this rule.
164

Time for payment in full of purchase money.—The full amount of purchase-money payable
shall be paid by the purchaser into Court before the Court closes on the fifteenth day from the sale of the
property:
Provided that, in calculating the amount to be so paid into Court, the purchaser shall have the
advantage of any set-off to which he may be entitled under rule 72.

Procedure in default of payment.—In default of payment within the period mentioned in the
last preceding rule, the deposit may, if the Court thinks fit, after defraying the expenses of the sale, be
forfeited to the Government, and the property shall be re-sold, and the defaulting purchaser shall forfeit
all claim to the property or to any part of the sum for which it may subsequently be sold.

Notification on re-sale.—Every re-sale of immovable property, in default of payment of the
purchase-money within the period allowed for such payment, shall be made after the issue of fresh
proclamation in the manner and for the period hereinbefore prescribed for the sale.

Bid of co-sharer to have preference.—Where the property sold is a share of undivided
immovable property and two or more persons, of whom one is a co-sharer, respectively bid the same sum
for such property or for any lot, the bid shall be deemed to be the bid of the co-sharer.

Application to set aside sale on deposit.—(1) Where immovable property has been sold in
execution of a decree, 1
[any person claiming an interest in the property sold at the time of the sale or at
the time of making the application, or acting for or in the interest of such person,] may apply to have the
sale set aside on his depositing in Court,—
(a) for payment to the purchaser, a sum equal to five per cent. of the purchase-money, and
(b) for payment, to the decree-holder, the amount specified in the proclamation of sale as that for
the recovery of which the sale was ordered, less any amount which may, since the date of such
proclamation of sale, have been received by the decree-holder.
(2) Where a person applies under rule 90 to set aside the sale of his immovable property, he shall not,
unless he withdraws his application, be entitled to make or prosecute an application under this rule.
(3) Nothing in this rule shall relieve the judgment-debtor from any liability he may be under in
respect of costs and interest not covered by the proclamation of sale.
2
[90. Application to set aside sale on ground of irregularity or fraud.—(1) Where any immovable
property has been sold in execution of a decree, the decree-holder, or the purchaser, or any other person
entitled to share in a rateable distribution of assets, or whose interests are affected by the sale, may apply to
the Court to set aside the sale on the ground of a material irregularity or fraud in publishing or conducting it.
(2) No sale shall be set aside on the ground of irregularity or fraud in publishing or conducting it
unless, upon the facts proved, the Court is satisfied that the applicant has sustained substantial injury by
reason of such irregularity or fraud.
(3) No application to set aside a sale under this rule shall be entertained upon any ground which the
applicant could have taken on or before the date on which the proclamation of sale was drawn up.
Explanation.—The mere absence of, or defect in, attachment of the property sold shall not, by itself,
be a ground for setting aside a sale under this rule.]

Application by purchaser to set aside sale on ground of judgment-debtor having no saleable
interest.—The purchaser at any such sale in execution of a decree may apply to the Court to set aside the
sale, on the ground that the judgment-debtor had no saleable interest in the property sold.

Sale when to become absolute or be set aside.—(1) Where no application is made under rule 89,
rule 90 or rule 91, or where such application is made and disallowed, the Court shall make an order
confirming the sale, and thereupon the sale shall become absolute:

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 72, ibid., for rule 90 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
165
1
[Provided that, where any property is sold in execution of a decree pending the final disposal of any
claim to, or any objection to the attachment of, such property, the Court shall not confirm such sale until
the final disposal of such claim or objection.](2) Where such application is made and allowed, and where, in the case of an application-under rule
89, the deposit required by that rule is made within 2
[sixty days] from the date of sale, 3
[or in cases where
the amount deposited under rule 89 is found to be deficient owing to any clerical or arithmetical mistake
on the part of the depositor and such deficiency has been made good within such time as may be fixed by
the Court, the Court shall make an order setting aside the sale]:
Provided that no order shall be made unless notice of the application has been given to all persons
affected thereby:
4
[Provided further that the deposit under this sub-rule may be made within sixty days in all such cases
where the period of thirty days, within which the deposit had to be made, has not expired before the
commencement of the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 2002.
(3) No suit to set aside an order made under this rule shall be brought by any person against whom
such order is made.
5
[(4) Where a third party challenges the judgment-debtor’s title by filing a suit against the auctionpurchaser, the decree-holder and the judgment-debtor shall be necessary parties to the suit.
(5) If the suit referred to in sub-rule (4) is decreed, the Court shall direct the decree-holder to refund
the money to the auction-purchaser, and where such an order is passed the execution proceeding in which
the sale had been held shall, unless the Court otherwise directs, be revived at the stage at which the sale
was ordered].

Return of purchaser-money in certain cases.—Where a sale of immovable property is set aside
under rule 92, the purchaser shall be entitled to an order for repayment of his purchase-money, with or
without interest as the Court may direct, against any person to whom it has been paid.

Certificate to purchaser.—Where a sale of immovable property has become absolute, the Court
shall grant a certificate specifying the property sold and the name of the person who at the time of sale is
declared to be the purchaser. Such certificate shall bear date the day on which the sale became absolute.

Delivery of property in occupancy of judgment-debtor—Where the immovable property sold
is in the occupancy of the judgment-debtor or of some person on his behalf or of some person claiming
under a title created by the judgment-debtor subsequently to the attachment of such property and a
certificate in respect thereof has been granted under rule 94, the Court shall, on the application of the
purchaser, order delivery to be made by putting such purchaser or any person whom he may appoint to
receive delivery on his behalf in possession of the property, and, if need be, by removing any person who
refuses to vacate the same.

Delivery of property in occupancy of tenant.—Where the property sold is in the occupancy of a
tenant or other person entitled to occupy the same and a certificate in respect thereof has been granted
under rule 94, the Court shall, on the application of the purchaser, order delivery to be made by affixing a
copy of the certificate of sale in some conspicuous place on the property, and proclaiming to the occupant
by beat of drum or other customary mode, at some convenient place, that the interest of the judgmentdebtor has been transferred to the purchaser.
Resistance of delivery of possession to decree-holder or purchaser

Resistance or obstruction to possession of immovable property.—(1) Where the holder of a
decree for the possession of immovable property or the purchaser of any such property sold in execution
of a decree is resisted or obstructed by any person in obtaining possession of the property, he may make
an application to the Court complaining of such resistance or obstruction.
6
[(2) Where any application is made under sub-rule (1), the Court shall proceed to adjudicate upon the
application in accordance with the provisions herein contained.]

Added by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 14, for “thirty days” (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for “the Court shall make an order setting aside the sale” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by Act 22 of 2002, s. 14 (w.e.f. 1 -7-2002).

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72 (w.e.f 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 72, ibid., for sub-rule (2) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
166
1
[98. Orders after adjudication.—(1) Upon the determination of the questions referred to in rule
101, the Court shall, in accordance with such determination and subject to the provisions of sub-rule
(2),—
(a) make an order allowing the application and directing that the applicant be put into the
possession of the property or dismissing the application; or
(b) pass such other order as, in the circumstances of the case, it may deem fit.
(2) Where, upon such determination, the Court is satisfied that the resistance or obstruction was
occasioned without any just cause by the judgment-debtor or by some other person at his instigation or on
his behalf, or by any transferee, where such transfer was made during the pendency of the suit or
execution proceeding, it shall direct that the applicant be put into possession of the property, and where
the applicant is still resisted or obstructed in obtaining possession, the Court may also, at the instance of
the applicant, order the judgment-debtor, or any person acting at his instigation or on his behalf, to be
detained in the civil prison for a term which may extend to thirty days.

Dispossession by decree-holder or purchaser.—(1) Where any person other than the judgmentdebtor is dispossessed of immovable property by the holder of a decree for the possession of such
property or, where such property has been sold in execution of a decree, by the purchaser thereof, he may
make an application to the Court complaining of such dispossession.
(2) Where any such application is made, the Court shall proceed to adjudicate upon the application in
accordance with the provisions herein contained.

Order to be passed upon application complaining of dispossession.—Upon the determination of
the questions referred to in rule 101, the Court shall, in accordance with such determination,—
(a) make an order allowing the application and directing that the applicant be put into the
possession of the property or dismissing the application; or
(b) pass such other order as, in the circumstances of the case, it may deem fit.

Question to be determined.—All questions (including questions relating to right, title or
interest in the property) arising between the parties to a proceeding on an application under rule 97 or rule
99 or their representatives, and relevant to the adjudication of the application, shall be determined by the
Court dealing with the application and not by a separate suit and for this purpose, the Court shall,
notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any other law for the time being in force, be
deemed to have jurisdiction to decide such questions.

Rules not applicable to transferee lite pendente.—Nothing in rules 98 and 100 shall apply to
resistance or obstruction in execution of a decree for the possession of immovable property by a person to
whom the judgement-debtor has transferred the property after the institution of the suit in which the
decree was passed or to the dispossession of any such person.
Explanation.—In this rule, “transfer” includes a transfer by operation of law.

Orders to be treated as decrees.—Where any application has been adjudicated upon under rule
98 or rule 100, the order made thereon shall have the same force and be subject to the same conditions as
to an appeal or otherwise as if it were a decree.]2
[104. Orders under rule 101 or rule 103 to be subject to the result or pending suit.—Every order
made under rule 101 or rule 103 shall subject to the result of any suit that may be pending on the date of
commencement of the proceeding in which such order, is made if in such suit the party against whom the
order under rule 101 or rule 103 is made has sought to establish a right which he claims to the present
possession of the property.

Hearing of application.—(1) The Court, before which an application under any of the
foregoing rules of this Order is pending, may fix a day for the hearing of the application.
(2) Where on the day fixed or on any other day to which the hearing may be adjourned the applicant
does not appear when the case is called on for hearing, the Court may make an order that the application
be dismissed.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 72, for rules 98 to 103 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by s. 72, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
167
(3) Where the applicant appears and the opposite party to whom the notice has been issued by the
Court does not appear, the Court may hear the application ex parte and pass such order as it thinks fit.
Explanation.—An application referred to in sub-rule (1) includes a claim or objection made under
rule 58.

Setting aside orders passed ex parte, etc.—(1) The applicant, against whom an order is made
under sub-rule (2) rule 105 or the opposite party against whom an order is passed ex parte under sub-rule
(3) of that rule or under sub-rule (1) of rule 23, may apply to the Court to set aside the order, and if he
satisfies the Court that there was sufficient cause for his non-appearance whom the application was called
on for hearing, the Court shall set aside the order or such terms as to costs or otherwise as it thinks fit, and
shall appoint a day for the further hearing of the application.
(2) No order shall be made on an application under sub-rule (1) unless notice of the application has
been served on the other party.
(3) An application under sub-rule (1) shall be made within thirty days from the date of the order, or
where, in the case of an ex parte order, the notice was not duly served, within thirty days from the date
when applicant had knowledge of the order.]ORDER XXII
Death, Marriage and Insolvency or Parties

No abatement by party’s death if right to sue survives.—The death of a plaintiff or defendant
shall not cause the suit to abate if the right to sue survives.

Procedure where one of several plaintiffs or defendants dies and right to sue survives.—
Where there are more plaintiffs or defendants than one, and any of them dies, and where the right to sue
survives to the surviving plaintiff or plaintiffs alone, or against the surviving defendant or defendants
alone, the Court shall cause an entry to the effect to be made on the record,. and the suit shall proceed at
the instance of the surviving plaintiff or plaintiffs, or against the surviving defendant or defendants.

Procedure in case of death of one of several plaintiffs or of sole plaintiff.—(1) Where one of two
or more plaintiffs dies and the right to sue does not survive to the surviving plaintiff or plaintiffs alone, or a
sole plaintiff or sole surviving plaintiff dies and the right to the sue survives, the Court, on an application
made in that behalf, shall cause the legal representative of the deceased plaintiff to be made a party and shall
proceed with the suit.
(2) Where within the time limited by law no application is made under sub-rule (1), the suit shall
abate so far as the deceased plaintiff is concerned, and, on the application of the defendant, the Court may
award to him the costs which he may have incurred in defending the suit, to be recovered from the estate
of the deceased plaintiff.

Procedure in case of death of one of several defentlants or of sole defendant.—(1) Where one
of two or more defendants dies and the right to sue does not survive against the surviving defendant or
defendants alone or a sole defendant or sole surviving defendant dies and the right to sue survives, the
Court, on an application made in that behalf, shall cause the legal representative of the deceased
defendants to be made a party and shall proceed with the suit.
(2) Any person so made a party may make any defence appropriate to his character as legal
representative of the deceased defendant.
(3) Where within the time limited by law no application is made under sub-rule (1), the suit shall
abate as against the deceased defendant.
1
[(4) The Court whenever it thinks fit, may exempt the plaintiff from the necessity of substituting the
legal representatives of any such defendant who has failed to file a written statement or who, having filed
it, has failed to appear and contest the suit at the hearing; and judgment may, in such case, be pronounced
against the said defendant notwithstanding the death of such defendant and shall have the same force and
effect as if it has been pronounced before death took place.

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 73 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
168
(5) Where—
(a) the plaintiff was ignorant of the death of a defendant, and could not, for that reason, make an
application for the substitution of the legal representative of the defendant under this rule within the
period specified in the Limitation Act, 1963 (36 of 1963), and the suit has, in consequence, abated, and
(b) the plaintiff applies after the expiry of the period specified therefore in the Limitation Act,
1963 (36 of 1963), for setting aside the abatement and also for the admission of that application under
section 5 of that Act on the ground that he had, by reason of such ignorance, sufficient cause for not
making the application with the period specified in the said Act,
the Court shall, in considering the application under the said section 5, have due regard to the fact of such
ignorance, if proved.]1
[4A. Procedure where there is no legal representative.—(1) If, in any suit, it shall appear to the Court
that any party who has died during the pendency of the suit has no legal representative, the Court may, on the
application of any party to the suit, proceed in the absence of a person representing the estate of the deceased
person, or may be order appoint the Administrator-General, or an officer of the Court or such other person as it
thinks fit to represent the estate of the deceased person for the purpose of the suit; and any judgment or order
subsequently given or made in the suit shall bind the estate of the deceased person to the same extent as he
would have been bound if a personal representative of the deceased person had been a party to the suit.
(2) Before making an order under this rule, the Court—
(a) may require notice of the application for the order to be given to such (if any) of the persons
having an interest in the estate of the deceased person as it thinks fit; and
(b) shall as certain that the person proposed to be appointed to represent the estate of the deceased
person is willing to be so appointed and has no interest adverse to that of the deceased person.]

Determination of question as to legal representative.—Where a question arises as to whether
any person is or is not the legal representative of a deceased plaintiff or a deceased defendant, such
question shall be determined by the Court:
1
[Provided that where such question arises before an Appellate Court, that Court may, before
determining the question, direct any subordinate Court to try the question and to return the records
together with evidence, if any, recorded at such trial, its findings and reasons therefor, and the Appellate
Court may take the same into consideration in determining the question.]

No abatement by reason of death after hearing.—Notwithstanding anything contained in the
foregoing rules, whether the cause of action survives or not, there shall be no abatement by reason of the
death of either party between the conclusion of the hearing and the pronouncing of the judgment, but
judgment may in such case be pronounced notwithstanding the death and shall have the same force and effect
as if it had been pronounced before the death took place.

Suit not abated by marriage of female party.—(1) The marriage of a female plaintiff or
defendant shall not cause the suit to abate, but the suit may notwithstanding be proceeded with the
judgment, and, where the decree is against a female defendant, it may be executed against her alone.
(2) Where the husband is by law liable for the debts of his wife, the decree may, with the permission
of the Court, be executed against the husband also; and, in case of judgment for the wife, execution of the
decree may, with such permission, be issued upon the application of the husband, where the husband is by
law entitled to the subject-matter of the decree.

When plaintiff’s insolvency bars suit.—(1) The insolvency of a plaintiff in any suit which the
assignee or receiver might maintain for the benefit of his creditors, shall not cause the suit to abate, unless
such assignee or receiver declines to continue the suit or (unless for any special reason the Court
otherwise directs) to give security for the costs thereof within such time as the Court may direct.

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 73 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
169
(2) Procedure where assignee fails to continue suit, or give security.—Where the assignee or
receiver neglects or refuses to continue the suit and to give such security within the time so ordered, the
defendant may apply for the dismissal of the suit on the ground of the plaintiff’s insolvency, and the Court
may make an order dismissing the suit an awarding to the defendant the costs which he has incurred in
defending the same to be proved as a debt against the plaintiff’s estate.

Effect of abatement or dismissal.—(1) Where a suit abates or is dismissed under this Order, no
fresh suit shall be brought on the same cause of action.
(2) The plaintiff or the person claiming to be the legal representative of a deceased plaintiff or the
assignee or the receiver in the case of an insolvent plaintiff may apply for an order to set aside the abatement
or dismissal; and if it is proved that he was prevented by any sufficient cause from continuing the suit, the
Court shall set aside the abatement or dismissal upon such terms as to costs or otherwise as it thinks fit.
(3) The provisions of Section 5 of the 1
[Indian Limitation Act, 1877 (15 of 1877)] shall apply to
applications under sub-rule (2).
2
[Explanation.—Nothing in this rule shall be construed as barring, in any later suit, a defence based
on the facts which constituted the cause of action in the suit which had abated or had been dismissed
under this Order.]

Procedure in case of assignment before final order in suit.—(1) In other cases of an
assignment, creation or devolution of any interest during the pendency of a suit, the suit may, by leave of
the Court, be continued by or against the person to or upon whom such interest has come or devolved.
(2) The attachment of a decree pending an appeal therefrom shall be deemed to be an interest entitling
the person who procured such attachment to the benefit of sub-rule (1).
2
[10A. Duty of pleader to communicate to Court death of a party.—Wherever a pleader
appearing for a party to the suit comes to know of the death of that party, he shall inform the Court about
it, and the Court shall thereupon give notice of such death to the other party, and, for this purpose, the
contract between the pleader and the deceased party shall be deemed to subsist.]

Application of Order to appeals.—In the application of this Order to appeals, so far as may be,
the word “Plaintiff” shall be held to include an appellant, the word “defendant” a respondant, and the
word “suit”an appeal.

Application of Order to proceedings.—Nothing in rules 3, 4 and 8 shall apply to proceedings in
execution of a decree or order.
ORDER XXIII
Withdrawal and Adjustment of Suits
3
[1. Withdrawal of suit or abandonment of part of claim.—(1) At any time after the institution
of a suit, the plaintiff may as against all or any of the defendants abandon his suit or abandon a part of
his claim:
Provided that where the plaintiff is a minor or other person to whom the provisions contained in
rules 1 to 14 of Order XXXII extend, neither the suit nor any part of the claim shall be abandoned without
the leave of the Court.
(2) An application for leave under the proviso to sub-rule (1) shall be accompanied by an affidavit
of the next friend and also, if the minor or such other person is represented by a pleader, by a certificate of
the pleader to the effect that the abandonment proposed is, in his opinion, for the benefit of the minor or
such other person.
(3) Where the Court is satisfied,—
(a) that a suit must fail by reason of some formal defect, or

See now the Limitation Act, 1973 (36 of 1963), ss. 4 and 5.

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 73 (w.e.f 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 74, ibid., for rule 1 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
170
(b) that there are sufficient grounds for allowing the plaintiff to institute a fresh suit for the
subject matter of suit or part of a claim,
It may, on such terms as it thinks fit grant the plaintiff permission to withdraw from such suit or such part
of the claim with liberty to institute a fresh suit in respect of the subject-matter of such suit or such part of
the claim.
(4) Where the plaintiff—
(a) abandons any suit or part of claim under sub-rule (1), or
(b) withdraws from a suit or part of a claim without the permission referred to in sub-rule (3),
he shall be liable for such costs as the Court may award and shall be precluded from instituting any fresh
suit in respect of such subject-matter or such part of the claim.
(5) Nothing in this rule shall be deemed to authorise the Court to permit one of several plaintiffs to
abandon a suit or part of a claim under sub-rule (1), or to withdraw, under sub-rule (3), any suit or part of
a claim, without the consent of the other plaintiff.]1
[1A.When transposition of defendants as plaintiffs may be permitted.—Where a suit is
withdrawn or abandoned by a plaintiff under rule 1, and a defendant applies to be transposed as a plaintiff
under rule 10 of Order I the Court shall, in considering such application, have due regard to the question
whether the applicant has a substantial question to be decided as against any of the other defendants.]

Limitation law not affected by first suit.—In any fresh suit instituted on permission granted
under the last preceding rule, the plaintiff shall be bound by the law of limitation in the same manner as if
the first suit had not been instituted.

Compromise of suit.—Where it is proved to the satisfaction of the Court that a suit has been
adjusted wholly or in part by any lawful agreement or compromise 1
[in writing and signed by the parties]or where the defendant satisfied the plaintiff in respect to the whole or any part of the subject-matter of
the suit, the Court shall order such agreement, compromise or satisfaction to be recorded, and shall pass a
decree in accordance therewith 2
[so far as it relates to the parties to the suit, whether or not the subjectmatter of the agreement, compromise or satisfaction is the same as the subject-matter of the suit:]1
[Provided that where it is alleged by one party and denied by the other that an adjustment or
satisfaction has been arrived at, the Court shall decide the question; but not adjournment shall be granted
for the purpose of deciding the question, unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded, thinks fit to grant
such adjournment.]1
[Explanation.— An agreement or compromise which is void or voidable under the Indian Contract
Act, 1872 (9 of 1872), shall not he deemed to be lawful within the meaning of this rule.]1
[3A. Bar to suit.—No suit shall lie to set aside a decree on the ground that the compromise on which
the decree is based was not lawful.
3B. No agreement or compromise to be entered in a representative suit without leave of
Court.—(1) No agreement or compromise in a representative suit shall be entered into without the leave
of the Court expressly recorded in the proceedings; and any such agreement or compromise entered into
without the leave of the Court as recorded shall be void.
(2) Below granting such leave, the Court shall give notice in such manner as it may think fit to such
persons is as may appear to it to be interested in the suit.
Explanation.—In this rule, “representative suit” means,—
(a) a suit under Section 91 or Section 92,
(b) a suit under rule 8 of Order I,
(c) a suit in which the manager of an undivided Hindu family sues or is sued as representing the
other members of the family,

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 74 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 74, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
171
(d) any other suit in which the decree passed may, by virtue of the provisions of this Code or of
any other law for the time being in force, bind any person who is not named as party to the suit.]

Proceedings in execution of decrees not affected.—Nothing in this Order shall apply to any
proceedings in execution of a decree or order.
ORDER XXIV
Payment into Court

Deposit by defendant of amount in satisfaction of claim.—The defendant in any suit to recover a
debt or damages may, at any stage of the suit, deposit in Court such sum of money as he considers a
satisfaction in full of the claim.

Notice of deposit.—Notice of the deposit shall be given through the Court by the defendant to the
plaintiff, and the amount of the deposit shall (unless the Court otherwise directs) be paid to the plaintiff
on his application.

Interest on deposit not allowed to plaintiff after notice.—No interest shall be allowed to the
plaintiff on any sum deposited by the defendant from the date of the receipt of such notice, whether the
sum deposited is in full of the claim or falls short thereof.

Procedure where plaintiff accepts deposit as satisfaction in part.—(1) Where the plaintiff
accepts such amount as satisfaction in part only of his claim, he may prosecute his suit for the balance;
and, if the Court decides that the deposit by the defendant was a full satisfaction of the plaintiff’s claim,
the plaintiff shall pay the costs of the suit incurred after the deposit and the costs incurred previous
thereto, so far as they were caused by excess in the plaintiff’s claim.
(2) Procedure where he accepts it as satisfaction in full.—Where the plaintiff accepts such amount as
satisfaction in full of his claim, he shall present to the Court a statement to that effect, and such statement
shall be filed and the Court shall pronounce judgment accordingly; and, in directing by whom the costs of
each party are to be paid, the Court shall consider which of the parties is most to blame for the litigation.
Illustrations
(a) A owes B Rs. 100. B. sues A for the amount, having made no demand for payment and having no reason to believe
that the delay caused by making a demand would place him at a disadvantage. On the plaint being filed, A pays the money into
Court, B accepts it in full satisfaction of his claim, but the Court should not allow him any costs, the litigation being presumably
groundless on his part.
(h) B sues A under the circumstances mentioned in illustration (a). On the plaint being filed, A disputes the claim
Afterwards A pays the money into Court. B accepts in full satisfaction of his claim. The Court should also give B his cast of suit.
A’s conduct having shown that the litigation was necessary.
(c) A owes B Rs. 100, and is willing to pay him that sum without suit.- B claims Rs. 150 and sues A for that amount. On the plaint
being filed, A pays Rs. 100 into Court and disputes only his liability to pay the remaining Rs. 50. B accepts the Rs. 100 in full satisfaction of
his claim. The Court should order him to pay A’s costs.
ORDER XXV
Security for Costs
1
[1. When security for costs may be required from plaintiff.—(1) At any stage of a suit, the Court
may, either of its own motion or on the application of any defendant, order the plaintiff, for reasons to be
recorded, to give within the time fixed by it security for the payment of all costs incurred and likely to be
incurred by any defendant:
Provided that such an order shall be made in all cases in which it appears to the Court that a sole
plaintiff is, or (when there are more plaintiffs than one) that all the plaintiffs are, residing out of India and
that such plaintiff does not possess or that no one of such plaintiffs possesses any sufficient immovable
property within India other than the property in suit.

Subs. by Act 66 of 1956, s. 14, for rule 1 (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
172
(2) Whoever leaves India under such circumstances as to afford reasonable probability that he will
not be forthcoming whenever he may be called upon to pay costs shall be deemed to be residing out of
India within the meaning of the proviso to sub-rule (1)].

Effect of failure to furnish security.—(1) In the event of such security not being furnished within
the time fixed, the Court shall make an order dismissing the suit unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs are
permitted to withdraw therefrom.
(2) Where a suit is dismissed under this rule, the plaintiff may apply for an order to set the dismissal
aside and, if it is proved to the satisfaction of the Court that he was prevented by any sufficient cause from
furnishing the security within the time allowed, the Court shall set aside the dismissal upon such terms as
to security; costs or otherwise as it thinks fit, and shall appoint a day for proceeding with the suit.
(3) The dismissal shall not be set aside unless notice of such application has been served on the
defendant.
ORDER XXVI
COMMISSIONS
Commissions to examine witnesses

Cases in which Court may issue commission to examine witness.—Any Court may in any suit
issue a commission for the examination on interrogatories or otherwise of any person resident within the
local limits of its jurisdiction who is exempted under this Code from attending the Court or who is from
sickness or infirmity unable to attend it:
1
[Provided that a commission for examination on interrogatories shall not be issued unless the
Court, for reasons to be recorded, thinks it necessary so to do.
Explanation.—The Court may, for the purpose of this rule, accept a certificate purporting to be
signed by a registered medical practitioner as evidence of the sickness or infirmity of any person, without
calling the medical practitioner as a witness.]

Order for commission.—An order for the issue of a commission for the examination of a witness
may be made by the Court either of its own motion or on the application, supported by affidavit or
otherwise, of any party to the suit or of the witness to be examined.

Where witness resides within Court’s jurisdiction.—A commission for the examination of a
person who resides within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court issuing the same may be issued
to any person whom the Court thinks fit to execute it.

Persons for whose examination commission may issue.—(1) Any Court may in any suit issue a
commission 2
[for the examination on interrogatories or otherwise of—](a) any person resident beyond the local limits of its jurisdiction;
(b) any person who is about to leave such limits before the date on which he is required to be
examined in Court; and
(c) 3
[any person in the service of the Government] who cannot in the opinion of the Court, attend
without detriment to the public service:
1
[Provided that where, under rule 19 of Order XVI, a person cannot be ordered to attend a Court in
person, a commission shall be issued for his examination if his evidence is considered necessary in the
interests of justice:
Provided further that a commission for examination of such person on interrogatories shall not be
issued unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded, thinks it necessary so to do.]

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 75 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 75, ibid., for “for the examination of” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by the A.O 1937, for “any civil or military officer of the Government”.
173
(2) Such commission may be issued to any Court, not being a High Court, within the local limits of
whose jurisdiction such person resides, or to any pleader or other person whom the Court issuing the
commission may appoint.
(3) The Court on issuing any commission under this rule shall direct whether the commission shall be
returned to itself or to any subordinate Court.
1
[4A. Commission for examination of any person resident within the local limits of the
jurisdiction of the Court.—Notwithstanding anything contained in these rules, any court may, in the
interest of justice or for the expeditious disposal of the case or for any other reason, issue commission in
any suit for the examination, on interrogatories or otherwise, of any person resident within the local limits
of its jurisdiction, and the evidence so recorded shall be read in evidence.]

Commission or request to examine witness not within India.—Where any Court to which
application is made for the issue of a commission for the examination of a person residing at any place
not within 2
[India] is satisfied that the evidence of such person is necessary, the Court may issue such
commission or a letter of request.

Court to examine witness pursuant to Commission.—Every Court receiving a commission for
the examination of any person shall examine him or cause him to be examined pursuant thereto.

Return of commission with depositions of witnesses.—Where a commission has been duly
executed, it shall be returned, together with the evidence taken under it, to the Court from which it was
issued, unless the order for issuing the commission has otherwise directed, in which case the commission
shall be returned in terms of such order; and the commission and the returned thereto and the evidence
taken under it shall 3
[(subject to the provisions of rule 8)] from part of the record of the suit.

When depositions may be read in evidence.—Evidence taken under a commission shall not be
read as evidence in the suit without the consent of the party against whom the same is offered, unless—
(a) the person who gave the evidence is beyond the jurisdiction of the Court, or dead or unable
from sickness or infirmity to attend to be personally examined, or exempted from personal
appearance in Court, or is a 4
[person in the service of the Government] who cannot, in the opinion of
the Court, attend without detriment to the public service, or
(b) the Court in its discretion dispenses with the proof of any of the circumstances mentioned in
clause (a)and authorizes the evidence of any person being read as evidence in the suit, notwithstanding
proof that the cause for taking such evidence by commission has ceased at the time of reading the same.
Commissions for local investigations

Commissions to make local investigations.—In any suit in which the Court deems a local
investigation to be requisite or proper for the purpose of elucidating any matter in dispute, or of
ascertaining the market-value of any property, or the amount of any mesne profits or damages or annual
net profits, the Court may issue a commission to such person as it thinks fit directing him to make such
investigation and to report thereon to the Court:
Provided that, where the State Government has made rules as to the persons to whom such
commission shall be issued, the Court shall be bound by such rules.

Procedure of Commissioner.—(1) The Commissioner, after such local inspection as he deems
necessary and after reducing to writing the evidence taken by him, shall return such evidence, together
with his report in writing signed by him, to the Court.
(2) Report and depositions to be evidence in suit. Commissioner may be examined in person.—The
report of the Commissioner and the evidence taken by him (but not the evidence without the report) shall be
evidence in the suit and shall form part of the record; but the Court or, with the permission of the Court, any of

Ins. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 29 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).

Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States”.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 75, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “civil or military officer of the Government”.
174
the parties to the suit may examine the Commissioner personally in open Court touching any of the
matters referred to him or mentioned in his report, or as to his report, or as to the manner in which he has
made the investigation.
(3) Where the Court is for any reason dissatisfied with the proceedings of the Commissioner, it may
direct such further inquiry to be made as it shall think fit.
1
[Commissions for scientific investigation, performance of ministerial act and sale of movable
property
10A. Commission for scientific investigation.—(1) Where any question arising in a suit involves any
scientific investigation which cannot, in the opinion of the Court, be conveniently conducted before the
Court, the Court may, if it thinks it necessary or expedient in the interests of justice so to do, issue a
commission to such person as it thinks fit, directing him to inquire into such question and report thereon to
the Court.
(2) The provisions of rule 10 of this Order shall, as far as may be, apply in relation to a Commissioner
appointed under this rule as they apply in relation to a Commissioner appointed under rule 9.
10B. Commission for performance of a ministerial act.—(1) Where any question arising in a suit
involves the performance of any ministerial act which cannot, in the opinion of the Court, be conveniently
performed before the Court, the Court may, if for reasons to be recorded, it is of opinion that it is
necessary or expedient in the interests of justice so to do, issue a commission to such person as it thinks
fit, directing him to perform that ministerial act and report thereon to the Court.
(2) The provisions of rule 10 of this Order shall apply in relation to a commissioner appointed under
this rule as they apply in relation to a Commissioner appointed under rule 9.
10C. Commission for the sale of movable property.—(1) Where, in any suit, it becomes necessary
to sell any movable property which is in the custody of the Court pending the determination of the suit
and which cannot be conveniently preserved, the Court may, if, for reasons to be recorded, it is of opinion
that it is necessary or expedient in the interests of justice so to do, issue a commission to such person as it
thinks fit, directing him to conduct such sale and report thereon to the Court.
(2) The provisions of rule 10 of this Order shall apply in relation to a Commissioner appointed under
this rule as they apply in relation to a Commissioner appointed under rule 9.
(3) Every such sale shall be held, as far as may be, in accordance with the procedure prescribed for
the sale of movable property in execution of a decree.]Commissions to examine accounts

Commission to examine or adjust accounts.—In any suit in which an examination or
adjustment of the accounts is necessary, the Court may issue a commission to such person as it thinks fit
directing him to make such examination or adjustment.

Court to give Commissioner necessary instructions.—(1) The Court shall furnish the
Commissioner with such part of the proceedings and such instructions as appear necessary, and the
instructions shall distinctly specify whether the commissioner is merely to transmit the proceedings which
he may hold on the inquiry, or also to report his own opinion on the point referred for his examination.
(2) Proceedings and report to be evidence. Court may direct further inquiry.—The proceedings
and report (if any) of the Commissioner shall be evidence in the suit, but where the Court has reason to be
dissatisfied with them, it may direct such further inquiry as it shall think fit.
Commissions to make partitions

Commission to make partition of immovable property.—Where a preliminary decree for partition
has been passed, the Court may, in any case not provided for by section 54, issue a commission to such
person as it thinks fit to make the partition or separation according to the rights as declared in such decree.

Procedure of Commissioner.—(1) The Commissioner shall, after such inquiry as may be necessary,
divide the property into as many shares as may be directly by the order under which the commission was

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 75 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
175
issued, and shall allot such shares to the parties, and may, if authorised thereto by the said order, award
sums to be paid for the purpose of equalizing the value of the shares.
(2) The commissioner shall then prepare and sign a report or the Commissioners (where the
commission was issued to more than one person and they cannot agree) shall prepare and sign separate
reports appointing the share of each party and distinguishing each share (if so directed by the said order) by
metes and bounds. Such report or reports shall be annexed to the commission and transmitted to the Court;
and the Court, after hearing any objections which the parties may make to the report or reports, shall
confirm, vary or set aside the same.
(3) Where the Court confirms or varies the report or reports it shall pass a decree in accordance with
the same as confirmed or varied; but where the Court sets aside the report or reports it shall either issue a
new commission or make such other order as it shall think fit.
General provisions

Expenses of commission to be paid into court.—Before issuing any commission under this
Order, the Court may order such sum (if any) as it thinks reasonable for the expenses of the commission
to be, within a time to be fixed, paid into Court by the party at whose instance or for whose benefit the
commission is issued.

Powers of commissioners.—Any commissioner appointed under this Order may, unless
otherwise directed by the order of appointment,—
(a) examine the parties themselves and any witness whom they or any of them may produce, and
any other person whom the Commissioner thinks proper to call upon to give evidence in the matter
referred to him;
(b) call for and examine documents and other things relevant to the subject of inquiry;
(c) at any reasonable time enter upon or into any land or building mentioned in the order.
1
[16A. Questions objected to before the Commissioner.—(1) Where any question put to a witness is
objected to by a party or his pleader in proceedings before a Commissioner appointed under this Order, the
Commissioner shall take down the question, the answer, the objections and the name of the party or, as the
case may be, the pleader so objecting:
Provided that the Commissioner shall not take down the answer to a question which is objected to on
the ground of privilege but may continue with the examination of the witness, leaving the party to get the
question of privilege decided by the Court, and, where the Court decides that there is no question of
privilege, the witness may be recalled by the Commissioner and examined by him or the witness may be
examined by the Court with regard to the question which was objected to on the ground of privilege.
(2) No answer taken down under sub-rule (1) shall be read as evidence in the suit except by the order
of the Court.]

Attendance and examination of witnesses before Commissioner.—(1) The provisions of this Code
relating to the summoning, attendance and examination of witnesses, and to the remuneration of, and
penalties to be imposed upon, witnesses, shall apply to persons required to give evidence or to produce
documents under this Order whether the commission in execution of which they are so required has been
issued by a Court situate within or by a Court situate beyond the limits of 2
[India], and for the purposes of
this rule the Commissioner shall be deemed to be a Civil Court:
1
[Provided that when the Commissioner is not a Judge of a Civil Court, he shall not be competent to
impose penalties; but such penalties may be imposed on the application of such Commissioner by the
Court by which the commission was issued.](2) A Commissioner may apply to any Court (not being a High Court) within the local limits or
whose jurisdiction a witness resides for the issue of any process which he may find it necessary to issue to
or against such witness, and such Court may, in its discretion, issue such process as it considers reasonable
and proper.

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 75 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States”.
176

Parties to appear before Commissioner.—(1) Where a commission is issued under this Order,
the Court shall direct that the parties to the suit shall appear before the Commissioner in person or by their
agents or pleaders.
(2) Where all or any of the parties do not so appear, the Commissioner may proceed in their
absence.
1
[18A. Application of order to execution proceedings.—The provisions of this Order shall apply,
so far as may be, to proceedings in execution of a decree or order.
18B. Court to fix a time for return of commission.—The Court issuing a commission shall fix a
date on or before which the commission shall be returned to it after execution, and the date so fixed
shall not be extended except where the Court, for reasons to be recorded, is satisfied that there is
sufficient cause for extending the date.]2
[Commissions issued of the instance of foreign Tribunals

Cases in which High Court may issue commission to examine witness.—(1) If a High Court is
satisfied.—
(a) that a foreign court situated in a foreign country wishes to obtain the evidence of a witness in
any proceeding before it,
(b) that the proceeding is of a civil nature, and
(c) that the witness is residing within the limits of the High Court’s appellate jurisdiction,
it may, subject to the provisions of rule 20, issue a commission for the examination of such witness.
(2) Evidence may be given of the matters specified in clause (a), (b) and (c) of sub-rule (1)—
(a) by a certificate signed by the consular officer of the foreign country of the highest rank in
India and transmitted to the High Court through the Central Government, or
(b) by a letter of request issued by the foreign Court and transmitted to the High Court through
the Central Government, or
(c) by a letter of request issued by the foreign court and produced before the High Court by a
party to the proceeding.

Application for issue of commission.—The High Court may issue a commission under rule 19—
(a) upon application by a party to the proceeding before the foreign court, or
(b) upon an application by a law officer of the State Government acting under instructions from
the State Government.

To whom commission may be issued.—A commission under rule 19 may be issued to any Court
within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the witness resides, or 3
*** the witness resides within the
local limits of 4
[the ordinary original civil jurisdiction of the High Court], to any person whom the Court
thinks fit to execute the commission.

Issue, execution and return of commissions, land transmission of evidence to foreign
Court.—The provisions of rules 6, 15, 5
[sub-rule (1) of rule 16A, 17, 18 and 18B] of this Order in so
far as they are applicable shall apply to the issue, execution and return of such commissions, and when
any such commission has, been duly executed it shall be returned, together with the evidence taken
under it, to the High Court, which shall forward it to the Government General in Council along with
the letter of request for transmission to the foreign court.]

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 75 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by Act 10 of 1932, s. 3.

The words “the high Court is established under the Indian high Courts Act 1861, or the Government of India Act, 1915, and”
omitted by the A.O. 1937.

Subs. ibid., for “its ordinary original civil jurisdiction”.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 75, for “16, 17 and 18” (w.e.f 1-2-1977).
177
ORDER XXVII
Suits by or against the government or public officers in their official capacity

Suits by or against Government.—In any suit by or against 1
[the Government], the plaint or
written statement shall be signed by such person as the Government may, by general or special order,
appoint in this behalf, and shall be verified by any person whom the Government may so appoint and who
is acquainted with the facts of the case.

Persons authorised to act for Government.—Persons being ex officio or otherwise authorised to act
for the Government in respect of any judicial proceeding shall be deemed to be recognised agents by whom
appearances, acts and applications under this Code may be made or done on behalf of the Government.

Plaints in suits by or against Government.—In suits by or 2
[against the Government], instead of
inserting in the plaint the name and description and place of residence of the plaintiff or defendant, it shall
be sufficient to insert 1
[the appropriate name as provided in section 79 3
***].
4
[4. Agent for Government to receive process.—The Government pleader in any Court shall be the
agent of the Government for the purpose of receiving processes against the Government issued by such
Court].

Fixing of day for appearance on behalf of Government.—The Court, in fixing the day for 1
[the
Government] to answer to the plaint, shall allow a reasonable time for the necessary communication with
the Government through the proper channel, and for the issue of instructions to the 5
[Government pleader]to appear and answer on behalf of 6
[the Government] 7
***, and may extend the time at its discretion 8
[but
the time so extended shall not exceed two months in the aggregate].
8
[5A. Government to be joined as a party in a suit against a public officer.—Where a suit is
instituted against a public officer for damages or other relief in respect of any act alleged to have been
done by him in his official capacity, the Government shall be joined as a party to the suit.
5B. Duty of Court in suits against the Government or a public officer to assist in arriving at a
settlement.—(1) In every suit or proceeding to which the Government, or a public officer acting in his
official capacity, is a party, it shall be the duty of the Court to make, in the first instance, every
endeavour, where it is possible to do so consistently with the nature and circumstances of the case, to
assist the parties in arriving at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit.
(2) If, in any such suit or proceeding, at any stage, it appears to the court that there is a reasonable
possibility of a settlement between the parties, the Court may adjourn the proceeding for such period as it
thinks fit, to enable attempts to be made to effect such a settlement.
(3) The power conferred under sub-rule (2) is in addition to any other power of the Court to adjourn
proceedings.].

Attendance of person able to answer questions relating to suit against Government.—The
Court may also, in any case in which the 5
[Government pleader] is not accompanied by any person on the
part of 1
[the Government] who may be able to answer any material questions relating to the suit, direct the
attendance of such a person.

Subs. by A.O. 1937, for “the Secretary of State for India in Council”.

Subs. ibid., for “against the Secretary of State for India in Council”.

The words ‘or’ if the suit is against the Secretary of State, the words “the Secretary of State” omitted by the A.O. 1948.

Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for rule 4.

Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “Crown pleader” which had been subs. by the A. O. 1937, for “Government pleader”.

Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “the said Secretary of State, for India in Council”.

The words “or the Government,” omitted by the A. O. 1948.

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 76 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
178

Extension of time to enable public officer to make reference to Government.—(1) Where the
defendant is a public officer and, on receiving the summons, considers it proper to make a reference to the
Government before answering the plaint, he may apply to the Court to grant such extension of the time
fixed in the summons as may be necessary to enable him to make such reference and to receive orders
thereon through the proper channel.
(2) Upon such application the Court shall extend the time for so long as appears to it to be necessary.

Procedure in suits against public officer.—(1) Where the Government undertakes the defence of
a suit against a public officer, the 1
[Government pleader] upon being furnished with authority to appear
and answer the plaint, shall apply to the court, and upon such application the Court shall cause a note of
his authority to be entered in the register of civil suits.
(2) Where no application under sub-rule (1) is made by the 1
[Government pleader] on or before the
day fixed in the notice for the defendant to appear and answer, the case shall proceed as in a suit between
private parties:
Provided that the defendant shall not be liable to arrest, nor his property to attachment, otherwise than
in execution of a decree.
2
[8A. No security to be required from Government or a public officer in certain cases.—No such
security as is mentioned in rules 5 and 6 of Order XLI shall be required from the Government or, where
the Government has undertaken the defence of the suit, from any public officer sued in respect of an act
alleged to be done by him in his official capacity. ,
8B. Definitions of “Government” and “Government pleader”.—In this Order 3
[unless otherwise
expressly provided] “Government” and 1
[“Government pleader”] mean respectively—
(a) in relation to any suit by or against 4
*** the Central Government, or against a public officer in
the service of that Government, the Central Government and such pleader as that Government may
appoint whether generally or specially for the purposes of this order;
5


(c) in relation to any suit by or against State Government or against a public officer in the service
of a State. the State Government and the Government pleader 6
[as defined in clause (7) of section 2],
or such other pleader as the State Government may appoint, whether generally or specially, for the
purposes of this Order.].
7
[ORDER XXVII-A]Suits involving a substantial question of law as to the interpretation for 8
[the constitution] 9

[or as to the
validity of any statutory instrument]
  1. Notice to the Attorney General or the Advocate-General.—In any suit in which it appears to the
    Court that 10[any such question as is referred to 11[in clause (1) of Article 132, read with Article 147 of the
    Constitution,] is involved, the Court shall not proceed to determine that question until after notice has
    been given to 12[the Attorney General for India] if the question of law concerns the Central Government
    and to the Advocate-General of the State if the question of law concerns a State Government.
    9
    [1A. Procedure in suits involving validity of any statutory instrument.—In any suit in which it
    appears to the Court that any question as to the validity of any statutory instrument, not being a question of
  2. Subs. by the A.O. 1937 and the A. O. 1950, for “Crown pleader”
    .
  3. Ins. by the A.O. 1937.
  4. Ins. by the A.O. 1950.
  5. The words “the Secretary of State or” omitted by the A.O.1948.
  6. Cl. (b) omitted by the A.O. 1948.
  7. Ins. by the A.O. 1950.
  8. Ins. by Act 23 of 1942, s. 2.
  9. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “the Government of India Act, 1935, or any Order-in-Council made thereunder”.
  10. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 77 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  11. Subs. by the A.O. 1948, for “substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the Government of India Act, 1935, or any
    Order-in-Council made thereunder”.
  12. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, “In sub-section (1) of section 205 of the Government of India Act, 1935”.
  13. Subs. ibid., for “the Advocate-General of India”.
    179
    the nature mentioned in rule l, is involved, the Court shall not proceed to determine that question except
    after giving notice—
    (a) to the Government pleader, if the question concern the Government, or
    (b) to the authority which issued the statutory instrument, if the question concerns an authority
    other than Government.]
  14. Court may add Government as party.—The Court may at any stage of the proceedings order that
    the Central Government or a State Government shall be added as a defendant in any suit involving 1
    [any
    such question as is referred to 2
    [in clause (1) of Article 132 read with Article 147, of the Constitution]], if
    3
    [the Attorney General for India] or the Advocate-General of the State, as the case may be, whether upon
    receipt of notice under rule 1, or otherwise, applies for such addition and the Court is satisfied that such
    addition is necessary or desirable for the satisfactory determination of the question of law involved.
    4
    [2A. Power of Court to add Government or other authority as a defendant in a suit relating to the
    validity of any statutory instrument.—The Court may, at any stage of the proceedings in any suit involving
    any such question as is referred to in rule 1A, order that the Government or other authority shall be added as a
    defendant if the Government pleader or the pleader appearing in the case for the authority which issued the
    instrument, as the case may be, whether upon receipt of notice under rule lA or otherwise, applies for such
    addition, and the Court is satisfied that such addition is necessary or desirable for the satisfactory
    determination of the question.]5
    [3. Costs.—Where, under rule 2 or rule 2A the Government or any other authority is added as a
    defendant in a suit, the Attorney-General, Advocate-General, or Government Pleader or Government or
    other authority shall not be entitled to, or liable for, costs in the Court which ordered the addition unless
    the Court, having regard to all the circumstances of the case for any special reason, otherwise orders.]
  15. Application of Order to appeals.—In the application of this Order to appeals the word
    “defendant” shall be held to include a respondent and the word “suit” an appeal.
    4
    [Explanation.—In this Order, “statutory instrument” means a rule, notification, bye-law, order,
    scheme or form made as specified under any enactment.]ORDER XXVIII
    Suits by or against military 6
    [or naval] men
    7
[or airmen]

Officers, soldiers, sailors or airmen who cannot obtain leave may authorise any person to sue or
defend for them.—(1) Where any officer, 8
[soldier, 6
[sailor] or airman] actually 9
[serving under the
Government] in 10[such] capacity is a party to a suit, and cannot obtain leave of absence for the purpose of
prosecuting or defending the suit in person, he may authorise any person to sue or defend in his stead.

Subs. by the A. O. 1948, for “a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the Government of India Act, 1935 or any
Order-in-Council made thereunder”.

Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “in sub-section (1) of section 205 of the Government of India Act, 1935”.

Subs., ibid., for “the Advocate-General of India”.

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 77 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 77, ibid., for rule 3 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by Act 35 of 1934, s. 2 and the Sch.

Ins. by Act 10 of 1927, s. 2 and the First Sch.

Subs. by s. 2, ibid., and the First Sch., for “or soldier” and “or a soldier”.

Subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “serving the Government”.

Subs. by Act 35 of 1934, s. 2 and the Sch., for “a military or air force”.
180
(2) The authority shall be writing and shall be signed by the officer, 1
[soldier, 2
[sailor] or airman] in
the presence of (a) his commanding officer, or the next subordinate officer, if the party is himself the
commanding officer, or (b) where the officer, 1
[soldier, 2
[sailor] or airman,] is serving in military,
2
[naval], 3
[or air force] staff employment, the head or other superior officer of the office in which he is
employed. Such commanding or other officer shall countersign the authority, which shall be filed in
Court.
(3) When so filed the countersignature shall be sufficient proof that the authority was duly executed,
and that the officer, 1
[soldier 2
[, sailor] or air man] by whom it was granted could not obtain leave of
absence for the purpose of prosecuting of defending the suit in person.
Explanation.—In this Order the expression “commanding officer” means the officer in actual
command for the time being of any regiment, corps, 2
[ship,] detachment or depot to which the officer,
1
[soldier 2
[, sailor] or airman] belongs.

Person so authorised may act personally or appoint pleader.—Any person authorised by an
officer, 1
[soldier 2
[, sailor] or airman] to prosecute or defend a suit in his stead may prosecute or defend it
in person in the same manner as the officer, 1
[soldier 2
[, sailor] or airman] could do if present; or he may
appoint a pleader to prosecute or defend the suit on behalf of such officer, 1
[soldier 2
[, sailor] or airman].

Service on person so authorised, or on his pleader, to be good service.—Processes served upon
any person authorised by an officer 1
[soldier 2
[, sailor] or airman] under rule 1 or upon any pleader
appointed as aforesaid by such person shall he as effectual as if they had been served on the party in
person.
ORDER XXIX
Suits by or against corporations

Subscription and verification of pleading.—In suits by or against a corporation, any pleading
may be signed and verified on behalf of the corporation by the secretary or by any director or other
principal officer of the corporation who is able to depose to the facts of the case.

Service on corporation.—Subject to any statutory provision regulating service of process, where
the suit is against a corporation, the summons may be served—
(a) on the secretary, or on any director, or other principal officer of the corporation, or
(b) by leaving it or sending it by post addressed to the corporation at the registered office, or
if there is no registered office then at the place where the corporation carries on business.

Power to require personal attendance of officer of corporation.—The Court may, at any stage
of the suit, require the personal appearance of the secretary or of any director, or other principal officer of
the corporation who may be able to answer material questions relating to the suit.
ORDER XXX
Suits by or against firms and persons carrying on business in
names other than their own

Suing of partners in name of firm.—(1) Any two or more persons claiming or being liable as
partners and carrying on business in, 4
[India] may sue or be sued in the name of the firm (if any) of which
such persons were partners at the time of the accruing of the cause of action, and any party to a suit may in
such case apply to the Court for a statement of the names and addresses of the persons who were, at the
time of the accruing of the cause of action, partners in such firm, to be furnished and verified in such
manner as the Court may direct.
(2) Where persons sue or are sued partners in the name of their firm under sub-rule (1), it shall, in the
case of any pleading or other document required by or under this Code to be signed, verified or certified
by the plaintiff of the defendant, suffice such pleading or other document is signed, verified or certified
by any one of such persons.

Subs. by Act 10 of 1927, s. 2 and the First Sch. for “or soldier”.

Ins. by Act 35 of 1934, s. 2 and the Sch.

Ins. by Act 10 of 1927, s. 2 and the Sch.

Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States”.
181

Disclosure of partners’ names.—(1) Where a suit is instituted by partners in the name of their
firm, the plaintiffs or their pleader shall, on demanding writing by or on behalf of any defendant,
forthwith declare in writing the names and places of residence of all the persons constituting the firm on
whose behalf the suit is instituted.
(2) Where the plaintiffs or their pleader fail to comply with any demand made under sub-rule (1) all
proceedings in the suit may, upon an application for that purpose, be stayed upon such terms as the Court
may direct.
(3) Where the names of the partners are declared in the manner referred to in sub-rule (1) the suit
shall proceed in the same manner, and the same consequences in all respects shall follow, as if they had
been named as plaintiffs in the plaint:
1
[Provided that all proceedings shall nevertheless continue in the name of the firm, but the name of
the partners disclosed in the manner specified in sub-rule (1) shall be entered in the decree.]

Service.—Where persons are sued as partners in the name of their firm, the summons shall be
served either—
(a) upon any one or more of the partners, or
(b) at the principal place at which the partnership business is carried on within 2
[India] upon any
person having, at the time of service, the control or management of the partnership business, there,
as the Court may direct; and such service shall be deemed good service upon the firm so sued, whether all
or any of the partners are within or without 2
[India]:
Provided that, in the case of a partnership which has been dissolved to the knowledge of the plaintiff
before the institution of the suit, the summons shall be served upon every person within 2
[India] whom it
is sought to make liable.

Rights of suit on death of partner.—(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 45 of the Indian
Contract Act, 1872 (9 of 1872) where two or more persons may sue or be sued in the name of a firm under the
foregoing provisions and any of such persons dies, whether before the institution or during the pendency of any
suit, it shall not be necessary to join the legal representative of the deceased as a party to the suit.
(2) Nothing in sub-rule (1) shall limit or otherwise effect any right which the legal representative of
the deceased may have—
(a) to apply to be made a party to the suit, or
(b) to enforce any claim against the survivor or survivors.

Notice in what capacity served.—Where a summons is issued to a firm and is served in the manner
provided by rule 3, every person upon whom it is served shall be informed by notice in writing given at the
time of such service, whether he is served as a partner or as a person having the control or management of
the partnership business, or in both characters, and, in default of such notice, the person served shall be
deemed to be served as a partner.

Appearance of partners.—Where persons are sued as partners in the name of their firm, they
shall appear individually in their own names, but all subsequent proceedings shall, nevertheless, continue
in the name of the firm.

No appearance except by partners.—Where a summons is served in the manner provided by
rule 3 upon a person having the control or management of the partnership business, no appearance by him
shall be necessary unless he is a partner of the firm sued.
3
[8. Appearance under protest.—(1) Any person served with summons as a partner under rule 3
may enter an appearance under protest, denying that he was a partner at any material time.
(2) On such appearance being made, either the plaintiff or the person entering the appearance may, at
any time before the date fixed for hearing and final disposal of the suit, apply to the Court for determining
whether that person was a partner of the firm and liable as such.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 78, for the proviso (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States”.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 78, for rule 8 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
182
(3) If, on such application, the Court holds that he was a partner at the material time, that shall not
preclude the person from filing a defence denying the liability of the firm in respect of the claim against
the defendant.
(4) If the Court, however, holds that such person was not a partner of the firm and was not liable as
such that shall not preclude the plaintiff from otherwise serving a summons on the firm and proceeding
with the suit; but in that event, the plaintiff shall be precluded from alleging the liability of that person as
a partner of the firm in execution of any decree that may be passed against the firm.]

Suits between co-partners.—This Order shall apply to suits between a firm and one or more of
the partners therein and to suits between firms having one or more partners in common; but no execution
shall be issued in such suits except by leave of the Court, and, on an application for leave to issue such
execution, all such accounts and inquiries may be directed to be taken and made and directions given as
may be just.
1
[10. Suit against person carrying on business in name other than his own.—Any person carrying
on business in a name or style other than his own name, or a Hindu undivided family carrying on business
under any name, may be sued in such name or style as if it were a firm name, and, in so far as the nature
of such case permits, all rules under this Order shall apply accordingly.]ORDER XXXI
Suits by or against trustees, executors and administrators

Representation of beneficiaries in suits concerning property vested in trustees etc.—In all
suits concerning property vested in a trustee, executor or administrator, where the contention is between
the persons beneficially interested in such property and a third person, the trustee, executor or
Administrator shall represent the persons so interested, and it shall not ordinarily be necessary to make
them parties to the suit. But the Court may, if it thinks fit, order them or any of them to be made parties.

Joinder of trustees, executors and administrators.—Where there are several trustees, executors
or administrators, they shall all be made parties to a suit against one or more of them:
Provided that the executors who have not proved their testator’s will, and trustees, executors and
administrators outside 2
[India], need not be made parties.

Husband of married executrix not to join.—Unless the Court directs otherwise, the husband of a
married trustee, administratrix or executrix shall not as such be a party to a suit by or against her.
ORDER XXXII
Suits by or against minors and persons of unsound mind

Minor to sue by next friend.—Every suit by a minor shall be instituted in his name by a person
who in such suit shall be called the next friend of the minor.
3
[Explanation.—In this Order, “minor” means a person who has not attained his majority within the
meaning of section 3 of the Indian Majority Act, 1875 (9 of 1875) where the suit relates to any of the
matters mentioned in clauses (a) and (b) of section 2 of that Act or to any other matter.]

Where suit is instituted without next friend, plaint to be taken off the file.—(1) Where a suit is
instituted by or on behalf of a minor without a next friend, the defendant may apply to have the plaint
taken off the file, with costs to be paid by the pleader or other person by whom it was presented.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 78, for rule 10 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States”.

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 79 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
183
(2) Notice of such application shall be given to such person, and the Court, after hearing his
objections (if any) may make such order in the matter as it thinks fit.
1
[2A. Security to be furnished by next friend when so ordered.—(1) Where a suit has been
instituted on behalf of the minor by his next friend, the Court may, at any stage of the suit, either of its
own motion or on the application of any defendant, and for reasons to be recorded, order the next friend
to give security for the payment of all costs incurred or likely to be incurred by the defendant.
(2) Where such a suit is instituted by an indigent person, the security shall include the court-fees
payable to the Government.
(3) The provisions of rule 2 of Order XXV shall, so far as may be, apply to a suit where the Court
makes an order under this rule directing security to be furnished.]

Guardian for the suit to be appointed by Court for minor defendants.—(1) Where the
defendant is a minor the Court, on being satisfied of the fact of his minority, shall appoint a proper person
to be guardian for the suit for such minor.
(2) An order for the appointment of a guardian for the suit may be obtained upon application in the
name and on behalf of the minor or by the plaintiff.
(3) Such application shall be supported by an affidavit verifying the fact that the proposed guardian
has no interest in the matters in controversy in the suit adverse to that of the minor and that he is a fit
person to be so appointed.
(4) Order shall be made on any application under this rule except upon notice 2
*** to any guardian of
the minor appointed or declared by an authority competent in that behalf, or, where there is no such
guardian 3
[upon notice to the father or where there is no father, to the mother, or where there is no father
or mother, to other natural guardian] of the minor, or, where there is 3
[no father, mother or other natural
guardian], to the person in whose care the minor is, and after hearing any objection which may be urged
on behalf of any person served with notice under this sub-rule.
1
[(4A) The Court may, in any case, if it thinks fit, issue notice under sub-rule (4) to the minor also.]4
[(5) A person appointed under sub-rule (1) to be guardian for the suit for a minor shall, unless his
appointment is terminated by retirement, removal or death, continue as such throughout all proceedings
arising out of the suit including proceedings in any Appellate or Revisional Court and any proceedings in
the execution of a decree.]1
[3A. Decree against minor not to be set aside unless prejudice has been caused to his interest.—
(1) No decree passed against a minor shall be set aside merely on the ground that the next friend or
guardian for the suit of the minor had an interest in the subject-matter of the suit adverse to that of the
minor, but the fact that by reasons of such adverse interest of the next friend or guardian for the suit,
prejudice has been caused to the interests of the minor, shall be a ground for setting aside the decree.
(2) Nothing in this rule shall preclude the minor from obtaining any relief available under any law by
reason of the misconduct or gross negligence on the part of the next friend or guardian for the suit
resulting in prejudice to the interests of the minor.]

Who may act as next friend or he appointed guardian for the suit—(1) Any person who is of
sound mind and has attained majority may act as next friend of a minor or as his guardian for the suit:
Provided that the interest of such person is not adverse to that of the minor and that he is not, in the
case of a next friend, a defendant, or, in the case of a guardian for the suit, a plaintiff.

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 79 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

The words “to the minor and” omitted by s. 79, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 79, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by Act 16 of 1937, s. 2.
184
(2) Where a minor has a guardian appointed or declared by competent authority, no person other than
such guardian shall act as the next friend of the minor or be appointed his guardian for the suit unless the
Court considers, for reasons to be recorded, that it is for the minor’s welfare that another person be
permitted to act or be appointed, as the case may be.
(3) No person shall without his consent 1
[in writing] be appointed guardian for the suit.
(4) Where there is no other person fit and willing to act as guardian for the suit, the Court may
appoint any of its officers to be such guardian, and may direct that the costs to be incurred by such officer
in the performance of his duties as such guardian shall be borne either by the parties or by any one or
more of the parties to the suit, or out of any fund in Court in which the minor is interested 1
[or out of the
property of the minor], and may give directions for the repayment or allowance of such costs as justice
and the circumstances of the case may require.

Representation of minor by next friend or guardian for the suit.—(1) Every application to the
Court on behalf of a minor, other than an application under rule 10, sub-rule (2), shall be made by his next
friend or by his guardian for the suit.
(2) Every order made in a suit or on any application, before the Court in or which a minor is in any way
concerned or affected, without such minor being represented by a next friend or guardian for the suit, as the
case may be, may be discharged, and, where the pleader of the party at whose instance such order was
obtained knew, or might reasonably have known, the fact of such minority, with costs to be paid by such
pleader.

Receipt by next friend or guardian for the suit of property under decree for minor.—(1) A
next friend or guardian for the suit shall not, without the leave of the Court, receive any money or other
movable property on behalf of a minor either—
(a) by way of compromise before decree or order, or
(b) under a decree or order in favour of the minor.
(2) Where the next friend or guardian for the suit has not been appointed or declared by competent
authority to be guardian of the property of the minor, or, having been so appointed or declared, is under
any disability known to the Court to receive the money or other movable property, the Court shall, if it
grants him leave to receive the property, require such security and give such directions as will, in its
opinion, sufficiently protect the property from waste and ensure its proper application :
1
[Provided that the Court may, for reasons to be recorded, dispense with such security while granting
leave to the next friend or guardian for the suit to receive money or other movable property under a
decree or order, where such next friend or guardian—
(a) is the manager of a Hindu undivided family and the decree or order relates to the property or
business of the family; or
(b) is the parent of the minor.]

Agreement or compromise by next friend or guardian for the suit.—(1) No next friend or guardian
for the suit shall, without the leave of the Court, expressly recorded in the proceedings, enter into any agreement
or compromise on behalf of a minor with reference to the suit in which he acts as next friend or guardian.
1
[(1A) An application for leave under sub-rule (1) shall be accompanied by an affidavit of the next
friend or the guardian for the suit, as the case may be, and also, if the minor is represented by a pleader,
by the certificate of the pleader, to the effect that the agreement or compromise proposed is, in his
opinion, for the benefit of the minor :
Provided that the opinion so expressed, whether in the affidavit or in the certificate shall not preclude the
Court from examining whether the agreement or compromise proposed is, for the benefit of the minor. ](2) Any such agreement or compromise entered into without the leave of the Court so recorded shall
be voidable against all parties other than the minor:

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 79 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
185

Retirement of next friend.—(1) Unless otherwise ordered by the Court, a next friend shall not retire
without first procuring a fit person to be put in this place and giving security for the costs already incurred.
(2) The application for the appointment of a new next friend shall be supported by an affidavit
showing the fitness of the person proposed and also that he has no interest adverse to that of the minor.

Removal of next friend.—(1) Where the interest of the next friend of a minor is adverse to that of the
minor or where he is so connected with a defendant whose interest is adverse to that of the minor as to make it
unlikely that the minor’s interest will be properly protected by him, or where he does not do his duty, or,
during the pendency of the suit, ceases to reside within 1
[India], or for any other sufficient cause, application,
may be made on behalf of the minor or by a defendant for his removal; and the Court, if satisfied of the
sufficiency of the cause assigned, may order the next friend to be removed accordingly, and make such other
order as to costs as it thinks fit.
(2) Where the next friend is not a guardian appointed or declared by an authority competent in this
behalf, and an application is made by a guardian so appointed or declared, who desires to be himself
appointed in the place of the next friend, the Court shall remove the next friend unless it considers, for
reasons to be recorded by it, that the guardian ought not to be appointed the next friend of the minor, and
shall thereupon appoint the applicant to be next friend in his place upon such terms as to the costs
already incurred in the suit as it thinks fit.

Stay of proceedings on removal, etc., of next friend.—(1) On the retirement, removal or death of
the next friend of a minor, further proceedings shall be stayed until the appointment of a next friend in his
place.
(2) Where the pleader of such minor omits, within a reasonable time, to take steps to get a new next
friend appointed, any person interested in the minor or in the matter in issue may apply to the Court for
the appointment of one, and the Court may appoint such person as it thinks fit.

Retirement, removal or death of guardian for the suit.—(1) Where the guardian for the suit
desires to retire or does not do his duty, or where other sufficient ground is made to appear, the Court
may permit such guardian to retire or may remove him, and may make such order as to costs as it thinks
fit.
(2) Where the guardian for the suit, retires, dies or is removed by the Court during the pendency of
the suit, the Court shall appoint a new guardian in his place.

Course to be followed by minor plaintiff or applicant on attaining majority.—(1) A minor
plaintiff or a minor not a party to a suit on whose behalf an application is pending shall, on attaining majority,
elect whether he will proceed with the suit or application.
(2) Where lie elects to proceed with the suit or application, he shall apply for an order discharging
the next friend and for leave to proceed in his own name.
(3) The title of the suit or application shall in such case be corrected so as to read henceforth thus:
“A.B., late a minor by C.D., his next friend, but now having attained majority.”.
(4) Where he elects to abandon the suit or application, he shall, if a sole plaintiff or sole applicant,
apply for an order to dismiss the suit or application on repayment of the costs incurred by the defendant
or opposite party or which may have been paid by his next friend.
(5) Any application under this rule may be made ex parte but no order discharging a next friend and
permitting a minor plaintiff to proceed in his own name shall be made without notice to the next friend.

Where minor co-plaintiff attaining majority desires to repudiate suit.—(1) Where a minor
co-plaintiff on attaining majority desires to repudiate the suit, he shall apply to have his name struck out
as co-plaintiff; and the Court, if it finds that he is not a necessary party, shall dismiss him from the suit
on such terms as to costs or otherwise as it thinks fit.

Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3. for “the States”
186
(2) Notice of the application shall be served on the next friend, on any co-plaintiff and on the defendant.
(3) The costs of all parties of such application, and of all or any proceedings theretofore had in the
suit, shall be paid by such persons as the Court directs.
(4) Where the applicant is a necessary party to the suit, the Court may direct him to be made a defendant.

Unreasonable or improper suit.—(1) A minor on attaining majority may, if a sole plaintiff,
apply that a suit instituted in his name by his next friend be dismissed on the ground that it was
unreasonable or improper.
(2) Notice of the application shall be served on all the parties concerned; and the Court, upon being
satisfied of such unreasonableness or impropriety, may grant the application and order the next friend to
pay the costs of all parties in respect of the application and of anything done in the suit, or make such
other order as it thinks fit.
1
[15. Rules 1 to 14 (Except rule 2A) to apply to persons of unsound mind.—Rules 1 to 14 (except
rule 2A) shall, so far as may be, apply to persons adjudged, before or during the pendency of the suit, to be of
unsound mind and shall also apply to persons who, though not so adjudged, are found by the Court on enquiry to
be incapable, by reason of any mental infirmity, of protecting their interest when suing being sued.]2
[16. Savings.—(1) Nothing contained in this Order shall apply to the Ruler of a foreign State suing
or being sued in the name of his State, or being sued by the direction of the Central Government in the
name of an agent or in any other name.
(2) Nothing contained in this Order shall be construed as affecting or in any way derogating from the
provisions of any local law for the time being in force relating to suits by or against minors or by or
against lunatics or other persons of unsound mind.]3
[ORDER XXXII-A
Suits relating to matters concerning the family

Application of the Order.—(1)The provisions of this Order shall apply to suits or proceedings
relating to matters concerning the family.
(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-rule (1), the
provisions of this Order shall apply to the following suits or proceedings concerning the family,
namely:—
(a) a suit or proceeding for matrimonial relief, including a suit or proceedings for declaration as
to the validity of a marriage or as to the matrimonial status of any person;
(b) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to legitimacy of any person;
(c) a suit or proceeding in relation to the guardianship of the person or the custody of any minor
or other member of the family, under a disability;
(d) a suit or proceeding for maintenance;
(e) a suit or proceeding as to the validity or effect of an adoption;
(f) a suit or proceeding, instituted by a member of the family, relating to wills, intestacy and
succession;
(g) a suit or proceeding relating to any other matter concerning the family in respect of which, the
parties are subject to their personal law.
(3) So much of this Order as relates to a matter provided for by a special law in respect of any suit or
proceeding shall not apply to that suit or proceeding.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 79, for rule 15 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by s. 79, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by s. 80, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
187

Proceedings to be held in camera.—In every suit or proceeding to which this Order applies, the
proceedings may be held in camera if the Court so desires and shall be so held if either party so desires.

Duty of Court to make efforts for settlement.—(1) In every suit or proceeding to which this
Order applied, an endeavour shall be made by the Court in the first instance, where it is possible to do so
consistent with the nature and circumstances of the case, to assist the parties in arriving at a settlement. In
respect of the subject-matter of the suit.
(2) If, in any such suit or proceeding, at any stage it appears to the Court that there is a reasonable
possibility of a settlement between the parties, the Court may adjourn the proceeding for such period as it
thinks fit to enable attempts to be made to effect such a settlement.
(3) The power conferred by sub-rule (2) shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, any other
power of the Court to adjourn the proceedings.

Assistance of welfare expert.—In every suit or proceeding to which this Order applies, it shall be
open to the Court to secure the services of such person (preferably a woman where available), whether
related to the parties or not, including a person professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the
family as the Court may think fit, for the purpose of assisting the Court in discharging the functions
imposed by rule 3 of this Order.

Duty to enquire into facts.—In every suit or proceeding to which this Order applies, it shall be the
duty of the Court to inquire, so far it reasonably can, into the facts alleged by the plaintiff and into any
facts alleged by the defendant.

“Family”—meaning of.—For the purposes of this Order, each of the following shall be treated
as constituting a family, namely:—
(a) (i) a man and his wife living together,
(ii) any child or children, being issue of theirs; or of such man or such wife,
(iii) any child or children being maintained by such man and wife;
(b) a man not having a wife or not living together with his wife, any child or children, being issue
of his, and any child or children being maintained by him;
(c) a women not having it husband or not living together with her husband, any child or children
being issue of hers, and any child or children being maintained by her;
(d) a man or woman and his or her brother, sister, ancestor or lineal descendant living with him or
her; and
(e) any combination of one or more of the groups specified in clause (a), clause (b), clause (c) or
clause (d) of this rule.
Explanation.—For the avoidance of doubts, it is hereby declared that the provisions of rule 6 shall be
without any prejudice to the concept of “family” in any personal law or in another law for the time being
in force.]ORDER XXXIII
1
[Suits by indigent persons]

Suits may be instituted by indigent persons.—Subject to the following provisions, any suit may
be instituted by an 2
[indigent person].
3
[Explanation 1.—A person is an indigent person,—
(a) If he is not possessed of sufficient means (other than property exempt from attachment in
execution of a decree and the subject-matter of the suit) to enable him to pay the fee prescribed by
law for the plaint in such suit, or

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 81, for “Suits by Paupers”(w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 81. ibid. for “pauper” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 81, ibid., for the Explanation (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
188
(b) where no such fee is prescribed, if he is not entitled to property worth one thousand rupees
other than the property exempt from attachment in execution of a decree, and the subject-matter of the
suit.
Explanation II.—Any property which is acquired by a person after the presentation of his application
for permission to sue as an indigent person, and before the decision of the application, shall be taken into
account in considering the question whether or not the applicant is an indigent person.
Explanation III—Where the plaintiff sues in a representative capacity, the question whether he is an
indigent person shall be determined with reference to the means possessed by him in such capacity. ]1
[1A. Inquiry into the means of an indigent person.—Every inquiry into the question whether or
not a person is an indigent person shall be made, in the first instance, by the chief ministerial officer of
the Court, unless the Court otherwise directs, and the Court may adopt the report of such officer as its
own finding or may itself make an inquiry into the question.]

Contents of application.—Every application for permission to sue as an 2
[indigent person] shall
contain the particulars required in regard to plaints in suits: a schedule of any movable or immovable property
belonging to the applicant, with the estimated value thereof, shall be annexed thereto; and it shall be
signed and verified in the manner prescribed for the signing and verification of pleadings.

Presentation of application.—Notwithstanding anything contained in these rules, the application shall
be presented to the Court by the applicant in person, unless he is exempted from appearing in Court, in which
case the application may be presented by an authorised agent who can answer all material questions relating to
the application, and who may be examined in the same manner as the party represented by him might have
been examined had such party attended in person:
1
[Provided that, where there are more plaintiffs than one, it shall be sufficient if the application is
presented by one of the plaintiffs.]

Examination of applicant.—(1) Where the application is in proper form and duly presented, the
Court may, if it thinks fit, examine the applicant, or his agent when the applicant is allowed to appear by
agent regarding the merits of the claim and the property of the applicant.
(2) If presented by agent, Court may order applicant to be examined by commission.—Where
the application is presented by an agent, the Court may, if it thinks fit, order that the applicant be
examined by a commission in the manner in which the examination of an absent witness may be taken.

Rejection of application.—The Court shall reject an application for permission to use as 2
an indigent person
(a) where it is not framed and presented in the manner prescribed by rules 2 and 3, or
(b) where the applicant is not 2
an indigent person, or
(c) where he has, within two months next before the presentation of the application, disposed of any
property fraudulently or in order to be able to apply for permission to use as 2
[Provided that no application shall be rejected if, even after the value of the property disposed of by
the applicant is taken into account, the applicant would be entitled to sue as an indigent person.] or
(d) where his allegations do not show a cause of action, or
(e) where he has entered into any agreement with reference to the subject-matter of the proposed
suit under which any other person has obtained an interest in such subject-matter; 1
[or]1
[(f) where the allegations, made by the applicant in the application show that the suit would be
barred by any law for the time being in force, or
(g) where any other person has entered into an agreement with him to finance the litigation.].

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 81 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 81, ibid., for “pauper” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
189

Notice of day for receiving evidence of applicant’s indigency.—Where the Court sees no reason
to reject the application on any of the grounds stated in rule 5, it shall fix a day (of which at least ten day’s
clear notice shall be given to the opposite party and the Government pleader) for receiving such evidence
as the applicant may adduce in proof of his indigency, and for hearing any evidence which may be
adduced in disproof thereof.
1

Procedure at hearing.—(1) On the day so fixed or as soon thereafter as may be convenient the
Court shall examine the witnesses (if any) produced by either party, and may examine the applicant or his
agent, and shall may 2
[a full record of their evidence].
3
[(1A) The examination of the witnesses under sub-rule (1) shall be confined to the matters specified
in clause (b), clause (c) and clause (e) of rule 5 but the examination of the applicant or his agent may
relate to any of the matters specified in rule 5.](2) The Court shall also hear any argument which the parties may desire to offer on the question
whether, on the face of the application and of the evidence (if any) taken by the Court 4
[under rule 6 or
under this rule], the applicant is or is not subject to any of the prohibitions specified in rule 5.
(3) The Court shall then either allow or refuse to allow the applicant to sue as 5
an indigent person.

Procedure if application admitted.—Where the application is granted, it shall be numbered and
registered, and shall be deemed the plaint in the suit, and the suit shall proceed in all other respects as a
suit instituted in the ordinary manner, except that the plaintiff shall not be liable to pay any court-fee 6
[or
fees payable for service of process] in respect of any petition, appointment of a pleader or other
proceeding connected with the suit.

Withdrawal of permission to sue as an indigent person.—The Court may, on the application of the
defendant, or of the Government pleader, of which seven days, clear notice in writing has been given to the
plaintiff, order that the permission granted to the plaintiff to sue as an indigent person be withdrawn—
(a) if he is guilty of vexatious or improper conduct in the course of the suit;
(b) if it appears that his means are such that he ought not to continue to sue as 5
an indigent person; or
(c) if he has entered into any agreement with reference to the subject-matter of the suit under
which any other person has obtained an interest in such subject-matter.
3
[9A. Court to assign a pleader to an unrepresented indigent person.—(1) Where a person, who is
permitted to sue as an indigent person, is not represented by a pleader, the Court-may, if the circumstances
of the case so require, assign a pleader to him.
(2) The High Court may, with the previous approval of the State Government, make rules providing for—
(a) the mode of selecting pleaders to be assigned under sub-rule (1);
(b) the facilities to be provided to such pleaders by the Court ;
(c) any other matter which is required to be or may be provided by the rules for giving effect to
the provisions of sub-rule (1).]

Costs where indigent person succeeds.—Where the plaintiff succeeds in the suit, the Court shall
calculate the amount of court-fees which would have been paid by the plaintiff if he had not been permitted
to sue as 5
an indigent person; such amount shall be recoverable by the 7
[State Government] from any
party ordered by the decree to pay the same and shall be a first charge, on the subject-matter of the suit.

The provisions of this rule so far as it relates to the making of a memorandum are not applicable to the Chief Court of Oudh, see Oudh
Courts Act, 1925 (U.P. Act 4 of 1925), s. 16 (2).

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 81, for “a memorandum of the substance of their evidence” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by s. 81, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 81, ibid., for “as herein provided” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 81, ibid., for “pauper” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 81, ibid., for other then fees pay able for service of process” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “Provincial Government” which had been subs. by the A.O. 1937, for “Government”.
190

Procedure where indigent person fails.—Where the plaintiff fails in the suit or the permission
granted to him to sue as an indigent person has been withdrawn, or where the suit is withdrawn or dismisses,—
(a) because the summons for the defendant to appear and answer has not been served upon him in
consequence of the failure of the plaintiff to pay the court-fee or postal charges (if any) chargeable for
such service 1
[or to present copies of the plaint or concise statement], or
(b) because the plaintiff does not appear when the suit is called on for hearing,
the Court shall order the plaintiff, or any person added as a co-plaintiff to the suit, to pay the court-fees
which would have been paid by the plaintiff if he had not been permitted to sue as 2
an indigent person.
3
[11A. Procedure where indigent person’s suit abates.—Where the suit abates by reason of the
death of the plaintiff or of any person added as a co-plaintiff, the Court shall order that the amount of
court-fees which would have been paid by the plaintiff if he had not been permitted to sue as 2
an indigent person shall be recoverable by the State Government from the estate of the deceased plaintiff.]

State Government may apply for payment of court-fees.— The 4
[State Government] shall have
the right at any time to apply to the Court to make an order for the payment of court-fees under rule 10,
rule 11 or 5
[rule 11A].

State Government to be deemed a party.—All matters arising between the 4
[State Government]and any party to the suit under rule 10, rule 11, 5
[rule 11A] or rule 12 shall be deemed to be questions
arising between the parties to the suit within the meaning of section 47.
6
[14. Recovery of amount of court-fees.—Where an order is made under rule 10, rule 11 or rule
11A, the court shall forthwith cause a copy of the decree or order to be forwarded to the Collector who
may, without prejudice to any other mode of recovery, recover the amount of court-fees specified therein
from the person or property liable for the payment as if it were an arrear or land revenue.]

Refusal to allow applicant to sue as an indigent person to bar subsequent application of like
nature.—An order refusing to allow the applicant to sue as 2
an indigent person shall be a bar to any
subsequent application of the like nature by him in respect of the same right to sue; but the applicant shall
be at liberty to institute a suit in the ordinary manner in respect of such right; 7
[provided that the plaint
shall be rejected if he does not pay, either at the time of the institution of the suit or within such time
thereafter as the Court may allow,] the costs (if any) incurred by the 4
[State Government] and by the
opposite party in opposing his application for leave to sue as 2
an indigent person.
1
[15A. Grant of time for payment of court-fee.—Nothing contained in rule 5, rule 7 or rule 15 shall
prevent a Court, while rejecting an application under rule 5 or refusing an application under rule 7, from
granting time to the applicant to pay the requisite court-fee within such time as may be fixed by the Court
or extended by it from time to time; and upon such payment and on payment of the costs referred to in
8
*** rule 15 within that time, the suit shall be deemed to have been instituted on the date on which the
application for permission to sue as an indigent person was presented.]

Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 81 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 81, ibid., for “pauper” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by Act 24 of 1942, s. 2.

Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “Provincial Government” which had been subs. by the A.O.1937, for
“Government”.

Subs. by Act 24 of 1942, s. 2, for “or rule 11”.

Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for the rule 14.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 81, for “provided that he first pays” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Omitted by Act 19 of 1988, s. 3 and the Second Schedule.
191

Costs.—The costs of an application for permission to sue as an 1
[indigent person] and of an
inquiry into indigency shall be costs in the suit.
2
[17. Defence by an indigent person.—Any defendant, who desire to plead a set-off or counterclaim, may be allowed to set up such claim as an indigent person, and the rules contained in this Order
shall so far as may be, apply to him as if he were a plaintiff and his written statement were a plaint.

Power of Government to provide for free legal services to indigent persons.—(1) Subject to
the provisions of this Order, the Central or State Government may make such supplementary provisions
as it thinks fit for providing free legal services to those who have been permitted to sue as indigent
persons.
(2) The High Court may, with the previous approval of the State Government, make rules for
carrying out the supplementary provisions made by the Central or State Government for providing free
legal services to indigent persons referred to in sub-rule (1), and such rules may include the nature and
extent of such legal services, the conditions under which they may be made available, the matters in
respect of which, and the agencies through which, such services may be rendered.]ORDER XXXIV
Suits relating to mortgages of immovable property

Parties to suits for foreclosure sale and redemption.—Subject to the provisions of this Code, all
persons having an interest either in the mortgage-security or in the right of redemption shall be joined as
parties to any suit relating to the mortgage.
Explanation.—A puisne mortgagee may sue for foreclosure or for sale without making the prior
mortgagee a party to the suit; and a prior mortgagee need not be joined in a suit to redeem a subsequent
mortgage.
3
[2. Preliminary decree in foreclosure suit.—(1) In a suit for foreclosure, if the plaintiff succeeds,
the Court shall pass a preliminary decree—
(a) ordering that an account be taken of what was due to the plaintiff at the date of such decree
for—
(i) principal and interest on the mortgage,
(ii) the costs of suit, if any, awarded to him, and
(iii) other costs, charges and expenses properly incurred by him up to that date in respect of
his mortgage-security, together with interest thereon; or
(b) declaring the amount so due at that date; and
(c) directing—
(i) that, if the defendant pays into Court the amount so found or declared due on or before
such date as the Court may fix within six months from the date on which the Court confirms and
countersigns the account taken under clause (a), or from the date on which such amount is
declared in Court under clause (b), as the case may be, and thereafter pays such amount as may be
adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs, charges and expenses as provided in rule 10,
together with subsequent interest on such sums respectively as provided in rule 11, the plaintiff
shall deliver up to the defendant, or to such person as the defendant appoints, all documents in his
possession or power relating to the mortgaged property, and shall, if so required, re-transfer the
property to the defendant at his cost free from the mortgage and from all incumbrances created by
the plaintiff or any person claiming under him, or, where the plaintiff claims by derived title, by
those under whom he claims, and shall also, if necessary, put the defendant in possession of the
property; and
(ii) that, if payment of the amount found or declared due under or by the preliminary decree is not
made on or before the date so fixed, or the defendant fails to pay, within such time as the Court

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 81, for “pauper” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Ins. by s. 81, ibid. (w.e.f. .1-2-1977).

Subs by Act 21 of 1929, s. 4, for the rules 2 to 8.
192
may fix, the amount adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs, charges, expenses and interest,
the plaintiff shall be entitled to apply for a final decree debarring the defendant from all right to
redeem the property.
(2) The Court may, on good cause shown and upon terms to be fixed by the Court, from time to time,
at any time before a final decree is passed, extend the time fixed for the payment of the amount found or
declared due under sub-rule (1) or of the amount adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs, charges,
expenses and interest.
(3) Where, in a suit for foreclosure, subsequent mortgagees or persons deriving title from, or
subrogated to the rights of, any such mortgagees are joined as parties, the preliminary decree shall
provide for the adjudication of the respective rights and liabilities of the parties to the suit in the manner
and form set forth in Form No. 9 or Form No. 10, as the case may be, of Appendix D with such variations
as the circumstances of the case may require.

Final decree in foreclosure suit.—(1) Where, before a final decree debarring the defendant from
all right to redeem the mortgaged property has been passed, the defendant makes payment into Court of
all amounts due from him under sub-rule (1) of rule 2, the Court shall, on application made by the
defendant in this behalf, pass a final decree—
(a) ordering the plaintiff to deliver up the documents referred to in the preliminary decree, and, if
necessary,—
(b) ordering him to re-transfer at the cost or the defendant the mortgaged property as directed in
the said decree, and also, if necessary,—
(c) ordering him to put the defendant in possession of the property.
(2) Where payment in accordance with sub-rule (1) has not been made, the Court shall, on application
made by the plaintiff in this behalf, pass a final decree declaring that the defendant and all persons
claiming through or under him or debarred from all right to redeem the mortgaged property and also, if
necessary, ordering the defendant to put the plaintiff in possession of the property.
(3) On the passing of a final decree under sub-rule (2), all liabilities to which the defendant is subject
in respect of the mortgage or on account of the suit shall be deemed to have been discharged.

Preliminary decree in suit for sale.—(1) In a suit for sale, if the plaintiff succeeds, the Court shall
pass a preliminary decree to the effect mentioned in clauses (a), (b) and (c) (i) of sub-rule (1) of rule 2, and
further directing that, in default of the defendant paying as therein mentioned, the plaintiff shall be entitled
to apply for a final decree directing that the mortgaged property or a sufficient part thereof be sold, and the
proceeds of the sale (after deduction therefrom of the expenses of the sale) be paid into Court and applied in
payment of what has been found or declared under or by the preliminary decree due to the plaintiff, together
with such amount as may have been adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs, charges, expenses and
interest, and the balance, if any, be paid to the defendant or other persons entitled to receive the same.
(2) The Court may, on good cause shown and upon terms to be fixed by the Court, from time to time,
at any time before a final decree for sale is passed, extend the time fixed for the payment of the amount
found or declared due under sub-rule (1) or of the amount adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs,
charges, expenses and interest.
(3) Power to decree sale in foreclosure-suit.—In a suit for foreclosure in the case of an anomalous
mortgage, if the plaintiff succeeds, the Court may, at the instance of any party to the suit or of any other
person interested in the mortgage-security or the right of redemption, pass a like decree (in lieu of a
decree for foreclosure) on such terms as it thinks fit, including the deposit in Court of a reasonable sum
fixed by the Court to meet the expenses of the sale and to secure the performance of the terms.
(4) Where, in a suit for sale or a suit foreclosure in which sale is ordered, subsequent mortgages or
persons deriving title from, or subrogated to the rights of, any such mortgagees are joined as parties, the
preliminary decree referred to in sub-rule (1) shall provide for the adjudication of the respective rights and
liabilities of the parties to the suit in the manner and form set forth in Form No. 9, Form No. 10 or Form No.
11 as the case may be, of Appendix D with such variations as the circumstances of the case may require.
193

Final decree in suit for sale.—(1) Where, on or before the day fixed or at any time before the
confirmation of a sale made in pursuance of a final decree passed under sub-rule (3) of this rule, the
defendant makes payment into Court of all amounts due from him under sub-rule (1) of rule 4, the Court
shall, on application made by the defendant in this behalf, pass a final decree or, if such decree has been
passed, an order—
(a) ordering the plaintiff to deliver up the documents referred to in the preliminary decree, and, if
necessary,—
(b) ordering him to transfer the mortgaged property as directed in the said decree, and, also, if
necessary,—
(c) ordering him to put the defendant in possession of the property.
(2) Where the mortgaged property or part thereof has been sold in pursuance of a decree passed under
sub-rule (3) of this rule, the Court shall not pass an order under sub-rule (1) of this rule, unless the
defendant, in addition to the amount mentioned in sub-rule (1), deposits in Court for payment to the
purchaser a sum equal to five per cent. of the amount of the purchase-money paid into Court by the
purchaser.
Where such deposit has been made, the purchaser shall be entitled to an order for repayment of the
amount of the purchase-money paid into Court by him, together with a sum equal to five per cent. thereof.
(3) Where payment in accordance with sub-rule (1) has not been made, the Court shall, on application
made by the plaintiff in this behalf, pass a final decree directing that the mortgaged property or a
sufficient part thereof be sold, and that the proceeds of the sale be dealt with in the manner provided in
sub-rule (1) of rule 4.

Recovery of balance due on mortgage in suit for sale.—Where the net proceeds of any sale held
under 1
[rule 5] are found insufficient to pay the amount due to the plaintiff, the Court, on application by
him may, if the balance is legally recoverable from the defendant otherwise than out of the property sold,
pass a decree for such balance.

Preliminary decree in redemption suit.—(1) In a suit for redemption, if the plaintiff succeeds,
the Court shall pass a preliminary decree—
(a) ordering that an account be taken of what was due to the defendant at the date of such decree
for—
(i) principal and interest on the mortgage,
(ii) the costs of suit, if any, awarded to him, and
(iii) other costs, charges and expenses properly incurred by him up to that date, in respect of
mortgage-security, together with interest thereon; or
(b) declaring the amount so due at that date; and
(c) directing—
(i) that, if the plaintiff pays into Court the amount so found or declared due on or before such
date as the Court may fix within six months from the date on which the Court confirms and
countersigns the account taken under clause (a), or from the date on which such amount is
declared in Court under clause (b), as the case may be, and thereafter pays such amount as may be
adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs, charges and expenses as provided in rule 10,
together with subsequent interest on such sums respectively as provided in rule 11, the defendant
shall deliver up to the plaintiff, or to such person as the plaintiff appoints, all documents in his
possession or power relating to the mortgaged property, and shall, if so required, retransfer the
property to the plaintiff at his cost free from the mortgage and from all encumbrances created by
the defendant or any person claiming under him where the defendant claims by derived title, by
those under whom the claims, and shall also, if necessary put the plaintiff in possession of the
property; and

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 82, for “the last preceding rule” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
194
(ii) that, if payment of the amount found or declared due under or by the preliminary decree is
not made on or before the date so fixed, or the plaintiff fails to pay, within such time as the Court
may fix, the amount adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs, charges, expenses and interest,
the defendant shall be entitled to apply for a final decree—
(a) in the case of a mortgage other than a usufructuary mortgage, a mortgage by
conditional sale, or an anomalous mortgage the terms of which provide for foreclosure only
and not for sale, that the mortgage property, be sold, or
(b) in the case of a mortgage by conditional sale or such an anomalous mortgage as
aforesaid, that the plaintiff be debarred from all right to redeem the property.
(2) The Court may, on good cause shown and upon terms to be fixed by the Court, from time to time,
at any time before the passing of a final decree for foreclosure or sale, as the case may be, extend the time
fixed for the payment of the amount found or declared due under sub-rule (1) or of the amount adjudged
due in respect of subsequent costs, charges, expenses and interest.

Final decree in redemption suit.—(1) Where, before a final decree debarring the plaintiff from
all right to redeem the mortgaged property has been passed or before the confirmation of a sale held in
pursuance of a final decree passed under sub-rule (3) of this rule, the plaintiff makes payment into
Court of all amounts due from him under sub-rule (1) of rule 7, the Court shall, on application made by
the plaintiff in this behalf, pass a final decree or, if such decree has been passed, an order—
(a) ordering the defendant to delivery up the documents referred to in the preliminary decree,
and, if necessary,—
(b) ordering him to re-transfer at the cost of the plaintiff the mortgaged property as directed in the
said decree,
and, also, if necessary,—
(c) ordering him to put the plaintiff in possession of the property.
(2) Where the mortgaged property or a part thereof has been sold in pursuance of a decree passed
under sub-rule (3) of this rule, the Court shall not pass an order under sub-rule (1) of this rule, unless the
plaintiff, in addition to the amount mentioned in sub-rule (1), deposits in Court for payment to the
purchaser a sum equal to five per cent. of the amount of the purchase-money paid into Court by the
purchaser.
Where such deposit has been made, the purchaser shall be entitled to an order for repayment of the
amount of the purchase-money paid into Court by him, together with a sum equal to five per cent. thereof.
(3) Where payment in accordance with sub-rule (1) has not been made, the Court shall, on application
made by the defendant in this behalf,—
(a) in the case of a mortgage by conditional sale or of such an anomalous mortgage as is
hereinbefore referred to in rule 7, pass a final decree declaring that the plaintiff and all persons
claiming under him are debarred from all right to redeem the mortgaged property and, also, if
necessary, ordering the plaintiff to put the defendant in possession of the mortgaged property; or
(b) in the case of any other mortgage, not being a usufructuary mortgage, pass final decree that
the mortgaged property or a sufficient part thereof be sold, and the proceeds of the sale (after
deduction therefrom of the expenses of the sale) be paid into Court and applied in payment of
what is found due to the defendant, and the balance, if any, be paid to the plaintiff or other persons
entitled to receive the same.]1
[8A. Recovery of balance due on mortgage in suit for redemption.—Where the net proceeds of
any sale held under 2
[rule 8] are found insufficient to pay the amount due to the defendant, the Court, 3
[on

Ins. by Act 21 of 1929, s. 5.

Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 82, for “the last preceding rule” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

Subs. by s. 82, ibid., for “an application by him” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
195
application by him in execution], may, if the balance is legally recoverable from the plaintiff otherwise
than out of the property sold, pass a decree for such balance.]

Decree where nothing is found due or where mortgagee has been overpaid.—Notwithstanding
anything hereinbefore contained, if it appears, upon taking the account referred to in rule 7, that nothing is
due to the defendant or that he has been overpaid, the Court shall pass a decree directing the defendant, if so
require, to re-transfer the property and to pay to the plaintiff the amount which may be found due to him;
and the plaintiff shall, if necessary, be put in possession of the mortgaged property.
1
[10. Costs of mortgagee subsequent to decree.—In finally adjusting the amount to be paid to a
mortgagee in case of a foreclosure, sale or redemption, the Court shall, unless in the case of costs of the
suit the conduct of the mortgagee has been such as to disentitle him thereto, add to the mortgage-money
such costs of the suit and other costs, charges and expenses as have been properly incurred by him since
the date of the preliminary decree for foreclosure, sale or redemption up to the time of actual payment:]2
[Provided that where the mortgagor, before or at the time of the institution of the suit, tenders or
deposits the amount due on the mortgage, or such amount as is not subsequently deficient in the opinion
of the Court, he shall not be ordered to pay the costs of the suit to the mortgagee and the mortgagor shall
be entitled to recover his own costs of the suit from the mortgagee, unless the Court, for reasons to be
recorded, otherwise directs.]2
[10A. Power of Court to direct mortgagee to pay mesne profits.—Where in a suit for foreclosure, the
mortgagor has, before or at the time of the institution of the suit, tendered or deposited the sum due on the
mortgage, or such sum as is not substantially deficient in the opinion of the Court, the Court shall direct the
mortgagee to pay to the mortgagor mesne profits for the period beginning with the institution of the suit].

Payment of interest.—In any decree passed in a suit for foreclosure, sale or redemption, where
interest is legally recoverable, the Court may order payment of interest to the mortgagee as follows, namely:—
(a) interest up to the date on or before which payment of the amount found or declared due is
under the preliminary decree to be made by the mortgagor or other person redeeming the mortgage—
(i) on the principal amount found or declared due on the mortgage,—at the rate payable on
the principal, or, where no such rate is fixed, at such rate as the Court deems reasonable,
3

  • * * * *and
    (iii) on the amount adjudged due to the mortgagee for costs, charges and expenses properly
    incurred by the mortgagee in respect of the mortgage-security up to the date of the preliminary
    decree and added to the mortgage-money,—at the rate agreed between the parties or, failing such
    rate, 4
    [at such rate not exceeding six per cent. per annum as the Court deems reasonable]; and
    5
    [(b) subsequent interest up to the date of realisation or actual payment on the aggregate of the
    principal sums specified in clause (a) as calculated in accordance with that clause at such rate as the
    Court deems reasonable.]
  1. Sale of property subject to prior mortgage.—Where any property the sale of which is directed
    under this Order is subject to a prior mortgage, the Court may, with the consent of the prior mortgagee,
    direct that the propertybe sold free from the same, giving to such prior mortgagee the same interest in the
    proceeds of the sale as he had in the property sold.
  2. Subs. by Act 21 of 1929, s. 6, for rules 10 and 11.
  3. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 82 (w.e.f. 1 -2-1977).
  4. Sub-clause (ii) omitted by Act 66 of 1956, s. 14 (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  5. Subs. by s. 14, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
  6. Subs. by s. 14, ibid., for clause (b) (w.e.f. 1-1-1957).
    196
  7. Application of proceeds.—(1) Such proceeds shall be brought into Court and applied as
    follows:—
    first, in payment of all expenses incident to the sale or properly incurred in any attempted
    sale;
    secondly, in payment of whatever is due to the prior mortgagee on account of the prior mortgage,
    and of costs, properly incurred in connection therewith;
    thirdly, in payment in all interest due on account of the mortgage in consequence whereof the sale
    was directed, and of the costs of the suit in which the decree directing the sale was made;
    fourthly, in payment of the principal money due on account of that mortgage; and
    lastly, the residue (if any) shall be paid to the person proving himself to be interested in the
    property sold, or if there are more such persons than one, than two, to such persons according to their
    respective interests therein or upon their joint receipt.
    (2) Nothing in this rule or in rule 12 shall be deemed to affect the powers conferred by section 57 of
    the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (4 of 1882).
  8. Suit for sale necessary for bringing mortgaged property to sale.—(1) Where a mortgage has
    obtained a decree for the payment of money in satisfaction of a claim arising under the mortgage, he shall
    not be entitled to bring the mortgaged property to sale otherwise than by instituting a suit for sale in
    enforcement of the mortgage, and he may institute such suit notwithstanding anything contained in
    Order II, rule 2.
    (2) Nothing in sub-rule (1) shall apply to any territories to which the Transfer of Property Act, 1882
    (4 of 1882), has not been extended.
    1
    [15. Mortgages by the deposit of title deeds and charges.—2
    [(1)] All the provisions contained in
    this Order which apply to a simple mortgage shall, so far as may be, apply to a mortgage by deposit of
    title-deeds within the meaning of section 58, and to a charge within the meaning of section 100 of the
    Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (4 of 1882);
    3
    [(2) Where a decree orders payment of money and charges it on immovable property on default of
    payment, the amount may be realised by sale of that property in execution of that decree.]ORDER XXXV
    INTERPLEADER
  9. Plaint in interpleader-suit.—In every suit of interpleader the plaint shall, in addition to the other
    statements necessary for plaints, state—
    (a) that the plaintiff claims no interest in the subject-matter in dispute other than for
    charges or costs;
    (b) the claims made by the defendants severally; and
    (c) that there is no collusion between the plaintiff and any of the defendants.
  10. Payment of thing claimed into Court.—Where the thing claimed is capable of being paid into
    Court or placed in the custody of the Court, the plaintiff may be required to so pay or place it before he
    can be entitled to any order in the suit.
  11. Procedure where defendant is suing plaintiff.—Where any of the defendants in an
    interpleader-suit is actually suing the plaintiff in respect the subject-matter of such suit, the Court in
    which the suit against the plaintiff is pending shall, on being informed by the Court in which the
    interpleader-suit has been instituted, stay the proceedings as against him; and his costs in the suit so
    stayed may be provided for in such suit; but if, and in so far as, they are not provided for in that suit,
    they may be added to his costs incurred in the interpleader-suit.
  12. Subs. by Act 21 of 1929, s. 7, for rule 15.
  13. Rule 15 renumbered as sub-rule (1) by Act 104 of 1976, s. 82 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  14. Ins. by s. 82, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    197
  15. Procedure at first hearing.—(1) At the first hearing the Court may—
    (a) declare that the plaintiff is discharged from all liability to the defendants in respect of the
    thing claimed, award him his costs, and dismiss him from the suit; or
    (b) if it thinks that justice or convenience so require, retain all parties until the final disposal of
    the suit.
    (2) Where the Court finds that the admission of the parties or other evidence enable it to do so, it may
    adjudicate the title to the thing claimed.
    (3) Where the admissions of the parties do not enable the Court so to adjudicate, it may direct—
    (a) that an issue or issues between the parties be framed and tried, and
    (b) that any claimant be made a plaintiff in lieu of or in addition to the original plaintiff,
    and shall proceed to try the suit in the ordinary, manner.
  16. Agents and tenants may not institute interpleader suits.—Nothing in this Order shall be deemed
    to enable agents to sue their principals, or tenants to sue their landlords, for the purpose of compelling
    them to interplead with any persons other than persons making claim through such principals or landlords.
    Illustrations
    (a) A deposits a box of jewels with B as his agent. C alleges that the jewels were wrongfully obtained
    from him by A, and claims them from B. B cannot institute an interpleader-suit against A and C.
    (b) A deposits a box of jewels with B as his agent. He then writes to C for the purpose of making the
    jewels a security for a debt due from himself to C. A afterwards alleges that C’s debt is satisfied, and
    C alleges the contrary. Both claim the jewels from B. B may institute in interpleader-suit against A and C.
  17. Charge for plaintiff’s costs.—Where the suit is properly instituted the Court may provide for the
    costs of the original plaintiff by giving him a charge on the thing claimed or in some other effectual way.
    ORDER XXXVI
    SPECIAL CASE
  18. Power to state case for Court’s opinion.—(1) Parties claiming to be interested in the decision of
    any question of fact or law may enter into an agreement in writing stating such question in the form of a
    case for the opinion of the Court, and providing that, upon the finding of the Court with respect to such
    question,—
    (a) a sum of money fixed by the parties or to be determined by the Court shall be paid by one of
    the parties to the other of them; or
    (b) some property, movable or immovable, specified in the agreement, shall be delivered by one
    of the parties to the other of them; or
    (c) one or more of the parties shall do, or refrain from doing, some other particular act specified
    in the agreement.
    (2) Every case stated under this rule shall be divided into consecutively numbered paragraphs, and
    shall concisely state such facts and specify such documents as may be necessary to enable the Court to
    decide the question raised thereby.
  19. Where value of subject-matter must be stated.—Where the agreement is for the delivery of any
    property, or for the doing, or the refraining from doing, any particular act, the estimated value of the
    property to be delivered, or to which the act specified has reference, shall be stated in the agreement.
    198
  20. Agreement to be filed and registered as suit.—(1) The agreement, if framed in accordance with
    the rules hereinbefore contained, may be filed 1
    [with an application] in the Court which would have
    jurisdiction to entertain a suit, the amount or value of the subject-matter of which is the same as the
    amount or value of the subject-matter of the agreement.
    (2)
    2
    [The application] when so filed, shall be numbered and registered as a suit between one or more
    of the parties claiming to be interested as plaintiff or plaintiffs, and the other or the others of them as
    defendant or defendants; and notice shall be given to all the parties to the agreement, other than the party
    or parties by whom 3
[the application was presented.]

Parties to be subject to Court’s jurisdiction.—Where the agreement has been filed, the parties to
it shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the Court and shall be bound by the statements contained therein.

Hearing and disposal of case.—(1) The case shall be set down for hearing as a suit instituted in the
ordinary manner, and the provisions of this Code shall apply to such suit so far as the same are applicable.
(2) Where the Court is satisfied, after examination of the parties, or after taking such evidence as it
thinks fit—
(a) that the agreement was duly executed by them,
(b) that they have a bona fide interest in question stated therein, and
(c) that the same is fit to be decided,
it shall proceed to pronounce judgment thereon, in the same way as in an ordinary suit, and upon the
judgment so pronounced a decree shall follow.
4
[6. No appeal from a decree passed under rule 5.—No appeal shall lie from a decree passed under
rule 5.]ORDER XXXVII
SUMMARY PROCEDURE 5


6
[1. Courts and classes of suits to which the Order is to apply.—(1) This Order shall apply to the
following Courts, namely:—
(a) High Courts, City Civil Courts and Courts of Small Causes; and
(b) other Courts:
Provided that in respect of the Courts referred to in clause (b), the High Court may, by notification in
the Official Gazette, restrict the operation of this Order only to such categories of suits as it deems proper,
and may also, from time to time, as the circumstances of the case may require, by subsequent notification
in the Official Gazette, further restrict, enlarge or vary, the categories of suits to be brought under the
operation of this Order as it deems proper.
(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-rule (1), the Order applies to the following classes of suits,
namely:—
(a) suits upon bills of exchange, hundies and promissory notes;
(b) suits in which the plaintiff seeks only to recover a debt or liquidated demand in money
payable by the defendant, with or without interest, arising,—
(i) on a written contract, or
(ii) on an enactment, where the sum sought to be recovered is a fixed sum of money or in the
nature of a debt other than a penalty; or
(iii) on a guarantee, where the claim against the principal is in respect of a debt or liquidated
demand only.]

  1. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 83 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  2. Subs. by s. 83, ibid., for “The agreement” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  3. Subs. by s. 83, ibid., for “it was presented” (w.e.f. 1-2.1977).
  4. Ins. by s. 83, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  5. The words “On Negotiable Instruments” omitted by s. 84, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  6. Subs. by s. 84, ibid., for rule 1 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    199
    1
    [2. Institution of summary suits.—(1) A suit, to which this Order applies, may if the plaintiff
    desires to proceed hereunder, be instituted by presenting a plaint which shall contain,—
    (a) a specific averment to the effect that the suit is filed under this Order;
    (b) that no relief, which does not fall within the ambit of this rule, has been claimed in the plaint;
    and
    (c) the following inscription, immediately below the number of the suit in the title of the suit,
    namely :—
    “(Under Order XXXVII of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908).”
    (2) The summons of the suit shall be in Form No. 4 in Appendix B or in such other Form as may,
    from time to time, be prescribed.
    (3) The defendant shall not defend the suit referred to in sub-rule (1) unless he enters an appearance
    and in default of his entering an appearance the allegations in the plaint shall be deemed to be admitted
    and the plaintiff shall be entitled to a decree for any sum, not exceeding the sum mentioned in the
    summons, together with interest at the rate specified, if any, up to the date of the decree and such sum for
    costs as may be determined by the High Court from time to time by rules made in that behalf and such
    decree may be executed forthwith.]2
    [3. Procedure for the appearance of defendant—(1) In a suit to which this Order applies, the plaintiff
    shall, together with the summons under rule 2, serve on the defendant a copy of the plaint and annexures
    thereto and the defendant may, at any time within ten days of such service, enter an appearance either in
    person or by pleader and, in either case, he shall file in Court an address for service of notices on him.
    (2) Unless otherwise ordered, all summonses, notices and other judicial processes, required to be
    served on the defendant, shall be deemed to have been duly served on him if they are left at the address
    given by him for such service.
    (3) On the day of entering the appearance, notice of such appearance shall be given by the defendant
    to the plaintiff’s pleader, or, if the plaintiff sues in person, to the plaintiff himself, either by notice
    delivered at or sent by a pre-paid letter directed to the address of the plaintiff’s pleader or of the plaintiff,
    as the case may be.
    (4) If the defendant enters an appearance, the plaintiff shall thereafter serve on the defendant a
    summons for judgment in Form No. 4A in Appendix B or such other Form as may be prescribed from
    time to time, returnable not less than ten days from the date of service supported by an affidavit verifying
    the cause of action and the amount claimed and stating that in his belief there is no defence to the suit.
    (5) The defendant may, at any time within ten days from the service of such summons for judgment,
    by affidavit or otherwise disclosing such facts as may be deemed sufficient to entitle him to defend, apply
    on such summons for leave to defend such suit, and leave to defend may be granted to him
    unconditionally or upon such terms as may appear to the Court or Judge to be just:
    Provided that leave to defend shall not be refused unless the Court is satisfied that the facts disclosed
    by the defendant do not indicate that he has a substantial defence to raise or that the defence intended to
    be put up by the defendant is frivolous or vexatious:
    Provided further that, where a part of the amount claimed by the plaintiff is admitted by the defendant
    to be due from him, leave to defend the suit shall not be granted unless the amount so admitted to be due
    is deposited by the defendant in Court.
    (6) At the hearing of such summons for judgment,—
    (a) if the defendant has not applied for leave to defend, or if such application has been made and
    is refused, the plaintiff shall be entitled to judgment forthwith; or
  7. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 84, for rule 2 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  8. Subs. by s. 84, ibid., for rule 3 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    200
    (b) if the defendant is permitted to defend as to the whole or any part of the claim, the Court or
    Judge may direct him to give such security and within such time as may be fixed by the Court or Judge
    and that, on failure to give such security within the time specified by the Court or Judge or to carry out
    such other directions as may have been given by the Court or Judge, the plaintiff shall be entitled to
    judgment forthwith.
    (7) The Court or Judge may, for sufficient cause shown by the defendant, excuse the delay of the
    defendant in entering an appearance or in applying for leave to defend the suit.]
  9. Power to set aside decree.—After decree the Court may, under special circumstances set aside
    the decree, and if necessary stay or set aside execution, and may give leave to the defendant to appear to
    the summons and to defend the suit, if it seems reasonable to the Court so to do, and on such terms as the
    Court thinks fit.
  10. Power to order bill, etc., to be deposited with officer of Court.—In any proceeding under this
    Order the Court may order the bill, hundi or note on which the suit is founded to be forthwith deposited
    with an officer of the Court, and may further order that all proceedings shall be stayed until the plaintiff
    gives security for the costs thereof.
  11. Recovery of cost of noting non-acceptance of dishonoured bill or note.—The holder of every
    dishonoured bill of exchange or promissiory note shall have the same remedies for the recovery of the
    expenses incurred in noting the same for non-acceptance or non-payment, or otherwise, by reason of
    such dishonour, as he has under this Order for the recovery of the amount of such bill or note.
  12. Procedure in suits.—Save as provided by this Order, the procedure in suits hereunder shall be the
    same as the procedure in suits instituted in the ordinary manner.
    ORDER XXXVIII
    ARREST AND ATTACHMENT BEFORE JUDGMENT
    Arrest before judgment
  13. Where defendant may be called upon to furnish security for appearance.—Where at any
    stage of a suit, other than a suit of the nature referred to in section 16, clauses (a) to (d), the Court is
    satisfied, by affidavit or otherwise,—
    (a) that the defendant, with intent to delay the plaintiff, or to avoid any process of the Court or to
    obstruct or delay the execution of any decree that may be passed against him,—
    (i) has absconded or left the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court, or
    (ii) is about to abscond or leave the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court, or
    (iii) has disposed of or removed from the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court his
    property or any part thereof, or
    (b) that the defendant is about to leave 1
    [India] under circumstances affording reasonable
    probability that the plaintiff will or may thereby be obstructed or delayed in the execution of any
    decree that may be passed against the defendant in the suit,
    the Court may issue a warrant to arrest the defendant and bring him before the Court to show cause why
    he should not furnish security for his appearance:
    Provided that the defendant shall not be arrested if he pays to the officer entrusted with the execution of
    the warrant any sum specified in the warrant as sufficient to satisfy the plaintiff’s claim; and such sum shall
    be held in deposit by the Court until the suit is disposed of or until the further order of the Court.
  14. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States”.
    201
  15. Security.—(1) Where the defendant fails to show such cause the Court shall order him either to
    deposit in Court money or other property sufficient to answer the claim against him, or to furnish security
    for his appearance at any time when called upon while the suit is pending and until satisfaction of any
    decree that may be passed against him in the suit, or make such order as it thinks fit in regard to the sum
    which may have been paid by the defendant under the proviso to the last preceding rule.
    (2) Every surety for the appearance of a defendant shall bind himself, in default of such appearance,
    to pay any sum of money which the defendant may be ordered to pay in the suit.
  16. Procedure on application by surety to be discharged.—(1) A surety for the appearance of a defendant
    may at any time apply to the Court in which he became such surety to be discharged from his obligation.
    (2) On such application being made, the Court shall summon the defendant to appear or, if it thinks
    fit, may issue a warrant for his arrest in the first instance.
    (3) On the appearance of the defendant in pursuance of the summons or warrant, or on his voluntary
    surrender, the Court shall direct the surety to be discharged from his obligation, and shall call upon the
    defendant to find fresh security.
  17. Procedure where defendant fails to furnish security or find fresh security.—Where the defendant
    fails to comply with any order under rule 2 or rule 3, the Court may commit him to the civil prison until the
    decision of the suit or, where a decree is passed against the defendant, until the decree has been satisfied:
    Provided that no person shall be detained in prison under this rule in any case for a longer period than
    six months, nor for a longer period than six weeks when the amount or value of the subject-matter of the
    suit does not exceed fifty rupees:
    Provided also that no person shall be detained in prison under this rule after he has complied with
    such order.
    Attachment before judgment
  18. Where defendant may be called upon to furnish security for production of
    property.—(1) Where, at any stage of a suit, the Court is satisfied, by affidavit or otherwise, that the
    defendant, with intent to obstruct or delay the execution of any decree that may be passed against him,—
    (a) is about to dispose of the whole or any part of his property, or
    (b) is about to remove the whole or any part of his property from the local limits of the
    jurisdiction of the Court,
    the Court may direct the defendant, within a time to be fixed by it, either to furnish security, in such sum
    as may be specified in the order, to produce and place at the disposal of the Court, when required, the said
    property or the value of the same, or such portion thereof as may be sufficient to satisfy the decree, or to
    appear and show cause why he should not furnish security.
    (2) The plaintiff shall, unless the Court otherwise directs, specify the property required to be attached
    and the estimated value thereof.
    (3) The Court may also in the order direct the conditional attachment of the whole or any portion of
    the property so specified.
    1
    [(4) If an order of attachment is made without complying with the provisions of sub-rule (1) of this
    rule, such attachment shall be void.]
  19. Attachment where cause not shown or security not furnished.—(1) Where the defendant fails
    to show cause why he should not furnish security, or fails to furnish the security required, within the time
    fixed by the Court, the Court may order that the property specified, or such portion thereof as appears
    sufficient to satisfy any decree which may be passed in the suit, be attached.
    (2) Where the defendant shows such cause or furnishes the required security, and the property
    specified or any portion of it has been attached, the Court shall order the attachment to be withdrawn, or
    make such other order as it thinks fit.
  20. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 85 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    202
  21. Mode of making attachment.—Save as otherwise expressly provided, the attachment shall be
    made in the manner provided for the attachment of property in execution of a decree.
    1
    [8. Adjudication of claim to property attached before judgment.—Where any claim is preferred to
    property attached before judgment, such claim shall be adjudicated upon in the manner hereinbefore provided
    for the adjudication of claim to property attached in execution of a decree for the payment of money.]
  22. Removal of attachment when security furnished or suit dismissed.—Where an order is made
    for attachment before judgment, the Court shall order the attachment to be withdrawn when the defendant
    furnishes the security required, together with security for the cost of the attachment, or when the suit is
    dismissed.
  23. Attachment before judgment not to affect rights of strangers, nor bar decree-holder from
    applying for sale.—Attachment before judgment shall not affect the rights, existing prior to the
    attachment, of persons not parties to the suit, nor bar any person holding a decree against the defendant
    from applying for the sale of the property under attachment in execution of such decree.
  24. Property attached before judgment not to be re-attached in execution of decree.—Where
    property is under attachment by virtue of the provisions of this order decree is subsequently passed in
    favour of the plaintiff, it shall not be necessary upon an application for execution of such decree to apply
    for a re-attachment of the property.
    2
    [11A. Provisions applicable to attachment.—(1) The provisions of this Code applicable to an
    attachment made in execution of a decree shall, so far as may be, apply to an attachment made before
    judgment which continues after the judgment by virtue of the provisions of rule 11.
    (2) An attachment made before judgment in a suit which is dismissed for default shall not become
    revived merely by reason of the fact that the order for the dismissal of the suit for default has been set
    aside and the suit has been restored.]
  25. Agricultural produce not attachable before judgment.—Nothing in this Order shall be deemed
    to authorise the plaintiff to apply for the attachment of any agricultural produce in the possession of an
    agriculturist, or to empower the Court to order the attachment or production of such produce.
    3
    [13. Small Cause Court not to attach immovable property.—Nothing in this Order shall be
    deemed to empower any Court of Small Causes to make an order for the attachment of immovable
    property.]ORDER XXXIX
    TEMPORARY INJUNCTIONS AND INTERLOCUTORY ORDERS
    Temporary injunctions
  26. Cases in which temporary injunction may be granted.—Where in any suit it is proved by
    affidavit or otherwise—
    (a) that any property in dispute in a suit is in danger of being wasted, damaged or alienated by
    any party to the suit, or wrongfully sold in execution of a decree, or
    (b) that the defendant threatens, or intends, to remove or dispose of his property with a view to
    4
    [defrauding] his creditors,
    5
    [(c) that the defendant threatens to dispossess, the plaintiff or otherwise cause injury to the
    plaintiff in relation to any property in dispute in the suit,]
  27. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 85, for rule 8 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  28. Ins. by s. 85, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  29. Ins. by Act 1 of 1926, s. 4.
  30. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 86, for “defraud” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  31. Ins. by s. 86, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    203
    the Court may by order grant a temporary injunction to restrain such act, or make such other order for the
    purpose of staying and preventing the wasting, damaging, alienation, sale, removal or disposition of the
    property 1
    [or dispossession of the plaintiff, or otherwise causing injury to the plaintiff in relation to any
    property in dispute in the suit] as the Court thinks fit, until the disposal of the suit or until further orders.
  32. Injunction to restrain repetition or continuance of breach.—(1) In any suit for restraining the
    defendant from committing a breach of contract or other injury of any kind, whether compensation is
    claimed in the suit or not, the plaintiff may, at any time after the commencement of the suit, and either
    before or after judgment, apply to the Court for a temporary injunction to restrain the defendant from
    committing the breach of contract or injury complained, of, or any breach of contract or injury of a like
    kind arising out of the same contract or relating to the same property or right.
    (2) The Court may by order grant such injunction, on such terms as to the duration of the injunction,
    keeping an account, giving security, or otherwise, as the Court thinks fit.
    2

1
[2A. Consequence of disobedience or breach of injunction.—(1) In the case of disobedience of
any injunction granted or other order made under rule 1 or rule 2 or breach of any of the terms on which
the injunction was granted or the order made, the Court granting the injunction or making the order, or
any Court to which the suit or proceeding is transferred, may order the property of the person guilty of
such disobedience or breach to be attached, and may also order such person to be detained in the civil
prison for a term not exceeding three months, unless in the meantime the Court directs his release.
(2) No attachment made under this rule shall remain in force for more than one year, at the end of
which time, if the disobedience or breach continues, the property attached may be sold and out of the
proceeds, the Court may award such compensation as it thinks fit to the injured party and shall pay the
balance, if any, to the party entitled thereto.]

  1. Before granting injunction, Court to direct notice to opposite party.—The Court shall in all
    cases, except where it appears that the object of granting the injunction would be defeated by the delay,
    before granting an injunction, direct notice of the application for the same to be given to the opposite
    party:
    1
    [Provided that, where it is proposed to grant an injunction without giving notice of the application to
    the opposite party, the Court shall record the reasons for its opinion that the object of granting the
    injunction would be defeated by delay, and require the applicant—
    (a) to deliver to the opposite party, or to send to him by registered post, immediately after the
    order granting the injunction has been made, a copy of the application for injunction together with—
    (i) a copy of the affidavit filed in support of the application;
    (ii) a copy of the plaint; and
    (iii) copies of documents on which the applicant, relies, and
    (b) to file, on the day on which such injunction is granted or on the day immediately following
    that day, an affidavit stating that the copies aforesaid have been so delivered or sent.]1
    [3A. Court to dispose of application for injunction within thirty days.—Where an injunction has
    been granted without giving notice to the opposite party, the Court shall make an endeavour to finally
    dispose of the application within thirty days from the date on which the injunction was granted; and
    where it is unable so to do, it shall record its reasons for such inability.]
  2. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 86 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  3. Sub-rules (3) and (4) omitted by s. 86, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    204
  4. Order for injunction may be discharged, varied or set aside.—Any order for an injunction may
    be discharged, or varied, or set aside by the Court, on application made thereto by any party dissatisfied
    with such order:
    1
    [Provided that if in an application for temporary injunction or in any affidavit supporting such application,
    a party has knowingly made a false or misleading statement in relation to a material particular and the
    injunction was granted without giving notice to the opposite party, the Court shall vacate the injunction unless,
    for reasons to be recorded, it considers that it is not necessary so to do in the interests of justice:
    Provided further that where an order for injunction has been passed after giving to a party an
    opportunity of being heard, the order shall not be discharged, varied or set aside on the application of that
    party except where such discharge, variation or setting aside has been necessitated by a change in the
    circumstances, or unless the Court is satisfied that the order has caused undue hardship to that party.]
  5. Injection to corporation binding on its officer.—An injunction directed to a corporation is
    binding not only on the corporation itself, but also on all members and officers of the corporation whose
    personal action it seeks to restrain.
    Interlocutory orders
  6. Power to order interim sale.—The Court may, on the application of any party to a suit, order the
    sale, by any person named in such order, and in such manner and on such terms as it thinks fit, of any
    movable property, being the subject-matter of such suit, or attached before judgment in such suit, which is
    subject to speedy and natural delay, or which for any other just and sufficient cause, it may be desirable to
    have sold at once.
  7. Detention, preservation, inspection, etc., of subject-matter of suit.—(1) The Court may, on the
    application of any party to a suit, and on such terms as it thinks fit,—
    (a) make an order for the detention, preservation or inspection of any property which is the
    subject-matter of such suit, or as to which any question may arise therein;
    (b) for all or any of the purposes aforesaid authorise any person to enter upon or into any land or
    building in the possession of any other party to such suit; and
    (c) for all or any of the purposes aforesaid authorise any samples to be taken, or any observation
    to be made or experiment to be tried, which may seem necessary or expendient for the purpose of
    obtaining full information or evidence.
    (2) The provisions as to execution of process shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to persons authorised to
    enter under this rule.
  8. Application for such orders to be after notice.—(1) An application by the plaintiff for an order
    under rule 6 or rule 7 may be made 2
    *** at any time after institution of the suit.
    (2) An application by the defendant for a like order may be made 3
    *** at any time after appearance.
    1
    [(3) Before making an order under rule 6 or rule 7 on an application made for the purpose, the Court
    shall, except where it appears that the object of making such order would be defeated by the delay, direct
    notice thereof to be given to the opposite party.]
  9. When party may be put in immediate possession of land the subject-matter of suit.—Where
    land paying revenue to Government, or a tenure liable to sale, is the subject-matter of a suit, if the party in
    possesion of such land or tenure neglects to pay the Government revenue, or the rent due to the proprietor
    of the tenure, as the case may be, and such land or tenure is consequently ordered to be sold, any other
    party to the suit claiming to have an interest in such land or tenure may, upon payment of the revenue or
    rent due previously to the sale (and with or without security at the discretion of the Court), be put in
    immediate possession of the land or tenure;
  10. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 86 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  11. The words “after notice to the defendant” omitted by s. 86, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  12. The words “after notice to the plaintiff” omitted by s. 86, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    205
    and the Court in its decree may award against the defaulter the amount so paid, with interest thereon
    at such rate as the Court thinks fit, or may charge the amount so paid, with interest thereon at such rate as
    the Court orders, in any adjustment of accounts which may be directed in the decree passed in the suit.
  13. Deposit of money, etc., in Court.—Where the subject-matter of a suit is money or some other
    thing capable of delivery and any party thereto admits that he holds such money or other thing as a
    trustee for another party, or that it belongs or is due to another party, the Court may order the same to
    be deposited in Court or delivered to such last-named party, with or without security, subject to the
    further direction of the Court.
    ORDER XL
    APPOINTMENT OF RECEIVERS
  14. Appointment of receivers.—(1) Where it appears to the Court to be just and convenient, the Court
    may by order—
    (a) appoint a receiver of any property, whether before or after decree;
    (b) remove any person from the possession or custody of the property;
    (c) commit the same to the possession, custody or management of the receiver; and
    (d) confer upon the receiver all such powers, as to bringing and defending suits and for the
    realisation, management, protection, preservation and improvement of the property, the collection of
    the rents and profits thereof, the application and disposal of such rents and profits, and the execution
    of documents as the owner himself has, or such of those powers as the Court thinks fit.
    (2) Nothing in this rule shall authorise the Court to remove from the possession or custody of
    property any person whom any party to the suit has not a present right so to remove.
  15. Remuneration.—The Court may by general or special order fix the amount to be paid as
    remuneration for the services of the receiver.
  16. Duties.—Every receiver so appointed shall—
    (a) furnish such security (if any) as the Court thinks fit, duly to account for what he shall receive
    in respect of the property;
    (b) submit his accounts at such periods and in such form as the Court directs;
    (c) pay the amount due from him as the Court directs; and
    (d) be responsible for any loss occasioned to the property by his wilful default or gross
    negligence.
  17. Enforcement of receiver’s duties.—Where a receiver—
    (a) fails to submit his accounts at such periods and in such form as the Court directs, or
    (b) fails to pay amount due from him as the Court directs, or
    (c) occasions loss to the property by his wilful default or gross negligence,
    the Court may direct his property to be attached and may sell such property, and may apply the proceeds
    to make good any amount found to be due from him or any loss occasioned by him, and shall pay the
    balance (if any) to the receiver.
  18. When Collector may he appointed receiver.—Where the property is land paying revenue to the
    Government, or land of which the revenue has been assigned or redeemed, and the Court considers that
    the interests of those concerned will be promoted by the management of the Collector, the Court may,
    with the consent of the Collector, appoint him to be receiver of such property.
    ORDER XLI
    APPEALS FROM ORIGINAL DECREES
  19. Form of appeal What to accompany memorandum.—(1) Every appeal shall be preferred in the
    form of a memorandum signed by the appellant or his pleader and presented to the Court or to such
    officer as it appoints in this behalf. The memorandum shall be accompanied by a copy of the 1
    [Judgment].
  20. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 31, for certain words, (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    206
    1
    [Provided that where two or more suits have been tried together and a common judgment has been
    delivered therefor and two or more appeals are filed against any decree covered by that judgment,
    whether by the same appellant or by different appellants, the Appellate Court may dispense with the filing
    of more than one copy of the judgment.](2) Contents of memorandum.—The memorandum shall set forth, concisely and under distinct
    heads, the grounds of objection to the decree appealed from without any argument or narrative; and such
    grounds shall be numbered consecutively.
    1
    [(3) Where the appeal is against a decree for payment of money, the appellant shall, within such time
    as the Appellate Court may allow, deposit the amount disputed in the appeal or furnish such security in
    respect thereof as the Court may think fit.]
  21. Grounds which may be taken in appeal.—The appellant shall not, except by leave of the Court,
    urge or be heard in support of any ground of objection not set forth in the memorandum of appeal; but the
    Appellate Court, in deciding the appeal, shall not be confined to the grounds of objections set forth in the
    memorandum of appeal or taken by leave of the Court under this rule:
    Provided that the Court shall not rest its decision on any other ground unless the party who may be
    affected thereby has had a sufficient opportunity of contesting the case on that ground.
  22. Rejection or amendment of memorandum.—(1) Where the memorandum of appeal is not drawn
    up in the manner hereinbefore prescribed, it may be rejected, or be returned to the appellant for the
    purpose of being amended within a time to be fixed by the Court or be amended then and there.
    (2) Where the Court rejects any memorandum, it shall record the reasons for such rejection.
    (3) Where a memorandum of appeal is amended, the judge, or such officer as he appoints in this
    behalf, shall sign or initial the amendment.
    1
    [3A. Application for condonation of delay.—(1) When an appeal is presented after the expiry of
    the period of limitation specified therefore, it shall be accompanied by an application supported by
    affidavit setting forth the facts on which the appellant relies to satisfy the Court that he had sufficient
    cause for not preferring the appeal within such period.
    (2) If the Court sees no reason to reject the application without the issue of a notice to the respondent,
    notice hereof shall be issued to the respondent and the matter shall be finally decided by the Court before
    it proceeds to deal with the appeal under rule 11 or rule 13, as the case may be.
    (3) Where an application has been made under sub-rule (1), the Court shall not make an order fact the
    stay of execution of the decree against which the appeal is proposed to be filed so long as the Court does
    not, after hearing under rule 11, decide to hear the appeal.]
  23. One of several plaintiffs or defendants may obtain reversal of whole decree where it proceeds
    on ground common to all.—Where there are more plaintiffs or more defendants than one in a suit, and
    the decree appealed from proceeds on any ground common to all the plaintiffs or to all the defendants,
    any one of the plaintiffs or of the defendants may appeal from the whole decree, and thereupon the
    Appellate Court may reverse or vary the decree in favour of all the plaintiffs or defendants, as the case
    may be.
    Stay of proceedings and of execution
  24. Stay by Appellate Court.—(I) An appeal shall not operate as a stay of proceedings under a decree
    or order appealed from except so far as the Appellate Court may order, nor shall execution of a decree be
    stayed by reason only of an appeal having been preferred from the decree; but the Appellate Court may
    for sufficient cause order stay of execution of such decree.
    1
    [Explanation.—An order by the Appellate Court for the stay of execution of the decree shall be
    effective from the date of the communication of such order to the Court of first instance, but an
    affidavit sworn
  25. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 87 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    207
    by the appellant, based on his personal knowledge, stating that an order for the stay of execution of the
    decree has been made by the Appellate Court shall, pending the receipt from the Appellate Court of the
    order for the stay of execution or any order to the contrary, be acted upon by the Court of first instance.](2) Stay by Court which passed the decree.—Where an application is made for stay of execution of
    an appealable decree before the expiration of the time allowed for appealing therefrom, the Court which
    passed the decree may on sufficient cause being shown order the execution to be stayed.
    (3) No order for stay of execution shall be made under sub-rule (1) or sub-rule (2) unless the Court
    making it is satisfied—
    (a) that substantial loss may result to the party applying for stay of execution unless the order is
    made;
    (b) that the application has been made without unreasonable delay; and
    (c) that security has been given by the applicant for the due performance of such decree or order
    as may ultimately be binding upon him.
    (4) 1
    [Subject to the provision of sub-rule (3),] the Court may make an ex parte order for stay of
    execution pending the hearing of the application.
    2
    [(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing sub-rules, where the appellant fails to
    make the deposit or furnish the security specified in sub-rule (3) of rule 1, the Court shall not make an
    order staying the execution of the decree.]
  26. Security in case of order for execution of decree appealed from.—(1) Where an order is made
    for the execution of a decree from which an appeal is pending, the Court which passed the decree shall,
    on sufficient cause being shown by the appellant, require security to be taken for the restitution of any
    property which may be or has been taken in execution of the decree or for the payment of the value of
    such property and for the due performance of the decree or order of the Appellate Court, or the Appellate
    Court may for like cause direct the Court which passed the decree to take such security.
    (2) Where an order has been made for the sale of immovable property in execution of a decree, and an
    appeal is pending from such decree, the sale shall, on the application of the judgment-debtor to the Court
    which made the order, be stayed on such terms as to giving security or otherwise as the Court thinks fit
    until the appeal is disposed of.
  27. 3
    [No security to be required from the Government or a public officer in certain cases.] Rep. by the
    A.O. 1937.
  28. Exercise of power in appeal from order made in execution of decree.—The powers conferred
    by rules 5 and 6 shall be exercisable where an appeal may be or has been preferred not from the decree
    but from an order made in execution of such decree.
    Procedure on admission of appeal
    4
    [9. Registry of memorandum of appeal.—(1) The Court from whose decree an appeal lies shall
    entertain the memorandum of appeal and shall endorse thereon the date of presentation and shall register
    the appeal in a book of appeal kept for that purpose.
    (2) Such book shall be called the register of appeal.]
  29. Appellate Court may require appellant to furnish security for costs.—(1) The Appellate
    Court may in its discretion, either before the respondent is called upon to appear and answer or afterwards
    on the application of the respondent, demand from the appellant security for the costs of the appeal, or of
    the original suit, or of both:
    Where appellant resides out of India.—Provided that the Court shall demand such security in all
    cases in which the appellant is residing out of 5
    [India], and is not possessed of any sufficient immovable
    property within 5
    [India] other than the property (if any) to which the appeal relates.
  30. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 87, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  31. Ins. by s. 87, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  32. See order XXVII, rule 8A, supra.
  33. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 31, for rule 9 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  34. Subs. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 3, for “the States”.
    208
    (2) Where such security is not furnished within such time as the Court orders, the Court shall reject
    the appeal.
  35. Power to dismiss appeal without sending notice to Lower Court.—1
    [(1) The appellate Court
    after fixing a day for hearing the appellant or his pleader and hearing him accordingly if he appears on
    that day may dismiss the appeal].
    (2) If on the day fixed or arty other day to which the hearing may be adjourned the appellant does not
    appear when the appeal is called on for hearing, the Court may make an order that the appeal be dismissed.
    (3) The dismissal of an appeal under this rule shall be notified to the Court from whose decree the
    appeal is preferred.
    2
    [(4) Where an Appellate Court, not being the High Court, dismisses an appeal under sub-rule (1), it
    shall deliver a judgment, recording in brief its grounds for doing so, and a decree shall be drawn up in
    accordance with the judgment.]2
    [11A. Time within which hearing under rule 11 should be concluded.—Every appeal shall be
    hear under rule 11 as expeditiously as possible and endeavour shall be made to conclude such hearing
    within sixty days from the date on which the memorandum of appeal is filed.]
  36. Day for hearing appeal.—(1) Unless the Appellate Court dismisses the appeal under rule 11, it
    shall fix a day for hearing the appeal.
    3
    [(2) Such day shall be fixed with reference to the current business of the Court.]
  37. [Appellate Court to give notice to Court whose decree appealed from.] Omitted by Code
    of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act 1999, (46 of 1999), s. 31 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002.)
  38. Publication and service of notice of day for hearing appeal.—(1) Notice of the day fixed under
    rule 12 shall be affixed in the Appellate Court-house, and a like notice shall be sent by the Appellate
    Court to the Court from whose decree the appeal is preferred, and shall be served on the respondent or on
    his pleader in the Appellate Court in the manner provided for the service on a defendant of a summons to
    appear and answer, and all the provisions applicable to such summons, and to proceedings with reference
    to the service thereof, shall apply to the service of such notice.
    (2) Appellate Court may itself cause notice to be served.—Instead of sending the notice to the
    Court from whose decree the appeal is preferred, the Appellate Court may itself cause the notice to be
    served on the respondent or his pleader under the provisions above referred to.
    2
    [(3) The notice to be served on the respondent shall be accompanied by a copy of the memorandum
    of appeal.
    (4) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sub-rule (1), it shall not be necessary to
    serve notice of any proceeding incidental to an appeal on any respondent other than a person impleaded
    for the first time in the Appellate Court, unless he has appeared and filed an address for the service in the
    Court of first instance or has appeared in the appeal.
    (5) Nothing in sub-rule (4) shall bar the respondent referred to in the appeal from defending it.]
  39. [Contents of notice.] Omitted by Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act 1999, (46 of
    1999), s. 31 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002.)
    Procedure on hearing
  40. Right to begin.—(1) On the day fixed, or on any other day to which the hearing may be
    adjourned, the appellant shall be heard in support of the appeal.
    (2) The Court shall then, if it does not dismiss the appeal at once, hear the respondent against the
    appeal, and in such case the appellant shall be entitled to reply.
  41. Dismissal of appeal for appellants’ default.—(1) Where on the day fixed, or on any other day to
    which the hearing may be adjourned, the appellant does not appear when the appeal is called on for
    hearing, the Court may make an order that the appeal be dismissed.
  42. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 31, for sub-rule (1) (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  43. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 87 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  44. Subs. by Act 46 of 1999, s. 31, for sub-rule (2) (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    209
    1
    [Explanation.—Nothing in this sub-rule shall be construed as empowering the Court to dismiss the
    appeal on the merits.](2) Hearing appeal ex parte.—Where the appellant appears and the respondent does not appear, the
    appeal shall be heard ex parte.
  45. [Dismissal of appeal where notice not served in consequence of appellant’s failure to deposit
    cost.] omitted by the Code of Civil Procedure ( Amendment) Act, 1 9 9 9 (46 of 1999) s. 31 (w.e.f. 1-7-
    2002).
  46. Re-admission of appeal dismissed for default. —Where an appeal is dismissed under rule 11,
    sub-rule (2) or rule 17 2
    [***] the appellant may apply to the Appellate Court for the re-admission of the
    appeal; and, where it is proved that he was prevented by any sufficient cause from appearing when the
    appeal was, called on for hearing or from depositing the sum so required, the Court shall re-admit the
    appeal on such terms as to costs or otherwise as it thinks fit.
  47. Power to adjourn hearing and direct persons appearing interested to be made respondents. — 3
    [(1)] Where it appears to the Court at the hearing that any person who was a party to the suit in the Court from
    whose decree the appeal is preferred, but who has not been made a party to the appeal, is interested in the
    result of the appeal, the Court may adjourn the hearing to a future day to be fixed by the Court and direct that
    such person be made a respondent.
    4
    [(2) No respondent shall be added under this rule, after the expiry of the period of limitation for
    appeal, unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded, allows that to be done, on such terms as to costs as it
    thinks fit.]
  48. Re-hearing on application of respondent against whom ex parte decree made.—Where an
    appeal is heard ex parte and judgment is pronounced against the respondent, he may apply to the
    Appellate Court to re-hear the appeal; and, if he satisfies the Court that the notice was not duly served or
    that he was prevented by sufficient cause from appearing when the appeal was called on for hearing, the
    Court shall re-hear the appeal on such terms as to costs or otherwise as it thinks fit to impose upon him.
  49. Upon hearing respondent may object to decree as if he had preferred separate appeal.—(1)
    Any respondent, though he may not have appealed from any part of the decree, may not only support the
    decree 5
    [but may also state that the finding against him in the Court below in respect of any issue ought to
    have been in his favour; and may also take any cross-objection] to the decree which he could have taken
    by way of appeal provided he has filed such objection in the Appellate Court within one month from the
    date of service on him or his pleader of notice of the day fixed for hearing the appeal, or within such
    further time as the Appellate Court may see fit to allow.
    4
    [Explanation. —A respondent aggrieved by a finding of the Court in the judgment on which the
    decree appealed against is based may, under this rule, file cross-objection in respect of the decree in so far
    as it is based on that finding, notwithstanding that by reason of the decision of the Court on any other
    finding which is sufficient for the decision of the suit, the decree, is, wholly or in part, in favour of that
    respondent.](2) Form of objection and provisions applicable thereto.—Such cross-objection shall be in the
    form of a memorandum, and the provisions of rule 1, so far as they relate to the form and contents of the
    memorandum of appeal, shall apply thereto.
    6

  1. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 87 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  2. The words “or rule 18” omitted by Act 46 of 1999, s. 31, (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
  3. Rule 20 re-numbered as sub-rule (1) by Act 104 of 1976, s. 87 (w.e.f 1-2-1977).
  4. Ins. by s. 87, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  5. Subs. by s. 87, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  6. Subs-rule (3) omitted by Act 46 of 1999, s. 31 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002).
    210
    (4) Where, in any case in which any respondent has under this rule filed a memorandum of objection, the
    original appeal is withdrawn or is dismissed for default, the objection so filed may nevertheless be heard and
    determined after such notice to the other parties as the Court thinks fit.
    (5) The provisions relating to appeals by indigent persons shall, so far as they can be made applicable,
    apply to an objection under this rule.
  7. Remand of case by Appellate Court.—Where the Court from whose decree an appeal is preferred
    has disposed of the suit upon a preliminary point and the decree is reversed in appeal, the Appellate Court may,
    if it thinks fit, by order remand the case, and may further direct what issue or issues shall be tried in the case so
    remanded, and shall send a copy of its judgment and order to the Court from whose decree the appeal is
    preferred, which directions to re-admit the suit under its original number in the register of civil suits, and
    proceed to determine the suit; and the evidence (if any) recorded during the original trial shall, subject to all
    just exceptions, be evidence during the trial after remand.
    1
    [23A. Remand in other cases.—Where the Court from whose decree an appeal is preferred has
    disposed of the case otherwise than on a preliminary point, and the decree is reversed in appeal and a
    re-trial is considered necessary, the Appellate Court shall have the same powers as it has under rule 23.
  8. Where evidence on record sufficient Appellate Court may determine case finally.—Where the
    evidence upon the record is sufficient to enable the Appellate Court to pronounce judgement, the Appellate
    Court may, after resettling the issues, if necessary, finally determine the suit, notwithstanding that the
    judgment of the Court from whose decree the appeal is preferred has proceeded wholly upon some ground
    other than that on which the Appellate Court proceeds.
  9. Where Appellate Court may frame issues and refer them for trial to Court whose decree
    appealed from.—Where the Court from whose decree the appeal is preferred has omitted to frame or try
    any issue, or to determine any question of fact, which appears to the Appellate Court essential to the right
    decision of the suit upon the merits, the Appellate Court may, if necessary, frame issues, and refer the
    same for trial to the Court from whose decree the appeal is preferred, and in such case shall direct such
    Court to take the additional evidence required;
    and such Court shall proceed to try such issues, and shall return the evidence to the Appellate Court
    together with its findings thereon and the reasons therefor 1
    [within such time as may be fixed by the
    Appellate Court or extended by it from time to time].
  10. Findings and evidence to be put on record. Objections to findings.—(1) Such evidence and
    findings shall form part of the record in the suit; and either party may, within a time to be fixed by the
    Appellate Court, present a memorandum of objections to any finding.
    (2) Determination of appeal.—After the expiration of the period so fixed for presenting such
    memorandum the Appellate Court shall proceed to determine the appeal.
    1
    [26A. Order of remand to mention date of next hearing.—Where the Appellate Court remands a
    case under rule 23 or rule 23A, or frames issues and refers them for trial under rule 25, it shall fix a date
    for the appearance of the parties before the Court from whose decree the appeal was preferred for the
    purpose of receiving the directions of that Court as to further proceedings in the suit.]
  11. Production of additional evidence in Appellate Court.—(1) The parties to an appeal shall not be
    entitled to produce additional evidence, whether oral or documentary, in the Appellate Court. But if —
    (a) the Court from whose decree the appeal is preferred has refused to admit evidence which
    ought to have been admitted, or
  12. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 87 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    211
    1
    [(aa) the party seeking to produce additional evidence, establishes that notwithstanding the
    exercise of due diligence, such evidence was not within his knowledge or could not, after the exercise of
    due diligence, be produced by him at the time when the decree appealed against was passed, or](b) the Appellate Court requires any document to be produced or any witness to be examined to
    enable it to pronounce judgment, or for any other substantial cause,
    the Appellate Court may allow such evidence or document to be produced, or witness to be examined.
    (2) Wherever additional evidence is allowed to be produced by an Appellate Court, the Court shall
    record the reason for its admission.
  13. Mode of taking additional evidence.—Wherever additional evidence is allowed to be produced,
    the Appellate Court may either take such evidence, or direct the Court from whose decree the appeal is
    preferred, or any other subordinate Court, to take such evidence and to send it when taken to the
    Appellate Court.
  14. Points to be defined and recorded.—Where additional evidence is directed or allowed to be
    taken, the Appellate Court shall specify the points to which the evidence is to be confined, and record on
    its proceedings the points so specified.
    Judgment in appeal
  15. Judgment when and where pronounced.—2
    [(1)] The Appellate Court, after hearing the parties
    or their pleaders and referring to any part of the proceedings, whether on appeal or in the Court from
    whose decree the appeal is preferred, to which reference may be considered necessary, shall pronounce
    judgment in open Court, either at once or on some future day of which notice shall be given to the parties
    or their pleaders.
    1
    [(2) Where a written judgment is to be pronounced, it shall be sufficient if the points for determination,
    the decision thereon and the final order passed in the appeal are read out and it shall not be necessary for the
    Court to read out the whole judgment, but a copy of the whole judgment shall be made available for the
    perusal of the parties or their pleaders immediately after the judgment is pronounced.]
  16. Contents, date and signature of judgment.—The judgment of the Appellate Court shall be in
    writing and shall state—
    (a) the points for determination;
    (b) the decision thereon;
    (c) the reasons for the decision; and
    (d) where the decree appealed from is reversed or varied, the relief to which the appellant is
    entitled,
    and shall at the time that it is pronounced be signed and dated by the Judge or by the Judges concurring
    therein.
  17. What judgment may direct.—The judgment may be for confirming, varying or reversing the
    decree from which the appeal is preferred, or, if the parties to the appeal agree as to the form which the
    decree in appeal shall take, or as to the order to be made in appeal, the Appellate Court may pass a decree
    or make an order accordingly.
  18. Power of Court of Appeal.—The Appellate Court shall have power to pass any decree and make
    any order which ought to have been passed or made and to pass or make such further or other decree or
    order as the case may require, and this power may be exercised by the Court notwithstanding that the
    appeal is as to part only of the decree and may be exercised in favour of all or any of the respondents or
    parties, although such respondents or parties may not have filed any appeal or objection 1
    [and may, where
    there have been decrees in cross-suits or where two or more decrees are passed in one suit, be exercised in
    respect of all or any of the decrees, although an appeal may not have been filed against such decrees]:
  19. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 87 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  20. Rule 30 re-numbered as sub-rule (1) by s. 87, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    212
    1
    [Provided that the Appellate Court shall not make any order under section 35A in pursuance of any
    objection on which the Court from whose decree the appeal is preferred has omitted or refused to make
    such order.]Illustration
    A claims a sum of money as due to him from X or Y, and in a suit against both obtains a decree against X. X,
    appeals and A and Y are respondents. The Appellate Court decides in favour of X. It has power to pass a decree
    against Y.
  21. Dissent to be recorded.—Where the Appeal is heard by more judges than one, any judge
    dissenting from the judgment of the Court shall state in writing the decision or order which he thinks
    should be passed on the appeal, and he may state his reasons for the same.
    Decree in appeal
    2
  22. Date and contents of decree.—(1) The decree of the Appellate Court shall bear date the day on
    which the judgment was pronounced.
    (2) The decree shall contain the number of the appeal, the names and descriptions of the appellant and
    respondent, and a clear specification of the relief granted or other adjudication made.
    (3) The decree shall also state the amount of costs incurred in the appeal, and by whom, or out of
    what property, and in what proportions such costs and the costs in the suit are to be paid.
    (4) The decree shall be signed and dated by the Judge or Judges who passed it:
    Judge dissenting from judgment need not sign decree.—Provided that where there are more
    Judges than one and there is a difference of opinion among them, it shall not be necessary for any Judge
    dissenting from the judgment of the Court to sign the decree.
  23. Copies of judgment and decree to be furnished to parties.—Certified copies of the judgment and
    decree in appeal shall be furnished to the parties on application to the Appellate Court and at their expense.
  24. Certified copy of decree to be sent to Court whose decree appealed from.—A copy of the
    judgment and of the decree, certified by the Appellate Court or such officer as it appoints in this behalf, shall
    be sent to the Court which passed the decree appealed from and shall be filed with the original proceedings in
    the suit, and an entry of the judgment of the Appellate Court shall be made in the register of civil suits.
    ORDER XLII
    APPEALS FROM APPELLATE DECREES
  25. Procedure.—The rules of Order XLI shall apply, so far as may be, to appeals from appellate decrees.
    3
    [2. Power of Court to direct that the appeal be heard on the question formulated by it —At the time
    of making an order under rule 11 of Order XLI for the hearing of a second appeal, the Court shall formulate
    the substantial question of law as required by section 100, and in doing so, the Court may direct that the second
    appeal be heard on the question so formulated and it shall not be open to the appellant to urge any other ground
    in the appeal without the leave of the Court, given in accordance with the provision of section 100.
  26. Application of rule 14 of Order XLI.—Reference in sub-rule (4) of rule 14 of Order XLI to the
    Court of first instance shall, in the case of an appeal from an appellate decree or order, be construed as a
    reference to the Court to which the appeal was preferred from the original decree or order.]
  27. Ins. by Act 9 of 1922, s. 4, which under s. 1(2) thereof, may be brought into force in any State by the State Government on any
    specified date. The Act has been brought into force in Bombay, Bengal, U.P., Punjab, Bihar, C.P. Assam, Orissa and Tamil
    Nadu.
  28. This rule is not applicable to the Chief Court of Oudh in the exercise of its appellate Jurisdiction; see the Oudh Courts Act,
    1925 (U.P. 4 of 1925), s. 16(3).
  29. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 88 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    213
    ORDER XLIII
    APPEALS FROM ORDERS
  30. Appeal from orders.—An appeal shall lie from the following orders under the provisions of
    section 104, namely: —
    (a) an order under rule 10 of Order VII returning a plaint to be presented to the proper Court
    1
    [except where the procedure specified in rule 10A of Order VII has been followed];
    2

(c)
.
an order under rule 9 of order IX rejecting an application (in a case open to appeal) for an order
to set aside the dismissal of a suit;
(d) an order under rule 13 of Order IX rejecting an application (in a case open to appeal) for an
order to set aside a decree passed ex parte;
2


(f) an order under rule 21 of Order XI;
2


(i) an order under rule 34 of Order XXI on an objection to the draft of a document or of an
endorsement;
(j) an order under rule 72 or rule 92 of Order XXI setting aside or refusing to set aside a sale;
1
[ja) an order rejecting an application made under sub-rule (1) of rule 106 of Order XXI, provided
that an order on the original application, that is to say, the application referred to in sub-rule (1) of rule
105 of that Order is appealable;](k) an order under rule 9 of Order XXII refusing to set aside the abatement or dismissal of a suit;
(l) an order under rule 10 of Order XXII giving or refusing to give leave;
2


(n) an order under rule 2 of Order XXV rejecting an application (in a case open to appeal) for an
order to set aside the dismissal of a suit;
1
[(na) an order under rule 5 or rule 7 of Order XXXIII rejecting an application for permission to
sue as an indigent person;]2


(p) orders in interpleader-suits under rule 3, rule 4 or rule 6 of Order XXXV;
(q) an order under rule 2, rule 3 or rule 6 of order (XXVIII);
(r) an order under rule 1, rule 2 1
[rule 2A], rule 4 or rule 10 of Order XXXIX;
(s) an order under rule 1, or rule 4 of Order XL;
(t) an order of refusal under rule 19 of Order XLI to re-admit, or under rule 21 of Order XLI to
re-hear, an appeal;
(u) an order under rule 23 1
[or rule 23A] of Order XLI remanding a case, where an appeal would lie
from the decree of the Appellate Court;
2


(w) an order under rule 4 of Order XLVII granting an application for review.

  1. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 89 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  2. Cls. (b), (e), (g), (h), (m), (o) and (v) omitted by s. 89, ibid, (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    214
    1
    [1A. Right to challenge non-appealable orders in appeal against decrees.—(1) Where any order
    is made under this Code against a party and thereupon any judgment is pronounced against such party and
    a decree is drawn up, such party may, in an appeal against the decree, contend that such order should not
    have been made and the judgment should not have been pronounced.
    (2) In an appeal against a decree passed in a suit after recording a compromise or refusing to record a
    compromise, it shall be open to the appellant to contest the decree on the ground that the compromise
    should, or should not, have been recorded.]
  3. Procedure.—The rules of Order XLI shall apply, so far as may be, to appeals from orders.
    ORDER XLIV
    2
    [APPEALS BY INDIGENT PERSONS]
  4. Who may appeal 3
    [as an indigent person]. —4
    [(1)] Any person entitled to prefer an appeal, who
    is unable to pay the fee required for the memorandum of appeal, may present an application accompanied
    by a memorandum of appeal, and may be allowed to appeal as an 5
    [indigent person], subject, in all
    matters, including the presentation of such application, to the provisions relating to suits by 5
    [indigent
    persons], in so far as those provisions are applicable.
    6

7


8
[2. Grant of time for payment of court-fee.—Where an application is rejected under rule 1, the Court
may, while rejecting the application, allow the applicant to pay the requisite Court-fee, within such time as
may be fixed by the Court or extended by it from time to time; and upon such payment, the memorandum of
appeal in respect of which such fee is payable shall have the same force and effect as if such fee had been
paid in the first instance.

  1. Inquiry as to whether applicant is an indigent person.—(1) Where an applicant, referred to in
    rule 1, was allowed to sue or appeal as an indigent person in the Court from whose decree the appeal is
    preferred, no further inquiry in respect of the question whether or not he is an indigent person shall be
    necessary if the applicant has made an affidavit stating that he has not ceased to be an indigent person
    since the date of the decree appealed from; but if the Government Pleader or the respondent disputes the
    truth of the statement made in such affidavit, an inquiry into the question aforesaid shall be held by the
    Appellate Court, or, under the orders of the Appellate Court, by an officer of that Court.
    (2) Where the applicant, referred to in rule 11, is alleged to have become an indigent person since the
    date of the decree appealed from, the inquiry into the question whether or not he is an indigent person
    shall be made by the Appellate Court or, under the orders of the Appellate Court, by an officer of that
    Court unless the Appellate Court considers it necessary in the circumstances of the case that the inquiry
    should be held by the Court from whose decision the appeal is preferred.]
  2. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 89 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  3. Subs. by s. 90, ibid., for “pauper appeals” (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  4. Subs. by s. 90, ibid., for “as pauper” (w.e.f 1-2-1977).
  5. Rule 1 re-numbered as sub-rule (1) by Act 66 of 1956, s. 14.
  6. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 90, for “pauper” and “paupers” respectively (w.e.f 1-2-1977),
  7. Proviso omitted by Act 66 of 1956, s. 14.
  8. Sub-rule (2) ins. by s. 14, ibid. and omitted by Act 104 of 1976, s. 90 (w.e.f 1-2-1977).
  9. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 90, for rule 2 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    215
    ORDER XLV
    APPEALS TO THE 1
    [SUPREMECOURT]
  10. “Decree” defined.—In this Order, unless there is something repugnant in the subject or context,
    the expression “decree” shall include a final order.
  11. Application to Court whose decree complained of.—2
    [(1)] Whoever desires to appeal 3
    [the
    Supreme Court] shall apply by petition to the Court whose decree is complained of.
    4
    [(2) Every petition under sub-rule (1) shall be heard as expeditiously as possible and endeavour shall
    be made to conclude the disposal of the petition within sixty days from the date on which the petition is
    presented to the Court under sub-rule (1).]
  12. Certificate as to value or fitness. —5
    [(1) Every petition shall state the grounds of appeal and pray
    for a certificate—
    (i) that the case involves a substantial question of law of general importance, and
    (ii) that in the opinion of the Court the said question needs to be decided by the Supreme
    Court.](2) Upon receipt of such petition, the Court shall direct notice to be served on the opposite party to
    show cause why the said certificate should not be granted.
  13. [Consolidation of suits.] Rep. by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1973 (49 of 1973),
    s. 4 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  14. [Remission of dispute to Court of first instance.] Rep. by s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  15. Effect of refusal of certificate.—Where such certificate is refused, the petition shall be
    dismissed.
  16. Security and deposit required on grant of certificate.—(1) Where the certificate is granted, the
    applicant shall, within 6
    [ninety days or such further period, not exceeding sixty days, as the Court may
    upon cause shown allow;] from the date of the decree complained of, or within six weeks from the date of
    the grant of the certificate whichever is the later date,—
    (a) furnish security 7
    [in cash or in Government securities] for the costs of the respondent, and
    (b) deposit the amount required to defray the expense of translating, transcribing indexing
    8
    [printing,] and transmitting to 3
    [the Supreme Court] a correct copy of the whole record of the suit,
    except—
    (1) formal documents directed to be excluded by any 9
    [Rule of the Supreme Court] in force
    for the time being;
    (2) papers which the parties agree to exclude;
  17. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “King-in-Council”.
  18. Rule 2 re-numbered as sub-rule (1) of that rule by Act 104 of 1976, s. 91 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  19. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “His Majesty in Council”.
  20. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 91 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
  21. Subs. by Act 49 of 1973, s. 4, for sub-rule (1).
  22. Subs. by Act 26 of 1920, s. 3, for “six months”.
  23. Ins. by s. 3, ibid.
  24. Ins. by the A.O. 1950.
  25. Subs., ibid., for “order of His Majesty in Council”.
    216
    (3) accounts, or portions of accounts, which the officer empowered by the Court for that
    purpose considers unnecessary, and which the parties have not specifically asked to be
    included; and
    (4) such other documents as the High Court may direct to be excluded:
    1
    [Provided that the Court at the time of granting the certificate may, after hearing any opposite party
    who appears, order on the ground of special hardship that some other form of security may be furnished:
    Provided further, that no adjournment shall be granted to an opposite party to contest the nature of
    such security.]2

  1. Admission of appeal and procedure thereon.—Where such security has been furnished and
    deposit made to the satisfaction of the Court, the court shall—
    (a) declare the appeal admitted,
    (b) give notice thereof to the respondent,
    (c) transmit to 3
    [the Supreme Court] under the seal of the Court a correct copy of the said record,
    except as aforesaid, and
    (d) give to either party one or more authenticated copies of any of the papers in the suit on his
    applying therefore and paying the reasonable expenses incurred in preparing them.
  2. Revocation of acceptance of security.—At any time before the admission of the appeal the Court
    may, upon cause shown, revoke the acceptance of any such security, and make further directions thereon.
    4
    [9A. Power to dispense with notices in case of deceased parties.—Nothing in these rules requiring
    any notice to be served on or given to an opposite party or respondent shall be deemed to require any
    notice to be served on or given to the legal representative of any deceased opposite party or deceased
    respondent in a case, where such opposite party or respondent did not appear either at the hearing in the
    Court whose decree is complained of or at any proceedings subsequent to the decree of that Court:
    Provided that notices under sub-rule (2) of rule 3 and under rule 8 shall be given by affixing the same
    in some conspicuous place in the court-house of the Judge of the district in which the suit was originally
    brought, and by publication in such newspapers as the Court may direct.]
  3. Power to order further security or payment.—Where at any time after the admission of an
    appeal but before the transmission of the copy of the record, except as aforesaid, to 3
    [the Supreme Court],
    such security appears inadequate,
    or further payment is required for the purpose of translating, transcribing, printing, indexing or
    transmitting the copy of the record, except as aforesaid,
    the Court may order the appellant to furnish, within a time to be fixed by the Court, other and
    sufficient security, or to make, within like time, the required payment.
  4. Effect of failure to comply with order.—Where the appellant fails to comply with such order,
    the proceedings shall be stayed,
    and the appeal shall not proceed without an order in this behalf of,
    3
    [the Supreme Court],
    and in the meantime execution of the decree appealed from shall not be stayed.
  5. Added by Act 26 of 1920, s. 3.
  6. Sub-rule (2) omitted by the A.O. 1950.
  7. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “his Majesty in Council”.
  8. Ins. by Act 26 of 1920, s. 4.
    217
  9. Refund of balance deposit.—When the copy of the record, except as aforesaid, has been
    transmitted to 1
    [the Supreme Court], the appellant may obtain a refund of the balance (if any) of the
    amount which he has deposited under rule 7.
  10. Powers of Court pending appeal.—(1) Notwithstanding the grant of a certificate for the
    admission of any appeal, the decree appealed from shall be unconditionally executed, unless the Court
    otherwise directs.
    (2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, on special cause shown by any party interested in the suit, or
    otherwise appearing to the Court,—
    (a) impound any movable property in dispute or any part thereof, or
    (b) allow the decree appealed from to be executed, taking such security from the respondent as
    the Court thinks fit for the due performance of any order which 1
    [the Supreme Court] may make on
    the appeal, or
    (c) stay the execution of the decree appealed from, taking such security from the appellant as the
    Court thinks fit for the due performance of the decree appealed from, or of 2
    [any decree or order]which 1
    [the Supreme Court] may make on the appeal, or
    (d) place any party seeking the assistance of the Court under such conditions or give such other
    direction respecting the subject-matter of the appeal, as it thinks fit, by the appointment of a receiver
    or otherwise.
  11. Increase of security found inadequate.—(1) Where at any time during the pendency of the
    appeal the security furnished by either party appears inadequate, the Court may, on the application of the
    other party, require further security.
    (2) In default of such further security being furnished as required by the Court,—
    (a) if the original security was furnished by the appellant, the Court may, on the application of the
    respondent, execute the decree, appealed from as if the appellant had furnished no such security:
    (b) if the original security was furnished by the respondent, the Court shall, so far as may be
    practicable, stay the further execution of the decree, and restore the parties to the position in which
    they respectively were when the security which appears inadequate was furnished, or give such
    direction respecting the subject-matter of the appeal as it thinks fit.
  12. Procedure to enforce orders of the Supreme Court.—(1) Whoever desires to obtain execution
    of 2
    [any decree or order] of 1
    [the Supreme Court] shall apply by petition, accompanied by a certified copy
    of the decree passed or order made in appeal and sought to be executed, to the Court from which the
    appeal to 3
    [the Supreme Court] was preferred.
    (2) Such Court shall transmit the 4
    [decree or order] of 1
    [the Supreme Court] to the Court which passed
    the first decree appealed from, or to such other Court as 1
    [the Supreme Court] by such 4
    [decree or order]may direct and shall (upon the application of either party) give such directions as may be required for the
    execution of the same; and the Court to which the said 4
    [decree or order] is so transmitted shall execute it
    accordingly, in the manner and according to the provisions applicable to the execution of its original
    decrees.
    5

  1. Subs., by the A.O. 1950, for “His Majesty in Council”.
  2. Subs., ibid., for “any order”.
  3. Subs., ibid., for “His Majesty”.
  4. Subs., ibid., for “order”.
  5. Sub-rule (3) omitted by the A.O. 1950.
    218
    1
    [(4) 2
    [Unless the Supreme Court otherwise directs, no decree or order of that Court] shall be
    inoperative on the ground that no notice has been served on or given to the legal representative of any
    deceased opposite party or deceased respondent in a case, where such opposite party or respondent did
    not appear either at the hearing in the Court whose decree was complained of or at any proceedings
    subsequent to the decree of that Court, but such order shall have the same force and effect as if it had
    been made before the death took place.]
  6. Appeal from order relating to execution.—The orders made by the Court which executes the
    3
    [decree or order] of 4
    [the Supreme Court], relating to such execution, shall be appealable in the same
    manner and subject to the same rules as the orders of such Court relating to the execution of its own
    decrees.
  7. [Appeals to Federal Court.] Rep. by the Federal Act, 1941 (21 of 1941), s. 2.
    ORDER XLVI
    REFERENCE
  8. Reference of question to High Court.—Where, before or on the hearing of a suit or an appeal in
    which the decree is not subject to appeal, or where, in the execution of any such decree, any question of
    law or usage having the force of law arises, on which the Court trying the suit or appeal, or executing the
    decree, entertains reasonable doubt, the Court may, either of its own motion or on the application of any
    of the parties, draw up a statement of the facts of the case and the point on which doubt is entertained,
    and refer such statement with its own opinion on the point for the decision of the High Court.
  9. Court may pass decree contingent upon decision of High Court.—The Court may either stay
    the proceedings or proceed in the case notwithstanding such reference, and may pass a decree or make an
    order contingent upon the decision of the High Court on the point referred:
    But no decree or order shall be executed in any case in which such reference is made until the receipt
    of a copy of the judgment of the High Court upon the reference.
  10. Judgment of High Court to be transmitted and case disposed of accordingly.—The High
    Court, after hearing the parties if they appear and desire to be heard, shall decide the point so referred,
    and shall transmit a copy of its judgment, under the signature of the Registrar, to the Court by which the
    reference was made; and such Court shall, on the receipt thereof, proceed to dispose of the case in
    conformity with the decision of the High Court.
  11. Cost of reference to High Court.—The costs (if any) consequent on a reference for the decision
    of the High Court shall be costs in the case.
    5
    [4A. Reference to High Court under proviso to section 113.—The provisions of rules 2, 3 and 4
    shall apply to any reference by the Court under the proviso to section 113 as they apply to a reference
    under rule 1; and]
  12. Power to alter, etc., decree of Court making reference.—Where a case is referred to the High
    Court under rule 5
    [or under the proviso to section 113], the High Court may return the case for
    amendment, and may alter, cancel or set aside any decree or order which the Court making the reference
    has passed or made in the case out of which the reference arose, and make such order as it thinks fit.
  13. Ins. by Act 26 of 1920, s. 5.
  14. Subs. by the A.O. 1950, for “Unless His Majesty in Council is pleased otherwise to direct, no order of His Majesty in
    Council”.
  15. Subs., ibid., for “order”.
  16. Subs., ibid., for “His Majesty in Council”.
  17. Ins. by Act 24 of 1951, s. 2.
    219
  18. Power to refer to High Court questions as to jurisdiction in small causes.—(1) Where at any
    time before judgment a Court in which a suit has been instituted doubts whether the suit is cognizable by
    a Court of Small Causes or is not so cognizable, it may submit the record to the High Court with a
    statement of its reasons for the doubt as to the nature of the suit.
    (2) On receiving the record and statement, the High Court may order the Court either to proceed with
    the suit or to return the plaint for presentation to such other Court as it may in its order declare to be
    competent to take cognizance of the suit.
  19. Power to District Court to submit for revision proceeding had under mistake as to
    jurisdiction in small causes.—(1) Where it appears to a District Court that a Court subordinate thereto
    has, by reason of erroneously holding a suit to be cognizable by a Court of Small Causes or not to be so
    cognizable, failed to exercise a jurisdiction vested in it by law, or exercised a jurisdiction not so vested,
    the District Court may, and if required by a party shall, submit the record to the High Court with a
    statement of its reasons for considering the opinion of the Subordinate Court with respect to the nature of
    the suit to be erroneous.
    (2) On receiving the record and statement the High Court may make such order in the case as it
    thinks fit.
    (3) With respect to any proceedings subsequent to decree in any case submitted to the High Court
    under this rule, the High Court may make such order as in the circumstance appears to it to be just and
    proper.
    (4) A Court subordinate to a District Court shall comply with any requisition which the District Court
    may make for any record or information for the purposes of this rule.
    ORDER XLVII
    REVIEW
  20. Application for review of judgment.—(1) Any person considering himself aggrieved—
    (a) by a decree or order from which an appeal is allowed, but from which no appeal has been
    preferred,
    (b) by a decree or order from which no appeal is allowed, or
    (c) by a decision on a reference from a Court of Small Causes,
    and who, from the discovery of new and important matter or evidence which, after the exercise of due
    diligence was not within his knowledge or could not be produced by him at the time when the decree was
    passed or order made, or on account of some mistake or error apparent on the face of the record or for any
    other sufficient reason, desires to obtain a review of the decree passed or order made against him, may
    apply for a review of judgment to the Court which passed the decree or made the order.
    (2) A party who is not appealing from a decree or order may apply for a review of judgment
    notwithstanding the pendency of an appeal by some other party except where the ground of such appeal is
    common to the applicant and the appellant, or when, being respondent, he can present to the Appellate
    Court the case on which he applied for the review.
    1
    [Explanation.—The fact that the decision on a question of law on which the judgment of the Court is
    based has been reversed or modified by the subsequent decision of a superior Court in any other case,
    shall not be a ground for the review of such judgment.]
  21. [To whom applications for review may be made.]—Rep. by the Code of Civil Procedure
    (Amendment) Act, 1956 (66 of 1956) s. 14.
  22. Form of applications for review.—The provisions as to the form of preferring appeals shall
    apply, mutatis mutandis, to applications for review.
  23. Application where rejected.—(1) Where it appears to the Court that there is not sufficient ground
    for a review, it shall reject the application.
  24. Ins. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 92 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    220
    (2) Application where granted.—Where the Court is of opinion that the application for review
    should be granted, it shall grant the same:
    Provided that—
    (a) no such application shall be granted without previous notice to the opposite party, to enable
    him to appear and be heard in support of the decree or order, a review of which is applied for; and
    (b) no such application shall be granted on the ground of discovery of new matter or evidence
    which the applicant alleges was not within his knowledge, or could not be adduced by him when the
    decree or order was passed or made, without strict proof of such allegation.
  25. Application for review in Court consisting of two or more Judges.—Where the Judge or
    Judges, or any one of the Judges, who passed the decree or made the order a review of which is applied
    for, continues or continued attached to the Court at the time when the application for a review is
    presented, and is not or not precluded by absence or other cause for a period of six months next after the
    application from considering the decree or order to which the application refers, such Judge or Judges or
    any of them shall hear the application, and no other Judge or Judges of the Court shall hear the same.
  26. Application where rejected.—(1) Where the application for a review is heard by more than one
    Judge and the Court is equally divided, the application shall be rejected.
    (2) Where there is a majority, the decision shall be according to the opinion of the majority.
  27. Order of rejection not appealable. Objections to order granting application.—1
    [(1) An order
    of the Court rejecting the application shall not be appealable; but an order granting an application may be
    objected to at once by an appeal from the order granting the application or in an appeal from the decree or
    order finally passed or made in the suit.](2) Where the application has been rejected in consequence of the failure of the applicant to appear,
    he may apply for an order to have the rejected application restored to the file, and, where it is proved to
    the satisfaction of the Court that he was prevented by any sufficient cause from appearing which such
    application was called on for hearing, the Court shall order it to be restored to the file upon such terms as
    to costs or otherwise as it thinks fit, and shall appoint a day for hearing the same.
    (3) No order shall be made under sub-rule (2) unless notice of the application has been served on the
    opposite party.
  28. Registry of application granted, and order for re-hearings.—When an application for review is
    granted, a note thereof shall be made in the register and the Court may at once re-hear the case or make
    such order in regard to the re-hearing as it thinks fit.
  29. Bar of certain application.—No application to review an order made on an application for a
    review or a decree or order passed or made on a review shall be entertained.
    ORDER XLVIII
    MISCELLANEOUS
  30. Process to be served at expense of party issuing.—(1) Every process issued under this Code shall
    be served at the expense of the party on whose behalf it is issued, unless the Courtotherwise directs.
    (2) Costs of service.—The court-fee chargeable for such service shall be paid within a time to be
    fixed-before the process is issued.
  31. Orders and notices how served.—All orders, notices and other documents required by this Code to
    be given to or served on any person shall be served in the manner provided for the service of summons.
  32. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 92, for sub-rule (1) (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    221
  33. Use of forms in appendices.—The Forms given in the appendices, with such variation as the
    circumstances or each case may require, shall be used for the purposes therein mentioned.
    ORDER XLIX
    CHARTERED HIGH COURTS
  34. Who may serve processes of High Court.—Notice to produce documents, summonses to
    witnesses, and every other judical process, issued in the exercise of the original civil jurisdiction of the
    High Court, and of its matrimonial, testamentary and intestate jurisdictions, except summonses to
    defendants, writs of execution and notices to respondents may be served by the attorneys in the suits, or
    by persons employed by them, or by such other persons as the High Court, by any rule or order, directs.
  35. Saving in respect of Chartered High Courts.—Nothing in this Schedule shall be deemed to limit
    or otherwise affect any rules in force at the commencement of this Code for the taking of evidence or the
    recording of judgments and orders by a Chartered High Court.
  36. Application of rules.—The following rules shall not apply to any Chartered High Court in the
    exercise of its ordinary or extraordinary original civil jurisdiction, namely:—
    (1) rule 10 and rule 11, clauses (b) and (c), of Order VII;
    (2) rule 3 of Order X;
    (3) rule 2 of Order XVI;
    (4) rules 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15 and 16 (so far as relates to the manner of taking evidence) of
    Order XVIII;
    (5) rule 1 to 8 of Order XX; and
    (6) rule 7 of Order XXXIII (so far as relates to the making of a memorandum);
    and rule 35 of Order XLI shall not apply to any such High Court in the exercise of its appellate
    jurisdiction.
    ORDER L
    PROVINCIAL. SMALLCAUSECOURTS
  37. Provincial Small Cause Courts.—The provisions hereinafter specified shall not extend to Court
    constituted under the Provincial Small Cause Courts Act 1887 (9 of 1887) 1
    [or under the Berar Small
    Cause Courts Law, 1905] or to Courts exercising the jurisdiction of a Court of Small Causes 2
    [under the
    said Act or Law] 3
    [or to Courts in 4
    [any part of India to which the said Act does not extend] exercising a
    corresponding jurisdiction that is to say—
    (a) so much of this Schedule as relates to—
    (i) suits excepted from the cognizance of a Court of Small Causes or the execution of decrees
    in such suits;
    (ii) the execution of decrees against immovable property or the interest of a partner in
    partnership property;
    (iii) the settlement of issues; and
    (b) the following rules and orders:—
    Order II, rule 1 (frame of suit);
    Order X, rule 3 (record of examination of parties);
  38. Ins. by Act 4 of 1941, s. 2, and the Third Sch.
  39. Subs. by s. 2, and the Third Sch. ibid., for “under that Act”.
  40. Ins. by Act 2 of 1951, s. 18.
  41. Subs. by the Adaptation of Laws (No. 2) Order, 1956, for “Part B States”.
    222
    Order XV, except so much of rule 4 as provides for the pronouncement at once of
    judgment;
    Order XVIII, rule 5 to 12 (evidence);
    Order XLI, to XLV (appeals);
    Order XLVII, rules 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 (review);
    Order LI.
    ORDER LI
    PRESIDENCY SMALL CAUSE COURTS
  42. Presidency Small Cause Courts.—Save as provided in rules 22 and 23 of Order V, rules 4 and 7
    of Order XXI, and rule 4 of Order XXVI, and by the Presidency Small Cause Courts Act, 1882 (15 of
    1882), this Schedule shall not extend to any suit or proceeding in any Court of Small Causes established
    in the towns of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.
    223
    APPENDIX A
    PLEADINGS
    (1) Titles of Suits
    IN THE COURT OF . …………………………………………………………………………………..
    A.B. (add description and residence)…………………………………………………………………………. Plaintiff
    against
    C.D. (add description and residence) ………………………………………………………………………… Defendant
    (2) Description of parties in particular Cases
    1
    [The Union of India or the State of…………………….., as the case may be.]

The Advocate General of
The Collector of
The State of ______
The A. B. Company, Limited having its registered office at
A. B., a public officer of the C. D. Company.


A. B. (add description and residence), on behalf of himself and all other creditors of C. D. late of
(add description and residence)


A. B. (add description and residence), on behalf of himself and all other holders of debentures
issued by the Company limited.


The Official Receiver.
A. B. a minor (add description and residence),by C. D. [or by the Court of Wards], his next
friend.
A. B. (add description and residence), a person of unsound mind [or of weak
mind], by. C. D. his next friend.
A. B. a firm carrying on business in partnership at
A. (add description and residence), by his constituted attorney C. D. (add description and
residence).
A. B. (add description and residence), Shebait of Thakur.
A. B. (add description and residence), executor of C. D. deceased.
A. B. (add description and residence), heir of C. D. deceased.

  1. Subs. by the A. O. 1950, for “The Secretary of State or the Federation of India or the Province of……………., as the case may
    be”.
    224
    (3) Plaints
    No. 1
    MONEY LENT
    (Title)
    A. B., the above named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  2. On the………………………………day of………..20……………., he lent the defendant
    ……..rupees repayable on the………………………day of…………………………………..
  3. The defendant has not paid the same, except…………..rupees paid on the……….day
    of…………20…………..
    [If the plaintiff claims exemption from any law of limitation, say:—]
  4. The plaintiff was a minor [or insane] from the…………………..day of…………………… till
    the…………….day of………………….. .
  5. [Facts showing when the cause of action arose and that the Court has jurisdiction.]
  6. The Value of the subject-matter of the suit for the purpose of jurisdiction is …….rupees and for
    the purpose of court-fees is………….rupees.
  7. The plaintiff claims…………rupees, with interest at………………per cent. from the……day of
    ………….20………….
    No. 2
    MONEY OVERPAID
    (Title)
    A. B., the above named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  8. On the………………day of………….…20……, the plaintiff agreed to buy and the defendant
    agreed to sell…………..bars of silver at…………annas per tola of fine silver.
  9. The plaintiff procured the said bars to be assayed by E.F, who was paid by the defendant for such
    assay, and E.F declared each of the bars to contain 1,500 tolas of fine silver, and the plaintiff accordingly
    the defendant…………. rupees.
  10. Each of the said bars contained only 1,200 tolas of fine silver, of which fact the plaintiff was
    ignorant when he made the payment.
  11. The defendant has not repaid the sum so overpaid.
    [As in paras 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and Relief claimed.]No. 3
    GOODS SOLD AT A FIXED PRICE AND DELIVERED
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  12. On the………………day of…………20……., E. F. sold and delivered to the defendant [one
    hundred barrels of flour, or the goods mentioned in the schedule hereto annexed. or sundry goods.]
  13. The defendant promised to pay………….. rupees for the said goods on delivery [or on the………
    day of………….some day before the plaint was filed].
  14. He has not paid the same.
  15. E. F. died on the……………day of…..20………By his last will he appointed his brother, the
    plaintiff, his executor.
    [As in paras 4 and 5 of Form No. 1,]
  16. The plaintiff as executor of E.F. claims [Relief Claimed].
    225
    No. 4
    GOODS SOLD AT A REASONABLE PRICE AND DELIVERED
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  17. On the…………..day of…………..……20………, plaintiff sold and delivered to the defendant
    [sundry articles of house-furniture], but no express agreement was made as to the price.
  18. The goods were reasonably worth …………..rupees.
  19. The defendant has not paid the money.
    [As in paras 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and relief claimed]No. 5
    GOODS MADE AT DEPENDANT’S REQUEST, AND NOT ACCEPTED
    (Title)
    A. B., the above named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  20. On the………….day of………….…20……….., E.F. agreed with the plaintiff that the
    plaintiff should make for him [six tables and fifty chairs] and that E.F should pay for the goods on
    delivery……….rupees.
  21. The plaintiff made the goods, and on the…………….day of……………20………., offered to
    deliver them to E.F., and has ever since been ready and willing so to do.
  22. E.F. has not accepted the goods or paid for them.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and Relief claimed.]No. 6
    DEFICIENCY UPON A RE-SALE [GOODS SOLD AT AUCTION](Title)
    A. B., the above named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  23. On the………….day of………….…20……….., the plaintiff put up at auction sundry [goods],
    subject to the condition that all goods not paid for and removed by the purchaser within [ten days] after
    the sale should be re-sold by auction on his account, of which condition the defendant had notice.
  24. The defendant purchased [one crate of crockery] at the auction at the price of…… rupees.
  25. The plaintiff was ready and willing to deliver the goods to the defendant on the date of the sale and
    for [ten days] after.
  26. The defenant did not take away the goods purchased by him, nor pay for them within [ten days]after the sale, nor afterwards.
  27. On the……………day of…………20……, the plaintiff re-sold the [crate of crockery],
    on account of the defendant, by public auction, for………..rupees.
  28. The expenses attendant upon such re-sale amounted to……..rupees.
  29. The defendant has not paid the deficiency thus arising, amounting to rupees.
    [As in paras 4 and 5 of Form No. I, and Relief claimed.]226
    No. 7
    SERVICES AT A REASONABLE RATE
    (Title)
    A. B., the above named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  30. Between the……………. day of…………….……20………. , and the……… day of…………
    ……20……at……………, plaintiff [executed sundry drawings, designs and diagrams] for the defendant,
    at his request; but no express agreement was made as to the sum to be paid for such services.
  31. The services were reasonably worth………rupees.
  32. The defendant has not paid the money.
    [As in paras 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and Relief claimed.]No. 8
    SERVICES AND MATERIALS AT A REASONABLE COST
    (Title)
    A. B., the above named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  33. On the……………day of……………..…20………, at……………. the plaintiff built a house
    [known as No. ………………, in…..], and furnished the materials therefor, for the defendant, at his
    request, but no express agreement was made as to the amount to be paid for such work and materials.
  34. The work done and materials supplied were reasonably worth…… rupees.
  35. The defendant has not paid the money.
    [As in paras 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and Relief claimed.]No. 9
    USE AND OCCUPATION
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, executor of the will of X. Y., deceased, states as follows:—
  36. That the defendant occupied the [house No……….,……….…..Street], by permission of the said
    X.Y, from the…….day of………………..…20……………., until the day of……………20.…., and no
    agreement was made as to payment for the use of the said premises.
  37. That the use of the said premises for the said period was reasonably worth rupees.
  38. The defendant has not paid the money.
    [As in paras 4 and 5 of Form No. I.]
  39. The plaintiff as executor of X Y, claims [relief claimed].
    No. 10
    ON AN AWARD
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  40. On the…….day of……….…20…, the plaintiff and defendant, having a difference between
    them concerning [a demand of the plaintiff for the price of ten barrels of oil which the defendant refused
    to pay]; agreed in writing to submit the difference to the arbitration of E. F and G. H. and the original
    document is annexed hereto.
  41. On the…………. ….day of……………………20….., the arbitrators awarded that the defendant
    should [pay the plaintiff rupees].
  42. The defendant has not paid the money.
    [As in paras 4 and 5 of Form No. 1 and relief claimed.]227
    No. 11
    ON A FOREIGN JUDGMENT
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  43. On the…………day of…………20……., at…….in the State [or Kingdom] of….., the…..
    Court of that State [or Kingdom,] in a suit therein pending between the plaintiff and the defendant, duly
    adjudged that the defendant should pay to the plaintiff…………………………rupees, with interest from
    the said date.
  44. The defendant has not paid the money.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and Relief claimed.]No. 12
    AGAINST SURETY FOR PAYMENT OF RENT
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  45. On the………..day of……………20…, E. F. hired from the plaintiff for the term of……..years, the
    [house No……………., ………………street], at the annual rent of………rupees, payable [monthly].
  46. The defendant agreed, in consideration of the letting of the premises to E.F, to gurantee the
    punctual payment of the rent.
  47. The rent for the month of ……….20……….., amounting to………………………..rupees, has not
    been paid.
    [If, by the terms of the agreement, notice is required to be given to the surety, add:—]
  48. On the………………….day of…………..19…….., the plaintiff gave notice to the defendant of the
    non-payment of the rent, and demanded payment thereof.
  49. The defendant has not paid the same.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. I, and relief claimed.]No. 13
    BREACH OF AGREEMENT TO PURCHASE LAND
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  50. On the…………….day of………20……, the plaintiff and defendant entered into an agreement, and
    the Original document is hereto annexed.
    [Or, on the…………day of………………20…….., the plaintiff and defendant mutually agreed that
    the plaintiff should sell to the defendant and that the defendant should purchase from the plaintiff forty bighas
    of land in the village of……….for……. rupees.]
  51. On the…………. day of………….……20..….., the plaintiff, being then the absolute owner of the
    property [and the same being free from all incumbrances, as was made to appear to the defendant], tendered to
    the defendant a sufficient instrument of transfer of the same [or, was ready and willing, and is still ready and
    willing, and offered, to transfer the same to the defendant by a sufficient instrument] on the payment by the
    defendant of the money agreed upon.
  52. The defendant has not paid the money.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. I, and relief claimed.]228
    No. 14
    NOT DELIVERING GOODS SOLD
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  53. On the……………day of…………20….., the plaintiff and defendant mutually agreed that the
    defendant should deliver [one hundred barrels of flour] to the plaintiff on the…………..day
    of…………..…20..……, and that the plaintiff should pay there for…….. rupees on delivery.
  54. On the [said] day the plaintiff was ready and willing, and offered, to pay the defendant the said sum
    upon delivery of the goods.
  55. The defendant has not delivered the goods, and the plaintiff has been deprived of the profits which
    would have accrued to him from such delivery.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and relief claimed.]No. 15
    WRONGFUL DISMISSAL
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  56. On the……………day of…………20…….., the plaintiff and defendant mutually agreed that the
    plaintiff should serve the defendant as [an accountant, or in the capacity of foreman, or as the case may
    be], and that the defendant should employ the plaintiff as such for the term of [one year] and pay him for
    his services………rupees [monthly].
  57. On the…………..day of……….……20..……, the plaintiff entered upon the service of the defendant
    and has ever since been, and still is, ready and willing to continue in such service during the remainder of
    the said year whereof the defendant always has had notice.
  58. On the…….day of………..……20…….., the defendant wrongfully discharged the plaintiff, and
    refused to permit him to serve as aforesaid, or to pay him for his services.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and relief claimed.]No. 16
    BREACH OF CONTRACT TO SERVE
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  59. On the………day of……….……20……, the plaintiff and defendant mutually agreed that the
    plaintiff should employ the defendant at as [annual] salary of…..rupees, and that the defendant should
    serve the plaintiff as [an artist] for the term of [one year].
  60. The plaintiff has always been ready and willing to perform his part of the agreement [and on the day
    of…….…….20…..…., offered so to do].
  61. The defendant (entered upon) the service of the plaintiff on the above-mentioned day, but afterwards,
    on the……….day of……….……20..……, he refused to serve the plaintiff as aforesaid.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and relief claimed.]229
    No. 17
    AGAINST A BUILDER FOR DEFECTIVE WORKMANSHIP
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  62. On the………….day of……….……20….., the plaintiff and defendant entered into an agreement,
    and the original document is hereto annexed. [Or state the tenor of the contract.][2. The plaintiff duly performed all the conditions of the agreement on his part.]
  63. The defendant [built the house referred to in the agreement in a bad and unworkman like manner].
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and Relief claimed.]No. 18
    ON A BOND FOR THE FIDELITY OF A CLERK
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  64. On the………day of……..……20………… , the plaintiff took E.F. into his employment as a clerk.
  65. In consideration thereof, on the………day of…….……20………, the defendant agreed with plaintiff
    that if E.F. should not faithfully perform his duties as a clerk to the plaintiff, or should fail to account to the
    plaintiff for all monies, evidences of debt or other property received by him for the use of the plaintiff, the
    defendant would pay to the plaintiff whatever loss he might sustain by reason thereof, not
    exceeding…rupees.
    [Or, 2. In consideration thereof, the defendant by his bond of the same date bound himself to pay the
    plaintiff the penal sum of………rupees, subjects to the condition that if E.F. should faithfully
    perform his duties as clerk and cashier to the plaintiff and should justly account to the plaintiff for all
    monies, evidences of debt or other property which should be at any time held by him in trust for the
    plaintiff, the bond should be void.][Or 2. In consideration thereof, on the same date the defendant executed a bond in favour of the
    plaintiff, and the original document is hereto annexed.]
  66. Between the………..day of………..…20…….., and the…………………..day of ………20……,
    E.F. received money and other property, amounting to the value of……….rupees, for the use of the
    plaintiff, for which sum he has not accounted to him, and the same still remains due and unpaid.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and Relief claimed.]No. 19
    BY TENANT AGAINST LANDLORD, WITH SPECIAL DAMAGE
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  67. On the……day of………20..…., the defendant, by a registered instrument, let to the plaintiff [the
    house No……..Street] for the term of……..years, contracting with the plaintiff, that he,
    the plaintiff, and his legal representatives should quietly enjoy possession thereof for the said term.
  68. All conditions were fulfilled and all things happened necessary to entitle the plaintiff to maintain
    this suit.
  69. On the…………day of………….20……., during the said term, E.F. who was the lawful owner of
    the said house, lawfully evicted the plaintiff therefrom, and still withholds the possession thereof from
    him.
  70. The plaintiff was thereby [prevented from continuing the business of a tailor at the said place, was
    compelled to expend……..rupees in moving, and lost the custom of G.H. and I.J by such removal].
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and Relief claimed.]230
    No. 20
    ON AN AGREEMENT OF INDEMNITY
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  71. On the…………..day of…………………..20.….., the plaintiff and defendant, being partners in trade
    under the style of A. B. and C.D., dissolved the partnership, and mutually agreed that the defendant
    should take and keep all the partnership property, pay all debts of the firm and indemnify the plaintiff
    against all claims that might be made upon him on account of any indebtedness of the firm.
  72. The plaintiff duly performed all the conditions of the agreement on his part.
  73. On the………….. day of…………………20….….., [a judgment was recovered against the plaintiff
    and defendant by E.F., in the High Court of Judicature at……., upon a debt due from the firm to E.F.,
    and on the day of……………..20.….,] the plaintiff paid………rupees [in satisfaction of the same].
  74. The defendant has not paid the same to the plaintiff.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and Relief claimed.]No. 21
    PROCURING PROPERTY BY FRAUD
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  75. On the……………day of ………………20.…., the defendant, for the purpose of inducing the
    plaintiff to sell him certain goods, represented to the plaintiff that [he, the defendant, was solvent, and
    worth…………rupees over all his liabilities].
  76. The plaintiff was thereby induced to sell [and deliver] to the defendant, [dry goods] of the
    value of……………………rupees.
  77. The said representations were false [or state the particular falsehoods] and were then known
    by the defendant to be so.
  78. The defendant has not paid for the goods, [Or, if the goods were not delivered.] The
    plaintiff, in preparing and shipping the goods and procuring their restoration,
    expended…………..rupees.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and Relief claimed.]No. 22
    FRAUDULENTLY PROCURING CREDIT TO BE GIVEN TO ANOTHER PERSON
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  79. On the……….day of……………..20…..…., the defendant, represented to the plaintiff that E.F., was
    solvent and in good credit, and worth…………….rupees over all his liabilities [or that E.F, then held a
    responsible
    situation and was in good circumstances, and might safely be trusted with goods on credit].
  80. The plaintiff was thereby induced to sell to E.F., (rice) of the value of…….. rupees [on………months
    credit].
  81. The said representations were false and were then known by the defendant to be so, and were made
    by him with intent to deceive and defraud the plaintiff [or to deceive and injure the plaintiff].
  82. E.F, [did not pay for the said goods at the expiration of the credit aforesaid, or] has not paid for the
    said rice, and the plaintiff has wholly lost the same.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and Relief claimed.]231
    No. 23
    POLLUTING THE WATER UNDER THE PLAINTIFF’S LAND
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  83. The plaintiff is, and at all the times hereinafter mentioned was, possessed of certain lands
    called……….and situate in………..and of a well therein, and of water in the well, and was entitled to the
    use and benefit of the well and of the water therein, and to have certain springs and streams of water
    which flowed and ran into the well to supply the same to flow or run without being fouled or polluted.
  84. On the………..day of …………20………., the defendant wrongfully fouled and polluted the
    well and the water therein and the springs and streams of water which flowed into the well.
  85. In consequence the water in the well became impure and unfit for domestic and other necessary
    purposes, and the plaintiff and his family are deprived of the use and benefit of the well and water.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and relief claimed.]No. 24
    CARRYING ON A NOXIOUS MANUFACTURE
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  86. The plaintiff is, and at all the times hereinafter mentioned was, possessed of certain lands
    called……….situate in……………….
  87. Ever since the……………… day of………………..20….., the defendant has wrongfully caused to
    issue from certain smelting works carried on by the defendant large quantities of offensive and
    unwholesome smoke and other vapours and noxious matter, which spread themselves over and upon
    the said lands, and corrupted the air, and settled on the surface of the lands.
  88. Thereby the trees, hedges, herbage and crops of the plaintiff growing on the lands were
    damaged and deteriorated in value, and the cattle and live-stocks of the plaintiff on the lands became
    unhealthy, and many of them were poisoned and died.
  89. The plaintiff was unable to graze the lands with cattle and sheep as he otherwise might have
    done, and was obliged to remove his cattle, sheep and farming stock therefrom, and has been
    prevented from having so beneficial and healthy a use and occupation of the lands as he otherwise
    would have had.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and relief claimed.]No. 25
    OBSTRUCTING A RIGHT OF WAY
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  90. The plaintiff is, and at the time hereinafter mentioned was, possessed of [a house in the
    village of …………….].
  91. He was entitled to a right of way from the [house] over a certain field to a public highway and
    back again from the highway over the field to the house, for himself and his servants [with vehicles,
    or on foot] at all times of the year.
  92. On the…………….day of…………………..20………., defendant wrongfully obstructed the said way,
    so that the plaintiff could not pass [with vehicles, or on foot, or in any manner] along the way [and
    has ever since wrongfully obstructed the same].
  93. (State special damage, if any).
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and relief claimed.]232
    No. 26
    OBSTRUCTING A HIGHWAY
    (Title)
  94. The defendant wrongfully dug a trench and heaped up earth and stones in the public highway
    leading from………………to……… so as to obstruct it.
  95. Thereby the plaintiff, while lawfully passing along the said highway, fell over the said earth and
    stones, [or into the said trench] and broke his arm, and suffered great pain, and was prevented from
    attending to his business for a long time, and incurred expense for medical attendance.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and relief claimed.]No. 27
    DIVERTING A WATER-COURSE
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  96. The plaintiff is, and at the time hereinafter mentioned was, possessed of a mill situated on a
    [stream] known as the……… , in the village of……….. , district of……….
  97. By reason of such possession the plaintiff was entitled to the flow of the stream for working
    the mill.
  98. On the………………….. day of…………….20……, the defendant, by cutting the bank of the stream,
    wrongfully diverted the water thereof, so that less water ran into the plaintiff’s mill.
  99. By reason thereof the plaintiff has been unable to grind more than……. sacks per day, whereas,
    before the said diversion of water, he was able to grind……sacks per day.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and relief claimed.]No. 28
    OBSTRUCTING A RIGHT TO USE WATER FOR IRRIGATION
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  100. The plaintiff is, and was at the times hereinafter mentioned was, possessed of certain lands
    situate, etc., and entitled to take and use a portion of the water of a certain stream for irrigating the
    said lands.
  101. On the……………..day of…………………..20………., the defendant prevented the plaintiff from
    taking and using the said portion of the said water as aforesaid, by wrongfully obstructing and
    diverting the said stream.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and relief claimed.]No. 29
    INJURIES CAUSED BY NEGLIGENCE ON A RAILROAD
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  102. On the………… day of………….20………, the defendants were common carriers of passengers by
    railway between……. …… and ……………….
  103. On that day the plaintiff was a passenger in one of the carriages of the defendants on the said
    railway.
  104. While he was such passenger, at…………… [or near the station of…………….. or between the
    stations of ………………. and………………], a collision occurred on the said railway caused by the negligence and
    unskilfulness of the defendants’ servants, whereby the plaintiff was much injured [having his leg broken, his
    head cut, etc., and state the special damage, if any, as], and incurred expense for medical attendance and is
    permanently disabled from carrying on his former business as [a salesman].
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and relief claimed.]233
    [Or thus:—2. On that day the defendants by their servants so negligently and unskillfully drove and
    managed an engine and a train of carriages attached thereto upon and along the defendant’s railway which
    the plaintiff was then lawfully crossing that the said engine and train were driven and struck against the
    plaintiff, whereby, etc., as in para. 3].
    No. 30
    INJURIES CAUSED IN NEGLIGENT DRIVING
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  105. The plaintiff is a shoemaker, carrying on business at …………the defendant is a merchant
    of …………………….
  106. On the …………. day of …………………20………, the plaintiff was walking southward along
    Chowringhee, in the City of Calcutta, at about 3 o’clock in the afternoon. He was obliged to cross
    Middleton Street, which is a street running into Chowringhee at right angles. While he was crossing this
    street, and just before he could reach the foot pavement on the further side thereof, a carriage of the
    defendant’s, drawn by two horses under the charge and control of the defendant’s servants, was
    negligently, suddenly and without any warning turned at a rapid and dangerous pace out of Middleton
    Street into Chowringhee. The pole of the carriage struck the plaintiff and knocked him down, and he was
    much trampled by the horses.
  107. By the blow and fall and trampling the plaintiff’s left arm was broken and he was bruised and
    injured on the side and back, as well as internally, and in consequence thereof the plaintiff was for four
    months ill and in suffering, and unable to attend to his business, and incurred heavy medical and other
    expenses, and sustained great loss of business and profits.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and relief claimed.]No. 31
    FOR MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  108. On the ………….. day of ………………..…20…..……, the defendant obtained a warrant of arrest
    from …….…… [a Magistrate of the said city, or as the case may be] on a charge of …….…, and the
    plaintiff was arrested thereon, and imprisoned for ……………. [days, or hours, and gave bail in the sum
    of …………… rupees to obtain his release].
  109. In so doing the defendant acted maliciously and without reasonable or probable cause .
  110. On the …………….. day of ……………….20……., the Magistrate dismissed the complaint of the
    defendant and acquitted the plaintiff.
  111. Many persons, whose names are unknown to the plaintiff, hearing of the arrest, and supposing the
    plaintiff to be a criminal, have ceased to do business with him; or in consequence of the said arrest, the
    plaintiff lost his situation as clerk to one E.F.; or in consequence the plaintiff suffered pain of body and
    mind, and was prevented transacting his business, and was injured in his credit, and incurred expense in
    obtaining his release from the said imprisonment and in defending himself against the said complaint.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1, and relief claimed].
    234
    No. 32
    MOVABLES WRONGFULLY DETAINED
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  112. On the …………….. day of ……………20………, plaintiff owned [or state facts showing a right
    to the possession] the goods mentioned in the schedule hereto annexed [or describe the goods,] the
    estimated value of which is ………………. rupees.
  113. From that day until the commencement of this suit the defendant has detained the same from
    the plaintiff
  114. Before the commencement of the suit, to wit, on the …………….. day of……….20 ……….., the
    plaintiff demanded the same from the defendant, but he refused to deliver them.
    [As in Paras 4 and 5 of Form No. 1.]
  115. The plaintiff claims—
    (1) delivery of the said goods, or……….. rupees, in case delivery cannot be had;
    (2) ……………..rupees compensation for the detention thereof.
    No. 33
    AGAINST A FRAUDULENT PURCHARER AND HIS TRANSFEREE WITH NOTICE
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  116. On the …………… day of ….……..……20……., the defendant C.D., for the purpose of including
    the plaintiff to sell him certain goods, represented to the plaintiff that [he was solvent, and worth ………
    rupees over all his liabilities].
  117. The plaintiff was thereby induced to sell and deliver to C.D. [one hundred boxes of tea], the
    estimated value of which is ……………… rupees.
  118. The said representations were false, and were then known by C.D. to be so [or at the time of
    making the said representations, C.D. was insolvent, and knew himself to be so].
  119. C.D. afterwards transferred the said goods to the defendant E.F. without consideration [or who had
    notice of the falsity of the representation].
  120. [Facts showing when the cause of action arose and that the Court has jurisdiction.]
  121. The value of the subject-matter of the suit for the purpose of jurisdiction is ………….. rupees and
    for the purpose of court-fees is ………….. rupees.
  122. The plaintiff claims—
    (1) delivery of the said goods, or ………………. rupees, in case delivery cannot be had;
    (2) ……………….. rupees compensation for the detention thereof.
    No. 34
    RESCISSION OF A CONTRACT ON THE GROUND OF MISTAKE
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  123. On the ……………. day of ………………………20……….. , the defendant represented to the
    plaintiff that a certain piece of ground belonging to the defendant, situated at ……………., contained [ten
    bighas].
  124. The plaintiff was thereby induced to purchase the same at the price of ……………….rupees in the
    belief that the said representation was true, and signed an agreement, of which the original is hereto
    annexed. But the land has not been transferred to him.
  125. On the …………….. day of ………………………20………, the plaintiff paid the defendant
    rupees as part of the purchase money.
    235
  126. That the said piece of ground contained in fact only [five bighas].
  127. [Facts showing when the cause of action arose and that the Court has jurisdiction.]
  128. The value of the subject-matter of the suit for the purpose of jurisdiction is…………. rupees and for
    the purpose of court-fees is……………….rupees.
  129. The plaintiff claims—
    (1) …………..rupees, with interest from the…………. day of…………… 20………. .
    (2) that the said agreement be delivered up and cancelled.
    No. 35
    AN INJUNCTION RESTRAINING WASTE
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff states as follows:—
  130. The plaintiff is the absolute owner of [describe the property].
  131. The defendant is in possession of the same under a lease from the plaintiff.
  132. The defendant has [cut down a number of valuable trees, and threatens to cut down many more for the
    purpose of sale] without the consent of the plaintiff.
  133. [Facts showing when the cause of action arose and that the Court has jurisdiction.]
  134. The value of the subject-matter of the suit for the purpose of jurisdiction is………. rupees and for the
    purpose of court-fees is……….. rupees.
  135. The plaintiff claims that the defendant be restrained by injunction from committing or permitting any
    further waste on the said premises.
    [Pecuniary compensation may also be claimed.]No. 36
    INJUNCTION RESTRAINING NUISANCE
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  136. Plaintiff is, and at all the times hereinafter mentioned was, the absolute owner of [the house
    No…………………Street, Calcutta].
  137. The defendant is, and at all the said times was, the absolute owner of [a plot of ground in the same
    street…………….].
  138. On the ……………. day of……………20………., the defendant erected upon his said plot a slaughterhouse, and still maintains the same; and from that day until the present time has continually caused cattle to
    be brought and killed there [and has caused the blood and offal to be thrown into the street opposite the said
    house of the plaintiff].
    [4. In consequence the plaintiff has been compelled to abandon the said house, and has been unable to
    rent the same.]
  139. [Facts showing when the cause of action arose and that the Court has jurisdiction.]
  140. The value of the subject-matter of the suit for the purpose of jurisdiction is rupees and for the
    purpose of court-fees is………..rupees.
  141. The plaintiff claims that the defendant be restrained by injunction from committing or permitting any
    further nuisance.
    No. 37
    PUBLIC NUISANCE
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  142. The defendant has wrongly heaped up earth and stones on a public road known as……………Street
    at………..so as to obstruct the passage of the public along the same and threatens and intends, unless
    restrained from so doing, to continue and repeat the said wrongful act.
    1
    [*2. The plaintiff has obtained the leave of the Court for the institution of this suit.]
  143. Subs. by Act 104 of 1976, s. 93, for paragraph 2 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).
    *Not applicable where suit is instituted by the Advocate-General.
    236
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1]
  144. The plaintiff claims—
    (1) a declaration that the defendant is not entitled to obstruct the passage of the public along the
    said road;
    (2) an injunction restraining the defendant from obstructing the passage of the public along the
    said public road and directing the defendant to remove the earth and stones wrongfully heaped up as
    aforesaid.
    No. 38
    INJUNCTION AGAINST THE DIVERSION OF A WATER-COURSE
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
    [As in form No. 27.]The plaintiff claims that the defendant be restrained by injunction from diverting the water as aforesaid.
    No. 39
    RESTORATION OF MOVABLE PROPERTY THREATENED WITH DESTRUCTION AND FOR AN INJUNCTION
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  145. Plaintiff is, and at all times hereinafter mentioned was, the owner of [a portrait of his grandfather
    which was executed by an eminent painter], and of which no duplicate exists [or state any facts
    showing that the property is of a kind that cannot be replaced by money].
  146. On the………….. day of……………20……, he deposited the same for the safe-keeping with the
    defendant.
  147. On the……………day of……………20……, he demanded the same from the defendant and offered
    to pay all reasonable charges for the storage of the same.
  148. The defendant refuses to deliver the same to the plaintiff and threatens to conceal, dispose of, cut
    or injure the same if required to deliver it up.
  149. No pecuniary compensation would be an adequate compensation to the plaintiff for the loss of the
    [painting].
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1. ]
  150. The plaintiff claims—
    (1) that the defendant be restrained by injunction from disposing of, injuring or concealing the
    said [painting],
    (2) that he be compelled to deliver the same to the plaintiff.
    No. 40
    INTERPLEADER
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  151. Before the date of the claims hereinafter mentioned G.H. deposited with the plaintiff [describe the
    property] for [safe-keeping].
  152. The defendant C.D. claims the same [under an alleged assignment thereof to him from G.H.].
  153. defendant E. F. also claims the same [under an order of G.H. transferring the same to him.]
  154. The plaintiff is ignorant of the respective rights of the defendants.
  155. He has no claim upon the said property other than for charges and costs, and is ready and willing to
    deliver it to such persons as the Court shall direct.
    237
  156. The suit is not brought by collusion with either of the defendants.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1.]
  157. The plaintiff claims—
    (1) that the defendants be restrained, by injunction, from taking any proceedings against the
    plaintiff in relation thereto;
    (2) that they be required to interplead together concerning their claims to the said property;
    [(3) that some person be authorised to receive the said property pending such litigation;](4) that upon delivering the same to such [person] the plaintiff be discharged from all liability to
    either of the defendants in relation thereto.
    No. 41
    ADMINISTRATION BY CREDITOR ON BEHALF OF HIMSELF AND ALL OTHER CREDITORS
    (Title)
    A. B., the above-named plaintiff, states as follows:—
  158. E.F. late of…………….., was at the time of his death, and his estate still is, indebted to the
    plaintiff in the sum of………………….. [here insert nature of debt and security, if any].
  159. E.F. died on or about the……………………… day of…………………..By his last will, dated the………..
    day of………….he appointed C.D. his executor [or devised his estate in trust, etc., or died intestate, as
    the case may be].
  160. The will was proved by C.D. [or letters of administration were granted, etc.].
  161. The defendant has possessed himself of the movable [and immovable], or the proceeds of the
    immovable property of E.F. and has not paid the plaintiff his debt.
    [As in paras. 4 and 5 of Form No. 1.]
  162. The plaintiff claims that an account may be taken of the movable [and immovable] property of
    E.F., deceased, and that the same may be administered under the decree of the Court.
    No. 42
    ADMINISTRATION BY SPECIFIC LEGATEE
    (Title)
    [Alter Form No. 41 thus][Omit paragraph 1 and commence paragraph 2] E.F. late of ….. , died on or about the……………………..
    day of………………….By his last will, dated the……………….day of…….. he appointed C.D., his executor,
    and bequeathed to the plaintiff [here